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1 Developing Your Speech Topic & Purpose Chapter 4.

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1 1 Developing Your Speech Topic & Purpose Chapter 4

2 2 In This Chapter How Context Influences Our Speaking Goals How Context Influences Our Speaking Goals Choosing Your Speech Topic Choosing Your Speech Topic Articulating Your Purpose Articulating Your Purpose Stating Your Thesis Stating Your Thesis

3 3 Speaking Context Deciding to speak Deciding to speak Being asked to speak Being asked to speak Being required to speak Being required to speak

4 4 Topic, purpose, & audience Audience TopicPurpose

5 5 Choosing a Speech Topic Match interests to purpose Match interests to purpose Match expertise to purpose Match expertise to purpose Check out Web Link 4.2: Topics about Public Policy online at the Invitation to Public Speaking website.

6 6 Brainstorming by: Free association Free association Clustering Clustering Categories Categories Technology Technology FIGURE 4.1 Cluster diagram (p. 78)

7 7 General Purpose The broad goal of a speech

8 8 General Speaking Purposes To inform To inform To persuade To persuade To invite To invite To introduce To introduce To commemorate To commemorate To accept To accept

9 9 Specific Purpose A focused statement identifying you want to accomplish with your speech A focused statement identifying you want to accomplish with your speech See Table 4.1, General and Specific Speaking Purposes on page 82 in the text.

10 10 Specific Purpose State specific speaking purpose clearly State specific speaking purpose clearly Keep audience in the forefront of your mind Keep audience in the forefront of your mind

11 11 Specific Purpose: What you hope to accomplish Examples: –To invite my audience to explore the advantages and disadvantages of a helmet law in Ohio. –To inform my audience how to study –To inform my audience about Hospice –To persuade my audience to give blood –To persuade audience to pursue internships prior to graduation

12 12 Questions to ask about your Specific purpose Does it meet the assignment? Does it meet the assignment? Can it meet the time requirement? Can it meet the time requirement? Is it relevant to the audience? Is it relevant to the audience? Is it too trivial for the audience? Is it too trivial for the audience? Is it too technical for the audience? Is it too technical for the audience?

13 13 Write Specific Purpose Clearly Ineffective:Calendars More Effective:To inform my audience about the four major kinds of calendars used in the world today.

14 14 Express as a Statement, Not as a Question Ineffective:Is the U.S. space program necessary? More Effective:To persuade my audience that the U.S. space program provides many important benefits to U.S. citizens

15 15 Avoid Figurative Language Ineffective:To inform my audience that yoga is extremely cool. More effective:To inform my audience how yoga can improve their health.

16 16 One Distinct Idea Ineffective: To persuade my audience to become literacy tutors and to donate time to Habitat for Humanity. More effective: To persuade my audience to become literacy tutors. or More effective: To persuade my audience to donate time to Habitat for Humanity.

17 17 Be Sure the Specific Purpose Is Not Too Vague or General Ineffective:To inform my audience about the Civil War. More Effective: To inform my audience about the role of African-American soldiers in the Civil War.

18 18 Identify the problem with each specific purpose statements: What is attention deficit disorder? What is attention deficit disorder? To inform my audience about Japan. To inform my audience about Japan. Learn CPR. Learn CPR.

19 19 Thesis Statement A single declarative sentence A single declarative sentence Summarizes main ideas, assumptions or arguments of the speech Summarizes main ideas, assumptions or arguments of the speech Main points in a nutshell Main points in a nutshell

20 20 Stating the thesis: A one-sentence preview of the exact content of your speech Example: –The pyramids of ancient Egypt had three major uses - as tombs for the burial of monarchs, as temples for worshipping the gods, and as observatories for studying the stars and the planets.

21 21 Tips for the thesis Write a complete sentence Write a complete sentence Avoid questions Avoid questions Be specific, preview your main ideas Be specific, preview your main ideas Be focused Be focused

22 General Purpose: Specific Purpose: Thesis: The four stages of alcoholism are the warning stage, the danger stage, the crucial stage, and the chronic stage. Main Points: Supply the general purpose, specific purpose, and main points for a speech with the following thesis: To Inform To inform my audience of the four stages of alcoholism. I. The first stage of alcoholism is the warning stage. II. The second stage of alcoholism is the danger stage. III. The third stage of alcoholism is the crucial stage. IV. The fourth stage of alcoholism is the chronic stage.

23 Supply the general purpose, specific purpose, and thesis: General Purpose: Specific Purpose: Thesis: Main Points:I. The first major race in alpine skiing is the downhill. II. The second major race in alpine skiing is the slalom. III. The third major race in alpine skiing is the giant slalom. III. The third major race in alpine skiing is the giant slalom. To inform To inform my audience of the three major races in alpine skiing. The three major races in alpine skiing are the downhill, the slalom, and the giant slalom.


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