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Myers PSYCHOLOGY (6th Ed) Chapter 17 Stress and Health James A. McCubbin, PhD Clemson University Worth Publishers.

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Presentation on theme: "Myers PSYCHOLOGY (6th Ed) Chapter 17 Stress and Health James A. McCubbin, PhD Clemson University Worth Publishers."— Presentation transcript:


2 Myers PSYCHOLOGY (6th Ed) Chapter 17 Stress and Health James A. McCubbin, PhD Clemson University Worth Publishers

3 Stress and Health zBehavioral Medicine yinterdisciplinary field that integrates behavioral and medical knowledge and applies that knowledge to health and disease zHealth Psychology ysubfield of psychology that provides psychologys contribution to behavioral medicine

4 Stress and Health zLeading causes of death in the US in 1900 and 1991 Percentage U.S.deaths Tuber- culosis Pneu- monia Diarrhea/ enteritis Heart disease 1900 Percentage U.S.deaths Heart disease CancerStrokes Chronic lung disease 1991 Unlike many leading killers a century ago, todays major killers are more lifestyle-related

5 What is Stress? zStress ythe process by which we perceive and respond to certain events, called stressors, that we appraise as threatening or challenging Stressors Catastrophes Life changes Hassles Intervening factors Appraisal Perceived control Personality Social support Coping behaviors Stress reactions Physiological Emotional Behavioral

6 Stress Appraisal Stressful event (tough math test) Threat (Yikes! This is beyond me!) Challenge (Ive got to apply all I know) Panic, freeze up Aroused, focused Appraisal Response

7 Pituitary hormone in the bloodstream stimulates the outer part of the adrenal gland to release the stress hormone cortisol Sympathetic nervous system releases the stress hormones epinephrine and norepinephrine from nerve endings in the inner part of the adrenal glands Thalamus Hypothalamus Pituitary gland Adrenal glands Cerebral cortex (perceives stressor )

8 What is Stress? zGeneral Adaptation Syndrome ySelyes concept of the bodys adaptive response to stress as composed of three stages Stress resistance Phase 1 Alarm reaction (mobilize resources) Phase 2 Resistance (cope with stressor) Phase 3 Exhaustion (reserves depleted) The bodys resistance to stress can only Last so long before exhaustion sets in Stressor occurs

9 Stressful Life Events zCatastrophic Events yearthquakes, combat stress, floods zLife Changes ydeath of a loved one, divorce, loss of job, promotion zDaily Hassles yrush hour traffic, long lines, job stress, burnout

10 Stress and Control zHealth consequences of a loss of control No connection to shock source To shock controlTo shock source Executive ratSubordinate ratControl rat

11 What is Stress? zBurnout yphysical, emotional and mental exhaustion brought on by persistent job-related stress zCoronary Heart Disease yclogging of the vessels that nourish the heart muscle yleading cause of death in the United States

12 Stress & Coronary Heart Disease Hopelessness scores Heart attack Death Low riskModerate riskHigh risk Men who feel extreme hopelessness are at greater risk for heart attacks and early death

13 Stress & Coronary Heart Disease zType A yFriedman and Rosenmans term for people who are competitive, hard-driving, impatient, verbally aggressive, anger-prone zType B yFriedman and Rosenmans term for easygoing, relaxed people

14 Stress and Disease zPsychophysiological Illness ymind-body illness yany stress-related physical illness xsome forms of hypertension xsome headaches ydistinct from hypochondriasis – misinterpreting normal physical sensations as symptoms of a disease

15 Stress and Disease zLymphocytes ytwo types of white blood cells that are part of the bodys immune system xB lymphocytes form in the bone marrow and release antibodies that fight bacterial infections xT lymphocytes form in the thymus and, among other duties, attack cancer cells, viruses and foreign substances

16 Stress and Disease zConditioning of immune suppression UCS (drug) UCR (immune suppression) UCS (drug) UCR (immune suppression) CS (sweetened water) CS (sweetened water) CR (immune suppression)

17 Stress and Disease zNegative emotions and health-related consequences Unhealthy behaviors (smoking, drinking, poor nutrition and sleep) Persistent stessors and negative emotions Release of stress hormones Heart disease Immune suppression Autonomic nervous system effects (headaches, hypertension)

18 Promoting Health zAerobic Exercise ysustained exercise that increases heart and lung fitness ymay also alleviate depression and anxiety Depression score Before treatment evaluation After treatment evaluation No-treatment group Aerobic exercise group Relaxation treatment group

19 Promoting Health zBiofeedback ysystem for electronically recording, amplifying, and feeding back information regarding a subtle physiological state xblood pressure xmuscle tension

20 Promoting Health zModifying Type A life-style can reduce recurrence of heart attacks Percentage of patients with recurrent heart attacks (cumulative average) Year Life-style modification patients Control patients Modifying life-style reduced recurrent heart attacks

21 Promoting Health zSocial support across the life span Age in years 100% Percentage with high support

22 Life events Tendency toward HealthIllness Personal appraisal ChallengeThreat Personality type Easy going Nondepressed Optimistic Hostile Depressed Pessimistic Personality habits Nonsmoking Regular exercise Good nutrition Smoking Sedentary Poor nutrition Level of social support Close, enduringLacking

23 Promoting Health zPredictors of mortality Men Women Not smoking Regular exercise Weekly religious attendance Relative risk of dying

24 Alternative systems of medical practice Bioelectromagnetic applications Diet, nutrition, life-style changes Herbal medicine Manual healing Mind-body control Pharmacological and biological treatments Subfields of Alternative Medicine Health care ranging from self-care according to folk principles, to care rendered in an organized health care system based on alternative traditions or practices The study of how living organisms interact with electromagnetic (EM) fields The knowledge of how to prevent illness, maintain health, and reverse the effects of chronic disease through dietary or nutritional intervention Employing plan and plant products from folk medicine traditions for pharmacological use Using touch and manipulation with the hands as a diagnostic and therapeutic tool Exploring the minds capacity to affect the body, based on traditional medical systems that make use of the interconnected- ness of mind and body Drugs and vaccines not yet accepted by mainstream medicine

25 Promoting Health zComplementary and Alternative Medicine yunproven health care treatments not taught widely in medical schools, not used in hospitals, and not usually reimbursed by insurance companies

26 Promoting Health zThe religion factor is mulitidimensional Religious involvement Healthy behaviors (less smoking, drinking) Social support (faith communities, marriage) Positive emotions (less stress, anxiety) Better health (less immune system suppression, stress hormones, and suicide)

27 Promoting Health zSmoking-related early deaths 40,000 30,000 20,000 10, ,348 1,6861, Smoking Suicide Vehicle HIV/ Homicide crash AIDS Cause of death Number of deaths per 100,000


29 Promoting Health zFewer Canadian smokers Males Females Year 60% Percentage of Canadians smoking

30 Smoking Prevention zSmoking has made a partial comeback among U.S. teens Year 30% Percentage of U.S. high school seniors who smoke daily

31 Smoking Prevention zResults of a smoking inoculation program Percentage of students who smoke Seventh gradeEighth gradeNinth grade Months of study Control school School with smoking Prevention program Fewer teens took up smoking when inoculated against it

32 Obesity and Weight Control zObesity and mortality Body-mass index (BM I) MenWomen Relative risk of death

33 Weight Discrimination zWhen women applicants were made to look overweight, subjects were less willing to hire Willingness to hire scale (from1: definitely not hire to 7: definitely hire ) WomenMen NormalOverweight

34 Weight Control zEffects of a severe diet Caloric intake in calories per day Body weight in kilograms Metabolism: Oxygen consumption in liters per hour Days Days

35 Weight Control zMost lost weight is regained Weight change in pounds Post treatment Years of follow-up Starting point Normal trend for untreated obese people: Gradually rising weight After participation in behavioral Program: Much of initial weight Loss regained

36 Weight Control zObesity was more common among those who watched the most television 4 Hours of television watched per day in 1990s study BoysGirls Skinfold fat measure (mm)

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