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AP US HISTORY EAST HIGH SCHOOL MR. PETERSON SPRING 2011 The Great Depression and the New Deal, 1929-1939.

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Presentation on theme: "AP US HISTORY EAST HIGH SCHOOL MR. PETERSON SPRING 2011 The Great Depression and the New Deal, 1929-1939."— Presentation transcript:

1 AP US HISTORY EAST HIGH SCHOOL MR. PETERSON SPRING 2011 The Great Depression and the New Deal,

2 Focus Questions What caused the Great Depression, and how did President Hoover respond? What strategy guided the early New Deal, and what problems and challenges arose in 1934–1935? What key measures and setbacks marked the course of the New Deal from 1935 on? How did the depression and the New Deal affect specific social groups in the United States? What key developments shaped American culture in the 1930s?

3 Crash and Depression,

4 Black Thursday and the Onset of the Depression Stock prices rise Speculation margin buying Interest rates increased Black Thursday-Oct. 24, 1929 Stock market crash Key industries collapse Fed-tight money policies Global economic crisis

5 Fig. 24-1, p. 731

6 Hoovers Response Bold response Encourages businesses to maintain wages and employment Emergency Committee for Employment-voluntary relief coordination Tax increase Reconstruction Finance Corporation $4 billion Make loans to banks recovery just around the corner

7 Fig. 24-2, p. 732








15 Mounting Discontent and Protest Central Park-Hoover Valley Hoovervilles Farmers Holiday Association Force prices up Refuse to sell, dump milk Bonus march Broker up by Gen. Douglas MacArthur

16 p. 733

17 The Election of 1932 Republicans re-nominate Hoover Democrats choose Franklin Roosevelt bold persistent experimentation Attacks Hoovers reckless spending FDR wins in landslide Democrats win control of Congress

18 The New Deal Takes Shape

19 Roosevelt and His Circle The only thing we have to fear, is fear itself. brain trust Not ideologically driven Eleanor Roosevelt plays key role Frances Perkins-first female cabinet member (Labor) The New Deal


21 The only thing we have to fear is fear itselfnameless, unreasoning, unjustified fear. --Franklin Roosevelts first inaugural address (March 1933)

22 p. 735

23 The Hundred Days Major legislation-more than a dozen Alphabet agencies Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) Agricultural Adjustment Administration (AAA) Public Works Administration (PWA) Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) National Recovery Administration (NRA) Voluntary support Price and production codes Federal Emergency Relief Act Harry Hopkins Money to state and local relief agencies

24 Table 24-1, p. 736

25 p. 738

26 p. 739

27 Problems and Controversies Plague the Early New Deal Supreme Court rules National Recovery Act unconstitutional AAA provided for crop reductions, hurt farm workers and sharecroppers Southern Tenant Farmers union protests Dust Bowl Civil Works Administration (CWA) funds short-term work projects Public Works Administration (PWA) funds large- scale projects

28 Fig. 24-3, p. 738

29 Map 24-1, p. 740

30 Table 24-2, p. 743

31 : Challenges from the Right and Left Conservatives call New Deal socialism Al Smith forms anti-New Deal American Liberty League Father Charles Coughlin attacks FDR with ant- Semitism, calls for nationalizing banks Frances Townsend calls for guaranteed paycheck of $200 per month Gov. Huey Long of Louisiana calls for Share the Wealth program confiscating income over $1 million Roosevelt and New Deal remain popular

32 The New Deal Changes Course,

33 Expanding Federal Relief Works Progress Administration (WPA) Federal Writers Project (FRP) and Federal Music Project (FMP) PWA completes major projects Resettlement Administration makes loans to farmers National Labor Relations Act (Wagner Act) Guarantees collective bargaining in private sector NLRB created Favors unions, unions flourish

34 The Social Security Act: End of the Second New Deal Old-age pensions Survivor benefits Money for disabled Long-term impact New Deal enlarged government role in life

35 The 1936 Roosevelt Landslide and the New Democratic Coalition Republicans nominate Alfred Landon FDR wins big Democratic coalition established White South, parts of West, urban white ethnics, union members, blacks

36 Table 24-3, p. 745

37 p. 746

38 The Environment and the West Soil Conservation Service New national parks Olympic National Park Shenandoah National Park Wilderness preservation movement Large dams Grand Coulee Shasta

39 The New Deals End Stage:

40 FDR and the Supreme Court FDR proposes court packing bill Press and public react with hostility FDR drops idea Supreme Court changes views Several new justices appointed

41 The Roosevelt Recession Partial recovery Economy slides in 1937 New relief spending in % unemployment in 1939

42 Final Measures: Growing Opposition Farm Security Administration (FSA) Low-interest loans to farmers Fair Labor Standards Act Banned child labor Minimum wage (40¢ per hour) Federal farm price support system established New Deal over after 1938 election

43 Social Change and Social Action in the 1930s

44 The Depressions Psychological and Social Impact ¼ of all farm families sought assistance Unemployment never fell below 14% dull misery in the bones Women faced discrimination in workplace, even though more married women worked Families often torn apart Birthrate fell Difficult for children Blacks, Hispanics, sharecroppers hit especially hard

45 Industrial Workers Unionize Committee for Industrial Organization (CIO) formed within AFL Organized all workers-blacks, women, unskilled Steel strike results in union at US Steel sit-down strikes work to unionize GM CIO breaks away from AFL AFL adapts and welcomes low-skilled workers Union memberships rises dramatically Organizers often radicals

46 Fig. 24-4, p. 751

47 p. 752

48 Black and Hispanic Americans Resist Racism and Exploitation Lynching continued to haunt blacks Supreme Court orders new trial for Scottsboro Boys NAACP battles in courts dont shop where you cant work campaign Strikes by farm workers Two killed by shots into union hall in Pixley, CA

49 p. 753

50 A New Deal for Native Americans American Indian Defense Association formed Aimed to reverse Dawes Act Indian Reorganization Act-1934 Halted tribal land sales No provision for self-government and cultural renewal Tribes split over law

51 The American Cultural Scene in the 1930s

52 Avenues of Escape: Radio and Movies Movies remained popular during depression Favored New Deal Gangster movies favored G-men Stereotypes Virtuous heroes represent the people Color movies Gone with the Wind (1939) The Wizard of Oz (1939)

53 p. 757

54 The Later 1930s: Opposing Fascism: Returning to Traditional Values Popular Front Communists and Socialists Come together against fascists in Italy and Spain, Nazis in Germany Many went to Spain to fight in Spanish Civil War Collapsed after Hitler and Stalin sign non-aggression pact in 1939

55 p. 758

56 p. 759

57 Streamlining and a Worlds Fair: Corporate Americas Utopian Vision Streamlining The World of Tomorrow-New York Worlds Fair War of the Worlds


59 p. 760

60 p. 761

61 AP US HISTORY EAST HIGH SCHOOL MR. PETERSON SPRING 2011 The Great Depression and the New Deal,

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