2In This Chapter How Context Influences Our Speaking Goals Choosing Your Speech TopicArticulating Your PurposeStating Your Thesis
3Speaking Context Deciding to speak Being asked to speak Being required to speak
4Topic, purpose, & audience Understand that a relationship exists between topic, purpose and audience such that the greater the connection between elements the greater the effectiveness of the speech.Topic selection must consider the speech purpose and audience. A speaker must consider all three issues as he or she plans the speech
5Choosing a Speech Topic Match interests to purposeMatch expertise to purposeCheck out Web Link 4.2:Topics about Public Policyonline atthe Invitation to Public Speaking website.
6Brainstorming by: Free association Clustering Categories Technology Brainstorming is the process of generating ideas randomly & uncritically, without attention to logic, connections or relevanceFIGURE 4.1Cluster diagram (p. 78)
8General Speaking Purposes To informTo persuadeTo inviteTo introduceTo commemorateTo accept
9Specific PurposeA focused statement identifying you want to accomplish with your speechSee Table 4.1,General and Specific Speaking Purposeson page 82 in the text.
10Specific Purpose State specific speaking purpose clearly Keep audience in the forefront of your mind
11Specific Purpose: What you hope to accomplish Examples: To invite my audience to explore the advantages and disadvantages of a helmet law in Ohio.To inform my audience how to studyTo inform my audience about HospiceTo persuade my audience to give bloodTo persuade audience to pursue internships prior to graduation
12Questions to ask about your Specific purpose Does it meet the assignment?Can it meet the time requirement?Is it relevant to the audience?Is it too trivial for the audience?Is it too technical for the audience?
13Write Specific Purpose Clearly Ineffective: CalendarsMore Effective: To inform my audience aboutthe four major kinds ofcalendars used in the worldtoday.Tip: Use full sentence form and begin with to invite, to inform, to persuade as appropriateSee page 82 for more examples.
14Express as a Statement, Not as a Question Ineffective: Is the U.S. space programnecessary?More Effective: To persuade my audience thatthe U.S. space programprovides many importantbenefits to U.S. citizens
15Avoid Figurative Language Ineffective: To inform my audience thatyoga is extremely cool.More effective: To inform my audience howyoga can improve their health.
16One Distinct IdeaIneffective: To persuade my audience to become literacy tutors and to donate time to Habitat for Humanity.More effective: To persuade my audience to become literacy tutors.orMore effective: To persuade my audience to donate time to Habitat for Humanity.
17Be Sure the Specific Purpose Is Not Too Vague or General Ineffective: To inform my audience about the Civil War.More Effective: To inform my audience about the role of African-Americansoldiers in the Civil War.
18Identify the problem with each specific purpose statements: What is attention deficit disorder?To inform my audience about Japan.Learn CPR.
19Thesis Statement A single declarative sentence Summarizes main ideas, assumptions or arguments of the speechMain points in a nutshell
20Stating the thesis:A one-sentence preview of the exact content of your speechExample:The pyramids of ancient Egypt had three major uses - as tombs for the burial of monarchs, as temples for worshipping the gods, and as observatories for studying the stars and the planets.
21Tips for the thesis Write a complete sentence Avoid questions Be specific, preview your main ideasBe focused
22Supply the general purpose, specific purpose, and main points for a speech with the following thesis:General Purpose:Specific Purpose:Thesis: The four stages of alcoholism are the warning stage, the danger stage, the crucial stage, and the chronic stage.Main Points:To InformTo inform my audience of the four stages of alcoholism.I. The first stage of alcoholism is the warning stage.II. The second stage of alcoholism is the danger stage.III. The third stage of alcoholism is the crucial stage.IV. The fourth stage of alcoholism is the chronic stage.
23Supply the general purpose, specific purpose, and thesis: Main Points: I. The first major race in alpine skiing is the downhill.II. The second major race in alpine skiing is the slalom.III. The third major race in alpine skiing is the giant slalom.To informTo inform my audience of the three major races in alpine skiing.The three major races in alpine skiing are the downhill, the slalom, and the giant slalom.