Presentation on theme: "Selecting a Topic and a Purpose Choosing a Topic Determining the General Purpose Determining the Specific Purpose Phrasing the Central Idea (Thesis Statement)"— Presentation transcript:
Selecting a Topic and a Purpose Choosing a Topic Determining the General Purpose Determining the Specific Purpose Phrasing the Central Idea (Thesis Statement)
1. Choosing a Topic Choose topics you know a lot about –Knowledge –Experiences Choose topics you want to know more about –Something you’ve wanted to explore –Something you want to expand on from another class –Something you believe strongly in but need research to argue your point
Tools for Brainstorming Personal inventory Reference search Internet search
Reference Search Encyclopedia Periodical database Dictionary – write every word you recognize – Bible – Backpacking – Bill of Rights – Ballet – Birthstones – Botulism
Internet Search Google “words beginning with letter B” Choose a broad link (usually in blue) Keep clicking and limiting until you find something that interests you
2. Determining the General Purpose General purpose – the broad goal of the speech – To inform Teacher or lecturer Convey information clearly, accurately, and interestingly – To persuade Advocate of change Promoting a cause Call to action from your audience
3. Determining the Specific Purpose Specific Purpose – A single infinitive phrase that states precisely what a speaker hopes to accomplish in his or her speech. – “To inform my audience about the history of basketball” – “To persuade my audience to…”
Sample Specific Purpose Topic: Badminton General Purpose: To inform Specific Purpose: To inform my audience about the history and longevity of the sport of basketball
Tips for Writing Specific Purpose Write the purpose statement as a full infinitive phrase, not as a fragment – Ineffective – Calendars – Effective – To inform my audience about the four major kinds of calendars used in the world today. Write the purpose statement as a statement, not a question. – Ineffective: What is Dia le los Muertos? – Effective: To inform my audience about the history of Mexico’s Día de los Muertos celebration.
Avoid figurative language in your purpose statement. – Ineffective: To inform my audience that yoga is extremely cool – Effective: To inform my audience how yoga can improve their health Limit your purpose statement to one distinct idea. – Ineffective: To persuade my audience to become literacy tutors and to donate time to the Special Olympics. – Effective: To persuade my audience to become literacy tutors.
Make sure your specific purpose is not too vague or general. – Ineffective: To inform my audience about the Civil War. – Effective: To inform my audience about the role of African-American soldiers in the Civil War. – Ineffective: To persuade my audience that something should be done about medical care. – Effective: To persuade my audience that the federal government should adopt a system of national health insurance for all people in the United States.
4. Phrasing the Central Idea Central Idea – A one-sentence statement that sums up the major ideas of a speech. Residual message – What a speaker wants the audience to remember after it has forgotten everything else in the speech =
Guidelines for the Central Idea Same as purpose statement: – Be expressed in a full sentence – Should not be in the form of a question – Should avoid figurative language – Should not be vague or overly general Very similar to a thesis statement in an essay.
Sample Central Ideas Ineffective: Problems of fad diets Effective: Although fad diets produce quick weight loss, they can lead to serious health problems by creating deficiencies in vitamins and minerals and by breaking down muscle tissue as well as fat.
Sample Central Ideas Ineffective: Mexico’s Yucatán Peninsula is an awesome place for a vacation. Effective: Mexico’s Yucatán Peninsula has many attractions for vacationers, including a warm climate, excellent food, and extensive Mayan ruins
The Alphabet Speech Timeline Sept. 19 by 3 p.m. –Type your topic selection and statement of general purpose, State of Specific Purpose, and Central Idea as a Word document (.doc) and Mrs. Urness-Pondillo as an attachment - or put on Sept. 29 – Sentence outline for speech due. Must follow the format available on Edmodo. Turn it in on Edmodo as an attached.doc with header set up in MLA format. Oct. 1, 2, 3 – Delivery of speech –Two notes cards allowed –10-second window on either side of two minutes without penalty