2 Language that is spoken and heard rather than written and read. Oral LanguageLanguage that is spoken and heard rather than written and read.
3 Characteristics of Oral Language Real world as perceived by the speaker –Meaning – Vocabulary – Structure – Grammar – Sound-Message as heard by listener
4 First characteristic of language: Meaning Data has no meaning except what we assign itExample: The doctor may ask you specific questions to diagnose an illness. The patient on the other hand may have difficulty interpreting and responding meaningfully to the doctor’s questions because of lack of knowledge about medicine and medical terms.
5 Second characteristic of language: Vocabulary All the word symbols that make up a particular code or languageIt is important to have a large and flexible vocabulary because:
6 It is symbolic What does the flag mean to you? It symbolizes different things to everyone.
7 2. Has standards of appropriateness Shut up – Hush – Quiet downYah – Yes MammaHuh – What – Could you repeat that please?
8 3. Adds interest to communication Adds originalityAdds vitalityAdds clarity
9 Third characteristic of language: Structure The way the different parts of language are arranged
10 Fourth characteristic of language: Grammar The basic understandings and rules that regulate the use of languageThe rules identify all the different components of a language, explain their functions, and dictate the way they are used in communication
11 Fifth characteristic of language: Sound Central to the very idea of oral languageEvery oral language has its own sounds that represent its unique set of word symbols
12 Diction: Degree of clarity and distinctness of a person’s speech The way his or her own words are spokenDetermined by the choices you make in pronunciation, articulation, and enunciation
13 Pronunciation: The standard set for the overall sound of a word -Listed in the dictionaryEXP: oftenpreferred:“ah.fun” most used: “ahf.tun”AthletePreferred: “ath.leet” used: “a.thuh.leet
14 Articulation:The act of clearly and distinctly uttering the consonant sounds of a wordFour articulation problems:Omission: “bi’ness” instead of “Business”Addition: “warsh” instead of “wash”Substitution: “idnt” instead of “isn’t”Slurring: consonant sounds run together
15 Enunciation:The act of clearly and distinctly uttering the vowel sounds of a wordEXP:Git instead of GetJist instead of JustPin instead of PenInyone instead of Anyone
16 Dialect Used to describe two different aspects of speech Refer to a language that exists only in oral formEXP: WWII – Navajo language “Code Talkers”2. Unique combination of speech sounds that identify speech with a particular group of people
17 Regional Dialect“Southern Drawl” – prolonged vowel sounds, soft consonant sounds, and some unique vocabulary “y’all or fixin’”“New Yorker” – drip hard consonant sounds within some words, drops r’s from the end of some words “youse or wit’”