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Myers Psychology for AP* David G. Myers *AP is a trademark registered and/or owned by the College Board, which was not involved in the production of, and.

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Presentation on theme: "Myers Psychology for AP* David G. Myers *AP is a trademark registered and/or owned by the College Board, which was not involved in the production of, and."— Presentation transcript:

1 Myers Psychology for AP* David G. Myers *AP is a trademark registered and/or owned by the College Board, which was not involved in the production of, and does not endorse, this product. PowerPoint Presentation Slides by Kent Korek Germantown High School Worth Publishers, © 2010

2 Unit 14: Social Psychology

3 Unit Overview Social Thinking Social Influence Social Relations Click on the any of the above hyperlinks to go to that section in the presentation.

4 Introduction Social Psychology

5 Social Thinking

6 Attributing Behavior to Persons or to Situations Attribution theory –Dispositional vs. situational attribution –Fundamental attribution errorFundamental attribution error –Self-serving bias

7 Attributing Behavior to Persons or to Situations The Effects of Attribution Personal relationships Political relationships Job relationships

8 Attitudes and Actions Attitude –Central route persuasionCentral route persuasion –Peripheral route persuasionPeripheral route persuasion

9 Attitudes and Actions Actions Affect Attitudes The Foot-in-the-Door Phenomenon –start small and build

10 Attitudes and Actions Actions Affect Attitudes Role-Playing Affects Attitudes –RoleRole –Stanford prison study (2:49)Stanford prison study –Abu Ghraib

11 Attitudes and Actions Actions Affect Attitudes Cognitive Dissonance: Relief From Tension –Cognitive dissonance theoryCognitive dissonance theory –Attitudes follow behavior

12 Social Influence

13 Conformity and Obedience Chameleon effect Mood linkage

14 Conformity and Obedience Group Pressure and Conformity Conformity –Solomon Asch study (4:10)Solomon Asch study

15 Conformity and Obedience Solomon Asch Study

16 Conformity and Obedience Group Pressure and Conformity Conditions That Strengthen Conformity –One is made to feel incompetent or insecure –Group has at least three people –Group is unanimous –One admires the groups status –One has made no prior commitment –Others in group observe ones behavior –Ones culture strongly encourages respect for social standards

17 Conformity and Obedience Group Pressure and Conformity Reasons for Conforming –Normative social influenceNormative social influence –Informational social influenceInformational social influence

18 Informational Social Influence

19 Conformity and Obedience Obedience Obedience –Milgrams studies on obedience Procedure Results Ethics Follow up studies (10:35)Follow up studies

20 Conformity and Obedience Obedience

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24 Conformity and Obedience Lessons From the Conformity and Obedience Studies Ordinary people being corrupted by an evil situation Zimbardo Daily Show Clip

25 Group Influence Individual Behavior in the Presence of Others Social Facilitation –Task difficulty –Expertise effects –Crowding effects

26 Group Influence Individual Behavior in the Presence of Others Social Loafing

27 Group Influence Individual Behavior in the Presence of Others Deindividuation

28 Group Influence Effects of Group Interaction Group PolarizationGroup Polarization

29 Group Influence Effects of Group Interaction Group PolarizationGroup Polarization

30 Group Influence Effects of Group Interaction Group PolarizationGroup Polarization

31 Group Influence Effects of Group Interaction Group PolarizationGroup Polarization

32 Group Influence Effects of Group Interaction Group PolarizationGroup Polarization

33 Group Influence Effects of Group Interaction Group PolarizationGroup Polarization

34 Group Influence Effects of Group Interaction Groupthink –Bay of Pigs –Challenger explosion

35 Cultural Influence Culture –Culture within animals –Culture in humans

36 Cultural Influence Variations Across Cultures Norm –Personal spacePersonal space –Pace of life

37 Cultural Influence Variation Over Time Changes over the generations

38 The Power of Individuals Social control vs personal control Minority influence

39 Social Relations

40 Prejudice How Prejudiced Are People? Prejudice Stereotype Discrimination

41 Prejudice How Prejudiced Are People?

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47 Prejudice Social Roots of Prejudice Social Inequalities Us and Them: Ingroup and Outgroup –Ingroup ( Ingroup bias)Ingroup Ingroup bias –OutgroupOutgroup Emotional roots of prejudice –Scapegoat theoryScapegoat theory –xxx

48 Prejudice Cognitive Roots of Prejudice Categorization –Outgroup homogeneity –Other-race effectOther-race effect Vivid cases Just-world phenomenonJust-world phenomenon –Hindsight bias

49 Aggression

50 Aggression The Biology of Aggression Genetic Influences Neural Influences Biochemical Influences

51 Aggression Psychological and Social-Cultural Factors in Aggression Aversive Events –Frustration-aggression principleFrustration-aggression principle Fight or flight reaction Social and cultural influences –Aggression-replacement program

52 Aggression Psychological and Social-Cultural Factors in Aggression Observing models of aggression –Rape myth Acquiring social scripts Do video games teach, or release violence? –Catharsis hypothesis?

53 Conditional Reasoning Test

54 Biopsychosocial Understanding of Aggression

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58 Attraction The Psychology of Attraction Proximity –Mere exposure effectMere exposure effect Physical attractiveness Similarity Reward theory of attraction

59 Attraction Romantic Love Love –Passionate lovePassionate love –Companionate loveCompanionate love Equity Self-disclosure

60 Altruism –Kitty Genovese Bystander Intervention –Diffusion of responsibility –Bystander effectBystander effect

61 Altruism

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70 Altruism The Norms of Helping Social exchange theory Reciprocity norm Social-responsibility norm

71 Conflict and Peacemaking Conflict Social trap –Non-zero sum game

72 Conflict and Peacemaking Enemy Perceptions Mirror-image perceptions Self-fulfilling prophecy

73 Conflict and Peacemaking Contact Cooperation (4:12)Cooperation –Superordinate goalsSuperordinate goals Communication Conciliation –GRITGRIT

74 The End

75 Teacher Information Types of Files – This presentation has been saved as a basic Powerpoint file. While this file format placed a few limitations on the presentation, it insured the file would be compatible with the many versions of Powerpoint teachers use. To add functionality to the presentation, teachers may want to save the file for their specific version of Powerpoint. Animation – Once again, to insure compatibility with all versions of Powerpoint, none of the slides are animated. To increase student interest, it is suggested teachers animate the slides wherever possible. Adding slides to this presentation – Teachers are encouraged to adapt this presentation to their personal teaching style. To help keep a sense of continuity, blank slides which can be copied and pasted to a specific location in the presentation follow this Teacher Information section.

76 Teacher Information Hyperlink Slides - This presentation contain two types of hyperlinks. Hyperlinks can be identified by the text being underlined and a different color (usually purple). – Unit subsections hyperlinks: Immediately after the unit title slide, a page (slide #3) can be found listing all of the units subsections. While in slide show mode, clicking on any of these hyperlinks will take the user directly to the beginning of that subsection. This allows teachers quick access to each subsection. – Bold print term hyperlinks: Every bold print term from the unit is included in this presentation as a hyperlink. While in slide show mode, clicking on any of the hyperlinks will take the user to a slide containing the formal definition of the term. Clicking on the arrow in the bottom left corner of the definition slide will take the user back to the original point in the presentation. These hyperlinks were included for teachers who want students to see or copy down the exact definition as stated in the text. Most teachers prefer the definitions not be included to prevent students from only copying down what is on the screen and not actively listening to the presentation. For teachers who continually use the Bold Print Term Hyperlinks option, please contact the author using the address on the next slide to learn a technique to expedite the returning to the original point in the presentation.

77 Teacher Information Continuity slides – Throughout this presentation there are slides, usually of graphics or tables, that build on one another. These are included for three purposes. By presenting information in small chunks, students will find it easier to process and remember the concepts. By continually changing slides, students will stay interested in the presentation. To facilitate class discussion and critical thinking. Students should be encouraged to think about what might come next in the series of slides. Please feel free to contact me at with any questions, concerns, suggestions, etc. regarding these Kent Korek Germantown High School Germantown, WI

78 Division title (green print) subdivision title ( blue print) xxx –xxx

79 Division title (green print) subdivision title ( blue print) Use this slide to add a table, chart, clip art, picture, diagram, or video clip. Delete this box when finished

80 Definition Slide = add definition here

81 Definition Slides

82 Social Psychology = the scientific study of how we think about, influence, and relate to one another.

83 Attribution Theory = the theory that we explain someones behavior by crediting either the situation or the persons disposition.

84 Fundamental Attribution Error = the tendency for observers, when analyzing anothers behavior, to underestimate the impact of the situation and to overestimate the impact of personal disposition.

85 Attitude = feelings, often influenced by our beliefs, that predispose us to respond in a particular way to objects, people, and events.

86 Central Route Persuasion = attitude change path in which interested people focus on the arguments and respond with favorable thoughts.

87 Peripheral Route Persuasion = attitude change path in which people are influenced by incidental cues, such as a speakers attractiveness.

88 Foot-in-the-Door Phenomenon = the tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request.

89 Role = a set of expectations (norms) about a social position, defining how those in the position ought to behave.

90 Cognitive Dissonance Theory = the theory that we act to reduce the discomfort (dissonance) we feel when two of our thoughts (cognitions) are inconsistent. For example, when our awareness of our attitudes and of our actions clash, we can reduce the resulting dissonance by changing our attitudes.

91 Cognitive Dissonance Theory Suppose you had volunteered to participate in a psychology experiment on campus. Upon arrival, you were seated at a table and asked to undertake a series of dull, meaningless tasks for about an hour. Afterward, the experimenter asked you to convince other potential participants by describing the tasks as highly worthwhile, interesting, and educational. You were paid either $1 or $20 to do this. Suppose you were then asked to privately rate your enjoyment of the tasks on a questionnaire. After which amount do you believe your actual enjoyment rating of the tasks would be higher - $1 or $20?

92 Conformity = adjusting ones behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard.

93 Normative Social Influence = influence resulting from a persons desire to gain approval or avoid disapproval. Face the RearFace the Rear (3:23)

94 Informational Social Influence = influence resulting from ones willingness to accept others opinions about reality.

95 Social Facilitation = stronger responses on simple or well- learned tasks in the presence of others.

96 Social Loafing = the tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their efforts toward attaining a common goal than when individually accountable.

97 Deindividuation = the loss of self-awareness and self- restraint occurring in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity.

98 Group Polarization = the enhancement of a groups prevailing inclinations through discussion with the groups.

99 Groupthink = the mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decision-making group overrides a realistic appraisal of alternatives.

100 Culture = the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, values, and traditions shared by a group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next.

101 Norm = an understood rule for accepted and expected behavior. Norms prescribe proper behavior.

102 Personal Space = the buffer zone we like to maintain around our bodies.

103 Prejudice = an unjustifiable (and usually negative) attitude toward a group and its members. Prejudice generally involves stereotyped beliefs, negative feelings, and a predisposition to discriminatory action. Prejudice – A Girl Like MePrejudice – A Girl Like Me (7:15)

104 Stereotype = a generalized (sometimes accurate but often overgeneralized) belief about a group of people.

105 Discrimination = unjustifiable negative behavior toward a group and its members.

106 Ingroup = Us – people with whom we share a common identity.

107 Outgroup = Them – those perceived as different or apart from our ingroup.

108 Ingroup Bias = the tendency to favor our own group.

109 Scapegoat Theory = the theory that prejudice offers an outlet for anger by providing someone to blame.

110 Other-race Effect = the tendency to recall faces of ones own race more accurately than faces of other races. Also called the cross-race effect and the own-race bias.

111 Just-World Phenomenon = the tendency for people to believe the world is just and that people therefore get what they deserve and deserve what they get.

112 Aggression = any physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt or destroy.

113 Frustration-aggression Principle = the principle that frustration – the blocking of an attempt to achieve some goal – creates anger, which can generate aggression.

114 Mere Exposure Effect = the phenomenon that the repeated exposure to novel stimuli increases liking of them.

115 Passionate Love = an aroused state of intense positive absorption in another, usually present at the beginning of a love relationship.

116 Companionate Love = the deep affectionate attachment we feel for those with whom our lives are intertwined.

117 Equity = a condition in which people receive from a relationship in proportion to what they give to it.

118 Self-Disclosure = revealing intimate aspects of oneself to others.

119 Altruism = unselfish regard for the welfare of others.

120 Bystander Effect = the tendency for any given bystander to be less likely to give aid if other bystanders are present.

121 Social Exchange Theory = the theory that our social behavior is an exchange process, the aim of which is to maximize benefits and minimize costs.

122 Reciprocity Norm = an expectation that people will help, not hurt those who have helped them.

123 Social-Responsibility Norm = an expectation that people will help those dependent upon them.

124 Conflict = a perceived incompatibility of actions, goals, or ideas.

125 Social Trap = a situation in which the conflicting parties, by each rationally pursuing their self- interest, become caught in mutually destructive behavior.

126 Mirror-Image Perceptions = mutual views often held by conflicting people, as when each side sees itself as ethical and peaceful and views the other side as evil and aggressive.

127 Self-Fulfilling Prophecy = a belief that leads to its own fulfillment.

128 Superordinate Goals = shared goals that override differences among people and require their cooperation.

129 GRIT = Graduated and Reciprocated Initiatives in Tension-Reduction – a strategy designed to decrease international tensions.


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