6 Attributing Behavior to Persons or to Situations Attribution theoryDispositional vs. situational attributionFundamental attribution errorSelf-serving bias
7 Personal relationships Political relationships Job relationships Attributing Behavior to Persons or to Situations The Effects of AttributionPersonal relationshipsPolitical relationshipsJob relationships
8 Attitudes and Actions Attitude Central route persuasion Peripheral route persuasion
9 Attitudes and Actions Actions Affect Attitudes The Foot-in-the-Door Phenomenon“start small and build”
10 Attitudes and Actions Actions Affect Attitudes Role-Playing Affects AttitudesRoleStanford prison study (2:49)Abu Ghraib
11 Attitudes and Actions Actions Affect Attitudes Cognitive Dissonance: Relief From TensionCognitive dissonance theory“Attitudes follow behavior”
16 Conformity and Obedience Group Pressure and Conformity Conditions That Strengthen ConformityOne is made to feel incompetent or insecureGroup has at least three peopleGroup is unanimousOne admires the group’s statusOne has made no prior commitmentOthers in group observe one’s behaviorOne’s culture strongly encourages respect for social standards
17 Conformity and Obedience Group Pressure and Conformity Reasons for ConformingNormative social influenceInformational social influence
50 Aggression The Biology of Aggression Genetic InfluencesNeural InfluencesBiochemical Influences
51 Aggression Psychological and Social-Cultural Factors in Aggression Aversive EventsFrustration-aggression principleFight or flight reactionSocial and cultural influencesAggression-replacement program
52 Aggression Psychological and Social-Cultural Factors in Aggression Observing models of aggressionRape mythAcquiring social scriptsDo video games teach, or release violence?Catharsis hypothesis?
75 Teacher Information Types of Files Animation This presentation has been saved as a “basic” Powerpoint file. While this file format placed a few limitations on the presentation, it insured the file would be compatible with the many versions of Powerpoint teachers use. To add functionality to the presentation, teachers may want to save the file for their specific version of Powerpoint.AnimationOnce again, to insure compatibility with all versions of Powerpoint, none of the slides are animated. To increase student interest, it is suggested teachers animate the slides wherever possible.Adding slides to this presentationTeachers are encouraged to adapt this presentation to their personal teaching style. To help keep a sense of continuity, blank slides which can be copied and pasted to a specific location in the presentation follow this “Teacher Information” section.
76 Teacher InformationHyperlink Slides - This presentation contain two types of hyperlinks. Hyperlinks can be identified by the text being underlined and a different color (usually purple).Unit subsections hyperlinks: Immediately after the unit title slide, a page (slide #3) can be found listing all of the unit’s subsections. While in slide show mode, clicking on any of these hyperlinks will take the user directly to the beginning of that subsection. This allows teachers quick access to each subsection.Bold print term hyperlinks: Every bold print term from the unit is included in this presentation as a hyperlink. While in slide show mode, clicking on any of the hyperlinks will take the user to a slide containing the formal definition of the term. Clicking on the “arrow” in the bottom left corner of the definition slide will take the user back to the original point in the presentation.These hyperlinks were included for teachers who want students to see or copy down the exact definition as stated in the text. Most teachers prefer the definitions not be included to prevent students from only “copying down what is on the screen” and not actively listening to the presentation.For teachers who continually use the Bold Print Term Hyperlinks option, please contact the author using the address on the next slide to learn a technique to expedite the returning to the original point in the presentation.
77 Teacher Information Continuity slides Throughout this presentation there are slides, usually of graphics or tables, that build on one another. These are included for three purposes.By presenting information in small chunks, students will find it easier to process and remember the concepts.By continually changing slides, students will stay interested in the presentation.To facilitate class discussion and critical thinking. Students should be encouraged to think about “what might come next” in the series of slides.Please feel free to contact me at with any questions, concerns, suggestions, etc. regarding these presentations.Kent KorekGermantown High SchoolGermantown, WI 53022
78 Division title (green print) subdivision title (blue print) xxx
79 Division title (green print) subdivision title (blue print) Use this slide to add a table, chart, clip art, picture, diagram, or video clip. Delete this box when finished
82 Social Psychology= the scientific study of how we think about, influence, and relate to one another.
83 Attribution Theory= the theory that we explain someone’s behavior by crediting either the situation or the person’s disposition.
84 Fundamental Attribution Error = the tendency for observers, when analyzing another’s behavior, to underestimate the impact of the situation and to overestimate the impact of personal disposition.
85 Attitude= feelings, often influenced by our beliefs, that predispose us to respond in a particular way to objects, people, and events.
86 Central Route Persuasion = attitude change path in which interested people focus on the arguments and respond with favorable thoughts.
87 Peripheral Route Persuasion = attitude change path in which people are influenced by incidental cues, such as a speaker’s attractiveness.
88 Foot-in-the-Door Phenomenon = the tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request.
89 Role= a set of expectations (norms) about a social position, defining how those in the position ought to behave.
90 Cognitive Dissonance Theory = the theory that we act to reduce the discomfort (dissonance) we feel when two of our thoughts (cognitions) are inconsistent. For example, when our awareness of our attitudes and of our actions clash, we can reduce the resulting dissonance by changing our attitudes.
91 Cognitive Dissonance Theory Suppose you had volunteered to participate in a psychology experiment on campus. Upon arrival, you were seated at a table and asked to undertake a series of dull, meaningless tasks for about an hour. Afterward, the experimenter asked you to convince other potential participants by describing the tasks as highly worthwhile, interesting, and educational. You were paid either $1 or $20 to do this. Suppose you were then asked to privately rate your enjoyment of the tasks on a questionnaire. After which amount do you believe your actual enjoyment rating of the tasks would be higher - $1 or $20?
92 Conformity= adjusting one’s behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard.
93 Normative Social Influence = influence resulting from a person’s desire to gain approval or avoid disapproval. Face the Rear (3:23)
94 Informational Social Influence = influence resulting from one’s willingness to accept other’s opinions about reality.
95 Social Facilitation= stronger responses on simple or well-learned tasks in the presence of others.
96 Social Loafing= the tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their efforts toward attaining a common goal than when individually accountable.
97 Deindividuation= the loss of self-awareness and self-restraint occurring in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity.
98 Group Polarization= the enhancement of a group’s prevailing inclinations through discussion with the groups.
99 Groupthink= the mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decision-making group overrides a realistic appraisal of alternatives.
100 Culture= the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, values, and traditions shared by a group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next.
101 Norm= an understood rule for accepted and expected behavior. Norms prescribe “proper” behavior.
102 Personal Space= the buffer zone we like to maintain around our bodies.
103 Prejudice= an unjustifiable (and usually negative) attitude toward a group and its members. Prejudice generally involves stereotyped beliefs, negative feelings, and a predisposition to discriminatory action. Prejudice – A Girl Like Me (7:15)
104 Stereotype= a generalized (sometimes accurate but often overgeneralized) belief about a group of people.
105 Discrimination= unjustifiable negative behavior toward a group and its members.
106 Ingroup= “Us” – people with whom we share a common identity.
107 Outgroup= “Them” – those perceived as different or apart from our ingroup.
108 Ingroup Bias= the tendency to favor our own group.
109 Scapegoat Theory= the theory that prejudice offers an outlet for anger by providing someone to blame.
110 Other-race Effect= the tendency to recall faces of one’s own race more accurately than faces of other races. Also called the cross-race effect and the own-race bias.
111 Just-World Phenomenon = the tendency for people to believe the world is just and that people therefore get what they deserve and deserve what they get.
112 Aggression= any physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt or destroy.
113 Frustration-aggression Principle = the principle that frustration – the blocking of an attempt to achieve some goal – creates anger, which can generate aggression.
114 Mere Exposure Effect= the phenomenon that the repeated exposure to novel stimuli increases liking of them.
115 Passionate Love= an aroused state of intense positive absorption in another, usually present at the beginning of a love relationship.
116 Companionate Love= the deep affectionate attachment we feel for those with whom our lives are intertwined.
117 Equity= a condition in which people receive from a relationship in proportion to what they give to it.
118 Self-Disclosure= revealing intimate aspects of oneself to others.
119 Altruism= unselfish regard for the welfare of others.
120 Bystander Effect= the tendency for any given bystander to be less likely to give aid if other bystanders are present.
121 Social Exchange Theory = the theory that our social behavior is an exchange process, the aim of which is to maximize benefits and minimize costs.
122 Reciprocity Norm= an expectation that people will help, not hurt those who have helped them.
123 Social-Responsibility Norm = an expectation that people will help those dependent upon them.
124 Conflict= a perceived incompatibility of actions, goals, or ideas.
125 Social Trap= a situation in which the conflicting parties, by each rationally pursuing their self-interest, become caught in mutually destructive behavior.
126 Mirror-Image Perceptions = mutual views often held by conflicting people, as when each side sees itself as ethical and peaceful and views the other side as evil and aggressive.
127 Self-Fulfilling Prophecy = a belief that leads to its own fulfillment.
128 Superordinate Goals= shared goals that override differences among people and require their cooperation.
129 GRIT= Graduated and Reciprocated Initiatives in Tension-Reduction – a strategy designed to decrease international tensions.