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Today – Week 8 Informative presentations Specific Purpose and Central Idea statements Ethical public speaking The introduction, body, and conclusion Developing.

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Presentation on theme: "Today – Week 8 Informative presentations Specific Purpose and Central Idea statements Ethical public speaking The introduction, body, and conclusion Developing."— Presentation transcript:

1 Today – Week 8 Informative presentations Specific Purpose and Central Idea statements Ethical public speaking The introduction, body, and conclusion Developing an effective outline Critiquing a presentation

2 Public Speaking Basics

3 “The human brain starts working the moment you’re born and never stops until you stand up to speak in public.” - George Jessel

4 How is public speaking similar to everyday conversation? How is it different?

5 The Communications Process

6 What are the three basic types of presentations we do?

7 What are the four ways we generally deliver speeches?

8 Impromptu

9 What are the four ways we generally deliver speeches? Scripted

10 What are the four ways we generally deliver speeches? Memorized

11 What are the four ways we generally deliver speeches? Extemporaneous

12 Individual vs. Group Presentations … What’s different?

13 What qualities do we associate with an effective presentation and presenter?

14

15 “According to most studies, people’s number one fear is public speaking. Number two is death. Death is number two. Does that sound right? This means to the average person, if you go to a funeral, you’re better off in the casket than doing the eulogy.” - Jerry Seinfeld

16 “There are only two types of speakers in the world: one, the nervous and, two, liars.” - Mark Twain

17 Overcoming Anxiety

18 Nervousness is Normal

19 Creating the illusion of competency First Impressions

20 From Negative to Positive Experience Preparation Think positive Breathe Focus on message Don’t expect perfection

21 Impromptu Speeches

22 “There are always three speeches, for every one you actually gave. The one you practiced, the one you gave, and the one you wish you gave.” - Dale Carnegie

23 Developing Your First Speech Know your objective Limit your points Organize: introduction, body, conclusion Fit the time limit Rehearse out loud Team feedback Revise

24 "It takes one hour of preparation for each minute of presentation time." - Wayne Burgraff

25

26 Informative Presentation Guidelines Limit the amount of information Adjust level of complexity Stress relevance and usefulness Relate new information to old Make speech easy to remember Focus audience attention

27 Selecting Topic & Purpose Guidelines for your speech proposals and outlines... What is the topic? What is the general purpose? What is the specific purpose? What is the central idea?

28 Choosing a Topic “The best way to sound like you know what you're talking about is to know what you're talking about.” -- Author Unknown

29 General Purpose The broad goal of a speech.

30 "If you don't know what you want to achieve in your presentation your audience never will." - Harvey Diamond

31 Specific Purpose Statement A single phrase that states precisely what a speaker hopes to accomplish in his or her speech.

32 Specific Purpose Guidelines Express as a statement, not question Avoid figurative language Limit to one distinct idea Avoid being too vague or general

33 Write as a full infinitive phrase Ineffective:Calendars More Effective:To inform my audience about the four major kinds of calendars used in the world today. Specific Purpose Guidelines

34 Express as a statement, not question Ineffective:Is the U.S. space program necessary? More Effective:To persuade my audience that the U.S. space program provides many important bene- fits to people here on earth. Specific Purpose Guidelines

35 Avoid figurative language Ineffective:To inform my audience that yoga is extremely cool. More Effective:To inform my audience how yoga can improve their health. Specific Purpose Guidelines

36 One distinct idea Ineffective:To persuade my audience to become literacy tutors and to donate time to Habitat for Humanity. Specific Purpose Guidelines

37 More effective:To persuade my audience to become literacy tutors. More effective:To persuade my audience to donate time to Habitat for Humanity. OR

38 Not too vague or general Ineffective:To inform my audience about the Civil War. More Effective:To inform my audience about the role of African-American soldiers in the Civil War. Specific Purpose Guidelines

39 Questions to Ask About Your Specific Purpose Does it meet the assignment? Can I accomplish it in the time allotted? Is it relevant to my audience? Too trivial? Too technical?

40 Central Idea A one-sentence statement that sums up or encapsulates the major ideas of a speech.

41 “If you can't write your message in a sentence, you can't say it in an hour.” - Dianna Booher

42 Guidelines for the Central Idea Do not be vague or overly general Express as a full sentence Do not express as a question Avoid figurative language

43 Guidelines for the Central Idea Not too general Ineffective:Paying college athletes a salary is a good idea.

44 More Effective:Because college athletes in such as revenue-producing sports football and basketball generate millions of dollars in revenue for their schools, the NCAA should allow such athletes to receive a $250 monthly salary as part of their scholarships.

45 Guidelines for the Central Idea Complete sentence Ineffective:Use of the laser. More Effective:The laser is a highly versatile device with important uses in medicine, industry, art, and communications.

46 Guidelines for the Central Idea Not a question Ineffective:How does indoor soccer differ from outdoor soccer?

47 More Effective:Played on a smaller, enclosed field that resembles a hockey rink with artificial turf, indoor soccer involves faster action, more scoring, and different strategies than outdoor soccer.

48 Guidelines for the Central Idea Avoid figurative language Ineffective:Mexico’s Yucatan peninsula is an awesome place for a vacation.

49 More Effective:Mexico’s Yucatan peninsula has many attractions for vacationers, including a warm climate, excellent food, and extensive Mayan ruins.

50 General Purpose:To inform Specific Purpose:To inform my audience of the three major races in alpine skiing. Central Idea:The three major races in alpine skiing are the downhill, the slalom, and the giant slalom.

51 Main Points: I. The first major race in alpine skiing is the downhill II. The second major race in alpine skiing is the slalom. III. The third major race in alpine skiing is the giant slalom.

52 Selecting Topic & Purpose Here are several specific purpose statements for classroom speeches. Identify the problem with each, and rewrite the statement to correct the problem.

53 1.To inform my audience how to make perfect popcorn every time. 2.To inform my audience about the growth of credit card fraud and the methods of sound financial planning. 3.What is obsessive compulsive disorder? 4.To inform my audience why square grooves are superior to U-shaped grooves on golf clubs.

54 5.To inform my audience about Thailand. 6.Donate blood. 7.To persuade my audience that something has to be done about the problem of antibiotic-resistant bacteria.

55 Activity Write Your Specific Purpose and Central Idea statements

56 What’s the role of the introduction? Gain attention and interest Reveal the topic Establish credibility and goodwill Preview the body of the speech

57 What’s the role of the conclusion? Signal the end of the speech Reinforce the central idea

58 Activity Setting the Hook: Design an attention-grabbing opening for the introduction of your final individual speech.

59 Organizing Your Speech Organizing and supporting the main points of your presentation Ordering your speech Connectives

60 Organizing Your Speech Outlining your presentation The preparation outline The speaking outline

61 Informative Presentation Guidelines Limit the amount of information Adjust level of complexity Stress relevance and usefulness Relate new information to old Make speech easy to remember Focus audience attention

62 Supporting Materials Examples Statistics Testimony

63 “ I am not one of those who in expressing opinions confine themselves to facts.” Mark TwainMark Twain ( )

64 “There are three kinds of lies: lies, damn lies and statistics.” Benjamin Disraeli ( )

65 Organizing Your Speech Each of the following statements violates at least one of the criteria for effective supporting materials. Identify the flaw (or flaws) in each statement.

66 Critiquing a Speech Focusing on the positive Content Organization and flow Strong introduction and conclusion Transitions Appropriate to audience Meeting the goal/purpose

67 Critiquing a Speech Delivery Voice Language Movement and gestures Visual Aids

68 Organizing Your Speech Each of the following statements violates at least one of the criteria for effective supporting materials. Identify the flaw (or flaws) in each statement.

69 Elements of Delivery: Voice Volume Pitch Rate/pacing Pauses Vocal variety Articulation Pronunciation Dialect

70 Activity Voice Inflection Read the following sentence emphasizing the highlighted word: I didn’t say you are crazy.

71 Activity Voice Inflection Read the following sentence emphasizing the highlighted word: I didn’t say you are crazy.

72 Activity Voice Inflection Read the following sentence emphasizing the highlighted word: I didn’t say you are crazy.

73 Activity Voice Inflection Read the following sentence emphasizing the highlighted word: I didn’t say you are crazy.

74 Activity Voice Inflection Read the following sentence emphasizing the highlighted word: I didn’t say you are crazy.

75 Activity Voice Inflection Read the following sentence emphasizing the highlighted word: I didn’t say you are crazy.

76 "The right word may be effective, but no word was ever as effective as a rightly timed pause." - Mark Twain

77 Activity Vocal Exercise Reading a speech excerpt

78 Elements of Delivery: Gesture Natural Relaxed Unobtrusive Coordinated with speech Consistent with message Varied Appropriate to audience and situation

79 Elements of Delivery: Movement Purposeful movement Posture & appearance

80 Elements of Delivery: Eye Contact Shows interest in audience Promotes credibility Maintains connection Gauge audience response

81 Practical tips

82 Critiquing a Speech Focusing on the positive Content Organization and flow Strong introduction and conclusion Transitions Appropriate to audience Meeting the goal/purpose

83 Critiquing a Speech Delivery Voice Language Movement and gestures Visual Aids

84 Practical tips

85 Value of Visual Aids Gain and maintain audience attention Help audience understand and remember your message Graphically support your message Illustrate a sequence of events or procedures

86 Common Visual Aids PowerPoint slides Charts Photos Drawings/Illustrations Flip chart Whiteboard Models Handouts Samples CD-ROM Video

87 Visual Aid Tips Consider your audience Think of your speech objective Be realistic about your skills Know the room Rehearse with your visual aids


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