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Myers’ PSYCHOLOGY (6th Ed)

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Presentation on theme: "Myers’ PSYCHOLOGY (6th Ed)"— Presentation transcript:

1 Myers’ PSYCHOLOGY (6th Ed)
Chapter 17 Stress and Health James A. McCubbin, PhD Clemson University Worth Publishers

2 Stress and Health Behavioral Medicine Health Psychology
interdisciplinary field that integrates behavioral and medical knowledge and applies that knowledge to health and disease Health Psychology subfield of psychology that provides psychology’s contribution to behavioral medicine

3 Stress and Health Leading causes of death in the US in 1900 and 1991
Percentage U.S.deaths 30 20 10 Tuber- culosis Pneu- monia Diarrhea/ enteritis Heart disease 1900 Cancer Strokes Chronic lung disease 1991 Unlike many leading killers a century ago, today’s major killers are more lifestyle-related

4 What is Stress? Stressors Catastrophes Life changes Hassles Intervening factors Appraisal Perceived control Personality Social support Coping behaviors Stress reactions Physiological Emotional Behavioral Stress the process by which we perceive and respond to certain events, called stressors, that we appraise as threatening or challenging

5 Stress Appraisal Appraisal Response Stressful event (tough math test)
Threat (“Yikes! This is beyond me!”) Challenge (“I’ve got to apply all I know”) Panic, freeze up Aroused, focused Appraisal Response

6 Pituitary hormone in the
bloodstream stimulates the outer part of the adrenal gland to release the stress hormone cortisol Sympathetic nervous system releases the stress hormones epinephrine and norepinephrine from nerve endings in the inner part of the adrenal glands Thalamus Hypothalamus Pituitary gland Adrenal glands Cerebral cortex (perceives stressor)

7 What is Stress? General Adaptation Syndrome
resistance Phase 1 Alarm reaction (mobilize resources) Phase 2 Resistance (cope with stressor) Phase 3 Exhaustion (reserves depleted) The body’s resistance to stress can only Last so long before exhaustion sets in Stressor occurs General Adaptation Syndrome Selye’s concept of the body’s adaptive response to stress as composed of three stages

8 Stressful Life Events Catastrophic Events Life Changes Daily Hassles
earthquakes, combat stress, floods Life Changes death of a loved one, divorce, loss of job, promotion Daily Hassles rush hour traffic, long lines, job stress, burnout

9 Stress and Control Health consequences of a loss of control
No connection to shock source To shock control To shock source “Executive” rat “Subordinate” rat Control rat

10 What is Stress? Burnout Coronary Heart Disease
physical, emotional and mental exhaustion brought on by persistent job-related stress Coronary Heart Disease clogging of the vessels that nourish the heart muscle leading cause of death in the United States

11 Stress & Coronary Heart Disease
Hopelessness scores 3.5 3 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 Heart attack Death Low risk Moderate risk High risk Men who feel extreme hopelessness are at greater risk for heart attacks and early death

12 Stress & Coronary Heart Disease
Type A Friedman and Rosenman’s term for people who are competitive, hard-driving, impatient, verbally aggressive, anger-prone Type B Friedman and Rosenman’s term for easygoing, relaxed people

13 Stress and Disease Psychophysiological Illness “mind-body” illness
any stress-related physical illness some forms of hypertension some headaches distinct from hypochondriasis – misinterpreting normal physical sensations as symptoms of a disease

14 Stress and Disease Lymphocytes
two types of white blood cells that are part of the body’s immune system B lymphocytes form in the bone marrow and release antibodies that fight bacterial infections T lymphocytes form in the thymus and, among other duties, attack cancer cells, viruses and foreign substances

15 Stress and Disease Conditioning of immune suppression UCS (drug) UCR
(sweetened water) CR Conditioning of immune suppression

16 poor nutrition and sleep)
Stress and Disease Negative emotions and health-related consequences Unhealthy behaviors (smoking, drinking, poor nutrition and sleep) Persistent stessors and negative emotions Release of stress hormones Heart disease Immune suppression Autonomic nervous system effects (headaches, hypertension)

17 Promoting Health Aerobic Exercise
Depression score 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 Before treatment evaluation After treatment No-treatment group Aerobic exercise Relaxation treatment Aerobic Exercise sustained exercise that increases heart and lung fitness may also alleviate depression and anxiety

18 Promoting Health Biofeedback
system for electronically recording, amplifying, and feeding back information regarding a subtle physiological state blood pressure muscle tension

19 Life-style modification patients
Promoting Health Modifying Type A life-style can reduce recurrence of heart attacks Percentage of patients with recurrent heart attacks (cumulative average) 6 5 4 3 2 1 Year Life-style modification patients Control patients Modifying life-style reduced recurrent

20 Promoting Health Social support across the life span Percentage
Age in years 100% 90 80 70 60 50 Percentage with high support

21 Level of social support
Life events Tendency toward Health Illness Personal appraisal Challenge Threat Personality type Easy going Nondepressed Optimistic Hostile Depressed Pessimistic Personality habits Nonsmoking Regular exercise Good nutrition Smoking Sedentary Poor nutrition Level of social support Close, enduring Lacking

22 Promoting Health Predictors of mortality 1 0.8 Relative 0.6 risk
0.4 0.2 Men Women Not smoking Regular exercise Weekly religious attendance Relative risk of dying

23 Subfields of Alternative Medicine
Alternative systems of medical practice Bioelectromagnetic applications Diet, nutrition, life-style changes Herbal medicine Manual healing Mind-body control Pharmacological and biological treatments Subfields of Alternative Medicine Health care ranging from self-care according to folk principles, to care rendered in an organized health care system based on alternative traditions or practices The study of how living organisms interact with electromagnetic (EM) fields The knowledge of how to prevent illness, maintain health, and reverse the effects of chronic disease through dietary or nutritional intervention Employing plan and plant products from folk medicine traditions for pharmacological use Using touch and manipulation with the hands as a diagnostic and therapeutic tool Exploring the mind’s capacity to affect the body, based on traditional medical systems that make use of the interconnected- ness of mind and body Drugs and vaccines not yet accepted by mainstream medicine

24 Promoting Health Complementary and Alternative Medicine
unproven health care treatments not taught widely in medical schools, not used in hospitals, and not usually reimbursed by insurance companies

25 Promoting Health The religion factor is mulitidimensional Religious
involvement Healthy behaviors (less smoking, drinking) Social support (faith communities, marriage) Positive emotions (less stress, anxiety) Better health (less immune system suppression, stress hormones, and suicide)

26 Promoting Health Smoking-related early deaths Number of deaths
40,000 30,000 20,000 10,000 33,348 1,686 1,135 556 202 Smoking Suicide Vehicle HIV/ Homicide crash AIDS Cause of death Number of deaths per 100,000


28 Promoting Health Fewer Canadian smokers Percentage of Canadians
Males Females Year 60% 50 40 30 20 10 Percentage of Canadians smoking

29 Smoking Prevention Year 30% 25 20 15 10 5 Percentage of U.S. high school seniors who smoke daily Smoking has made a partial comeback among U.S. teens

30 Smoking Prevention Results of a smoking inoculation program Percentage
of students who smoke 20 15 10 5 Seventh grade Eighth grade Ninth grade Months of study Control school School with smoking Prevention program Fewer teens took up smoking when “inoculated” against it

31 Obesity and Weight Control
Obesity and mortality Body-mass index (BM I) Men Women 2.8 2.6 2.4 2.2 2.0 1.8 1.6 1.4 1.2 1.0 0.8 0.6 Relative risk of death

32 Weight Discrimination
Willingness to hire scale (from1: definitely not hire to 7: definitely hire) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Women Men Normal Overweight When women applicants were made to look overweight, subjects were less willing to hire

33 Weight Control Effects of a severe diet Days Caloric intake in
calories per day Body weight kilograms Metabolism: Oxygen consumption in liters per hour 3000 2000 1000 Days 165 160 155 150 145 140 26 25 24 23 22 21

34 Weight Control Most lost weight is regained Weight change in pounds
-20 -15 -10 -5 5 10 1 2 3 4 Weight change in pounds Post treatment Years of follow-up Starting point Normal trend for untreated obese people: Gradually rising weight After participation in behavioral Program: Much of initial weight Loss regained Most lost weight is regained

35 Hours of television watched per day
Weight Control < >4 Hours of television watched per day in 1990s study Boys Girls 32 30 28 26 24 22 20 Skinfold fat measure (mm) Obesity was more common among those who watched the most television

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