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© 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. 7-1 Chapter 7 Improving IP Routing Performance with Multilayer Switching.

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Presentation on theme: "© 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. 7-1 Chapter 7 Improving IP Routing Performance with Multilayer Switching."— Presentation transcript:

1 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. 7-1 Chapter 7 Improving IP Routing Performance with Multilayer Switching

2 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. BCMSN7-2 Objectives Upon completion of this chapter, you will be able to perform the following tasks: Identify network devices necessary to effect MLS Configure the distribution layer devices to participate in multilayer switching Verify existing flow information in the MLS cache Apply flow masks to influence the type of MLS cache entry

3 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. BCMSN7-3 Improving IP Routing Performance with MLS In this chapter, we discuss the following topics: Multilayer switching fundamentals Configuring the multilayer switch route processor Applying flow masks Configuring the Multilayer Switch Switching Engine MLS topology examples

4 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. BCMSN7-4 Improving IP Routing Performance with MLS (cont.) In this section we discuss the following topics: Multilayer Switching Fundamentals What is MLS Hardware/Software Requirements MLS Components How MLS works Commands that Disable MLS Configuring the Multilayer Switch Route Processor Applying Flow Masks Configuring the Multilayer Switch Switching Engine

5 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. BCMSN7-5 Defining Flows Host B p1 Host A p3 1 2 Each packet of a traditional flow must be processed by the router The first packet of an MLS flow is processed by the router; all subsequent packets are switched Host B Conventional Environment First Packet Subsequent Packets Host A Multilayer Switched Environment p2

6 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. BCMSN7-6 Route Switch Module (RSM) Cisco IOS Release 11.3(2)WA4(4) or Later Internal Router Processor Software/Hardware Requirements Catalyst 2926G, 5000, or 6000 Series Switch Supervisor Engine III, FSX, III FLX, IIG, or IIIG Module Supervisor Engine Software Release 4.1(1) or Later NetFlow Feature Card (NFFC), NFFC II

7 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. BCMSN7-7 Catalyst 2926G, 5000, or 6000 Series Switch Supervisor Engine III, FSX, III FLX, IIG, or IIIG Module Supervisor Engine Software Release 4.1(1) or Later NetFlow Feature Card (NFFC), NFFC II Cisco High-End Routers, such as Cisco 3620, 3640, 7500, 7200, 4500, or 4700 Series Cisco IOS Release 11.3(2)WA4(4) or Later External Router Processor Software/Hardware Requirements

8 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. BCMSN7-8 MLS Components MLS-SEMultilayer Switching Switch Engine MLSPMultilayer Switching Protocol Multicast Hello Messages sent to MLS-SE by MLS-RP to Inform: MAC addresses used on different VLANs Routing/accesslists changes occurring on MLS-RP Cisco 85xx 75XX 72XX 4XXX OR RSM MLS-RPMultilayer Switching Route Processor

9 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. BCMSN7-9 MLS-RP Advertisement MLS-RP sends out multicast hello messages Messages contain MAC, VLAN, and route information Messages use the CGMP multicast well-known address Hello Message

10 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. BCMSN7-10 MLS-RP Advertisement (Text Cont.)

11 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. BCMSN7-11 Hello Message All switches receive the hello message Layer 3 switches process the hello message IP multicast passes transparently through non- Cisco switches Receiving MLSP Hello Messages Hello Message I am not a Layer 3 Switch but I will still pass on the message.

12 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. BCMSN7-12 Assigning XTAGs MLS-RP AMLS-RP B The MLS-SE assigns a unique identifier to each MSL-RP XTAG value is a one-byte value that the MLS-SE attaches to the MAC address Used to delete a specific Layer 3 entries when then MLS-RP fails or exits the network MLS-RP C MLS-RP A = XTAG34 MLS-RP B = XTAG11 MLS-RP C = XTAG28

13 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. BCMSN7-13 Candidate Packet Source MAC = 0010.f663.d000 Destination MAC = L3 Information L2 Information Source IP = Destination IP = Establishing an MLS Cache Entry The MLS-SE receives initial frame The MLS-SE reads and recognizes the destination MAC Address The MLS-SE checks the MLS cache for like entries The MLS-SE forwards the frame to the MLS-RP B b Cache Entry? A 0010.f663.d

14 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. BCMSN7-14 B b A 0010.f663.d Source MAC = Destination MAC = 0090.b Enable Packet Source IP = Destination IP = L3 Information L2 Information Establishing an MLS Cache Entry (cont.) The MLS-RP receives the frame and consults the routing table The MLS-RP rewrites the header with the new destination MAC address The MLS-RP enters its own MAC address for the source address The MLS-RP forwards the frame to the MLS-SE

15 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. BCMSN7-15 MLS-RP IP MLS-RP ID XTAG MLS-RP MAC-Vlans ,41,42 Establishing an MLS Cache Entry (cont.) AB 0010.f663.d b MLS Cache Candidate Packet XTAG = 28 The MLS-SE receives the frame The MLS-SE compares the XTAGs of the candidate and enable packets The MLS-SE records the enable packet information in the MLS cache The MLS-SE forwards the frame to the destination Enable Packet XTAG = Destination IP Source IP Port DstPrt SrcPrt Destination Mac Vlan Port UDP b /9 MLS Cache Entry 11

16 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. BCMSN7-16 Switching Subsequent Frames in a Flow The MLS-SE receives subsequent frames in the flow The MLS-SE compares the incoming frame with the MLS cache entry The MLS-SE rewrites the frame header The MLS-SE forwards the frame to the destination Incoming Frame Source MAC = 0010.f663.d000 Destination MAC = L3 Information L2 Information Source IP = Destination IP = Destination IP Source IP Port DstPrt SrcPrt Destination Mac Vlan Port UDP b /9 MLS Cache Entry Source IP = Destination IP = L3 Information L2 Information Rewritten Frame Source MAC = Destination MAC = 0090.b f663.d b A B

17 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. BCMSN7-17 AB Commands that Disable MLS no ip routing ip security (all forms of this command) ip tcp compression-connections ip tcp header-compression All MLS Cache Entries Purged Any command that requires the router to process the packet will disable MLS

18 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. BCMSN7-18 Improving IP Routing Performance with MLS In this section we discuss the following topics: Multilayer Switching Fundamentals Configuring the Multilayer Switch Route Processor Enabling MLS on a route processor Configuring an External Interface Configuring an Internal Interface Verifying the Configuration Applying Flow Masks Configuring the Multilayer Switch Switching Engine MLS Topology Examples

19 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. BCMSN7-19 Enabling MLS on the MLS-RP Router(config)#mls rp ip Router#show mls rp multilayer switching is globally enabled mls id is 0010.f6b3.d000 mls ip address Globally enabling MLS on a router activates the MLSP protocol for that route processor

20 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. BCMSN7-20 Router(config)#int ethernet 0 Router (config-if)#mls rp vlan-id 41 Assigning a VLAN ID to an Interface on an External Router This command is required on external routers with a non-ISL interface only E0 VLAN41

21 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. BCMSN7-21 Router(config)#int vlan41 Router(config-if)#mls rp vtp-domain bcmsn Assigning an MLS Interface to a VTP Domain The RSM automatically maps a VLAN to an internal interface Router#show mls rp multilayer switching is globally disabled mls id is 0010.f6b3.d000 mls ip address mls flow mask is destination-ip number of domains configured for mls 1 vlan domain name: bcmsn bcmsn VTP Domain

22 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. BCMSN7-22 Verifying the MLS VTP Domain Router#show mls rp vtp-domain bcmsn vlan domain name: bcmsn current flow mask: destination-ip current sequence number: current/maximum retry count: 0/10 current domain state: no-change current/next global purge: false/false current/next purge count: 0/0 domain uptime: 6d05h keepalive timer expires in 6 seconds retry timer not running change timer not running The show mls rp vtp-domain command displays information about a specific VTP domain Each interface belongs to only one VTP domain

23 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. BCMSN7-23 Router(config)#int vlan41 Router(config-if)#mls rp vtp-domain bcmsn Router(config-if)#mls rp ip Enabling MLS on an Interface Router#show mls rp (text deleted) 2 mac-vlan(s) configured for multi- layer switching: mac 0010.f6b3.d000 vlan id(s) 1 41 MLS must be explicitly entered on the interface

24 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. BCMSN7-24 Router(config)#int vlan41 Router(config-if)#mls rp ip Problem: Creating a Null Domain Enabling MLS on an interface before assigning the interface in a VTP domain places the interface in a null domain When in a null domain, the interface cannot interact with any switches -null- Domain Router#show mls rp multilayer switching is globally enabled (text deleted) number of domains configured for mls 2 vlan domain name: -null- (text deleted) vlan domain name: bcmsn bcmsn VTP Domain

25 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. BCMSN7-25 bcmsn VTP Domain Solution: Removing an Interface from a Null VTP Domain Disabling MLS on an interface removes the interface from a null domain Router(config)#int vlan41 Router(config-if)#no mls rp ip Router#show mls rp multilayer switching is globally enabled (text deleted) number of domains configured for mls 1 vlan domain name: bcmsn

26 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. BCMSN7-26 Router(config)#int vlan1 Router(config-if)#mls rp ip management-interface Assigning an MLS Management Interface At least one interface on the MSL-RP must be configured as the management interface Router#show mls rp (text deleted) 1 management interface(s) currently defined: vlan 1 on Vlan1

27 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. BCMSN7-27 Verifying the MLS-RP Configuration This MAC address appears in the MLS Cache The domain name must match with the MLS-SE The interface sending MLSP messages The number of switches for which the MLS-RP is routing Router#show mls rp Multilayer switching is globally enabled mls id is 0010.f6b3.d000 mls ip address mls flow mask is destination-ip number of domains configured for mls 1 vlan domain name: bcmsn current flow mask: destination-ip current sequence number: current/maximum retry count: 0/10 current domain state: no-change current/next global purge: false/false current/next purge count: 0/0 domain uptime: 00:21:40 keepalive timer expires in 6 seconds retry timer not running change timer not running 1 management interface(s) currently defined: vlan 1 on Vlan1 2 mac-vlan(s) configured for multi-layer switching: mac 0010.f6b3.d000 vlan id(s) router currently aware of following 0 switch(es): The IP Address given to the MLS-SE

28 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. BCMSN7-28 Verifying the MLSP-RP Interface Configuration RSM#show mls rp interface vlan1 mls active on Vlan1, domain bcmsn interface Vlan1 is a management interface

29 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. BCMSN7-29 Improving IP Routing Performance with MLS In this section we discuss the following topics: Multilayer Switching Fundamentals Configuring the Multilayer Switch Route Processor Applying Flow Masks What is a Flow Mask? Types of Flow Masks Output Access Lists and MLS Input Access lists and MLS Configuring the Multilayer Switch Switching Engine

30 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. BCMSN7-30 Flows from MLS-RP A, MLS-RP B, and MLS-RP C Are Based on Criteria from MLS-RP C MLS Flow Masks MLS-RP A MLS-RP B No Access List Standard Access List MLS-RP C Extended Access List

31 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. BCMSN7-31 Flow Mask: Destination-IP MLS-RP A No Access List interface Vlan41 ip address mls rp vtp-domain bcmsn mls rp management-interface mls rp ip Flow Mask multilayer switching is globally enabled mls id is 0010.f6b3.d000 mls ip address mls flow mask is destination-ip number of domains configured for mls 1 vlan domain name: bcmsn current flow mask: destination-ip

32 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. BCMSN7-32 Flow Mask: Source-Destination-IP Standard Access List Flow Mask interface Vlan11 ip address ip access-group 2 out mls rp vtp-domain bcmsn mls rp management-interface mls rp ip Router#show mls rp multilayer switching is globally enabled mls id is 0010.f6b3.d000 mls ip address mls flow mask is source-destination-ip number of domains configured for mls 1 vlan domain name: Engineering current flow mask: source-destination-ip MLS-RP B

33 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. BCMSN7-33 Extended Access List Flow Mask MLS-RP C Flow Mask: IP-Flow interface Vlan11 ip address ip access-group 101 out mls rp vtp-domain bcmsn mls rp management-interface mls rp ip multilayer switching is globally enabled mls id is 0010.f6b3.d000 mls ip address mls flow mask is ip-flow number of domains configured for mls 1 vlan domain name: Engineering current flow mask: ip-flow

34 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. BCMSN7-34 Output Access Lists and MLS ip access-group 101 out AB 0010.f663.d b MLS Cache Entries for Flow AB Are Purged

35 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. BCMSN7-35 AB 0010.f663.d b Output Access Lists and MLS (cont) New MLS Cache Entry for Flow AB ip access-group 101 out Candidate Packet Source MAC = 0010.f663.d000 Destination MAC = L3 Information L2 Information Source IP = Destination IP = Source MAC = Destination MAC = 0090.b Enable Packet Source IP = Destination IP = L3 Information L2 Information Destination IP Source IP Port DstPrt SrcPrt Destination Mac Vlan Port TCP b /9

36 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. BCMSN7-36 Input Access Lists and MLS All subsequent packets between A and B on that interface are routed ip access-group 101 in AB 0010.f663.d b MLS Cache Entries for Flow AB Are Purged

37 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. BCMSN7-37 Supporting Input Access Lists Router(config)#mls rp ip input-acl Router#sho run Building configuration... Current configuration: ! version 11.3 (Text Deleted) mls rp nde-address mls rp ip input-acl mls rp ip AB L3 Switched for Flow AB ip access-group 101 in

38 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. BCMSN7-38 Improving IP Routing Performance with MLS In this section we discuss the following topics: Multilayer Switching Fundamentals Configuring the Multilayer Switch Route Processor Applying Flow Masks Configuring the Multilayer Switch Switching Engine Enabling MLS on the Switch Aging out Cache Entries Managing Short-Lived Flows Adding External Router MLS Ids Verifying the Configuration MLS Topology Examples

39 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. BCMSN7-39 Enabling MLS on the MLS-SE Switch(enable)#set mls enable Switch (enable)#show config (Text Deleted) #mls set mls enable Must be enabled before a switch can participate in MLS Automatically enabled on MLS-capable switches

40 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. BCMSN7-40 A 0010.f663.d Aging Out Cache Entries I havent seen any packets for this entry within 256 seconds. I will delete this entry from the cache I havent seen any packets for this entry within 256 seconds. I will delete this entry from the cache B 0090.b Destination IP Source IP Port DstPrt SrcPrt Destination Mac Vlan Port b /8 MLS Cache Entry for Flow AB

41 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. BCMSN7-41 Modifying the Cache Aging Time Switch(enable)show config (Text Deleted) #mls set mls enable set mls agingtime 304 MLS-SE automatically rounds up in 8-second increments Switch (enable)#set mls agingtime 297 Multilayer switching agingtime set to 304

42 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. BCMSN7-42 A 0010.f663.d Managing Short-Lived Flows DNS Server DNS Response bee Destination IP Source IP Port DstPrt SrcPrt Destination Mac Vlan Port TCP DNS DNS b-ee / TCP DNS DNS d /6 DNS Request Short-lived flows entries take up MLS cache space even though there is no flow activity I havent seen any packets for this entry for over 10 seconds but I still must keep these entries in the cache for the default aging time. I havent seen any packets for this entry for over 10 seconds but I still must keep these entries in the cache for the default aging time.

43 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. BCMSN7-43 Modifying agingtime fast Switch (enable)#set mls agingtime fast 64 7 Switch (enable)show config (Text Deleted) #mls set mls enable set mls agingtime 304 set mls agingtime fast 64 7 agingtime fast sets a threshold for cache entries agingtime fast removes entries from the cache if the threshold has been crossed.

44 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. BCMSN7-44 Modifying agingtime fast (Text Cont.)

45 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. BCMSN7-45 Verifying the Configuration Switch (enable) show mls Multilayer switching enabled Multilayer switching aging time = 304 seconds Multilayer switching fast aging time = 64 seconds, packet threshold = 7 Full flow Total packets switched = Active shortcuts = 2138 Netflow Data Export disabled Netflow Data Export port/host is not configured. Total packets exported = 0 MLS-RP IP MLS-RP ID XTAG MLS-RP MAC-Vlans f6b3d f6-b3-d0-00 1,41-42

46 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. BCMSN7-46 Switch (enable) set mls include Multilayer switching enabled for router Including an External Router MLS IP Address Required for external routers Interface FE

47 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. BCMSN7-47 Displaying the Switch Inclusion List Switch (enable) show mls include Included MLS-RP Automatically Added Internal Route Processor Manually Added External Route Processor

48 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. BCMSN7-48 Display MLS Cache Entries Switch (enable) show mls entry Destination IP Source IP Prot DstPrt SrcPrt Destination Mac Vlan Port MLS-RP : UDP b-ee / UDP b-ee / UDP b-ee /9 MLS-RP : UDP c-06-5b-1e 41 2/ UDP c-06-5b-1e 41 2/1

49 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. BCMSN7-49 Removing MLS Cache Entries Switch (enable) clear mls entry destination Switch (enable) show mls entry Destination IP Source IP Prot DstPrt SrcPrt Destination Mac Vlan Port MLS-RP : UDP c-06-5b-1e 41 2/ UDP c-06-5b-1e 41 2/1

50 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. BCMSN7-50 Improving IP Routing Performance with MLS In this section we discuss the following topics: Multilayer Switching Fundamentals Configuring the Multilayer Switch Route Processor Applying Flow Masks Configuring the Multilayer Switch Switching Engine MLS Topologies Topology Examples Topology Quiz Unsupported Topology Topology Changes and Routing Impacts

51 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. BCMSN7-51 MLS Topology Example 1 R2 MLS-RP B R2 R1 MLS-SE A Host A sends a packet to the default gateway R1 rewrites the frame header to reflect the destination as the next-hop router (R2) MLS-SE forwards the frame to R2 R2 rewrites the frame header to reflect the destination as Host B MLS-SE forwards the frame to Host B All subsequent frames are switched

52 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. BCMSN7-52 MLS Topology Example 2 MLS-RP MLS-SE3 MLS-SE2 MLS-SE1 AB Host A sends a packet to the default gateway MLS-SE1 forwards the frame to MLS-SE2 MLS-SE2 forwards the frame to MLS-SE3 MLS-SE3 forwards the frame to MLS-RP1 MLS-RP1 rewrites the frame header and forwards the frame to MLS-SE3 MLS-SE3 forwards the frame to MLS-SE2 MLS-SE2 forwards the frame to MLS-SE1 MLS-SE1 forwards the frame to Host B All subsequent frames are switched through MLS-SE1 Entries in MLS-SE2 and 3 time out

53 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. BCMSN7-53 Quiz: MLS Topology Example BA MLS-RP S1 S2 S6S5 S4S7 Port in Blocking State S3 A S4 S2 S1 S3 S7 BOriginal MLS path was A S4 S2 S1 S3 S7 B Spanning tree blocked the link between S1 and S3 What is the next available MLS path? X X

54 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. BCMSN7-54 Answer: MLS Topology Example BA MLS-RP S1 S2 S6S5 S4S7 Port in blocking state S3 X X A S4 S2 S1 S2 S3 S7 BFirst packet path = A S4 S2 S1 S2 S3 S7 B A S4 S2 S3 S7 BSubsequent packet path = A S4 S2 S3 S7 B

55 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. BCMSN7-55 Unsupported MLS Topology BA VLAN41VLAN42 RSM1 RSM2

56 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. BCMSN7-56 Unsupported MLS Topology Solution 1 BA VLAN 41 VLAN 42 ISL Link Configure an ISL link from MLS-SE1 to MLS-RP1 to carry both VLAN41 and VLAN42 MLS-RP 2 MLS-SE 2 MLS-RP 1 MLS-SE 1

57 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. BCMSN7-57 VLAN 41 VLAN 42 Unsupported MLS Topology Solution 2 Configure a second link from MLS-SE1 to MLS-RP1 to route for Subnet 42 Link 1 MLS-RP 2 MLS-SE 2 BA MLS-RP 1 MLS-SE 1 Link 2

58 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. BCMSN7-58 C is directly connected, VLAN41 C is directly connected, VLAN 42 Impact of a Host Move on the MLS Cache A B MLS-RP Destination IP Source IP Port DstPrt SrcPrt Destination Mac Vlan Port TCP b /4 MLS Port Designation Interface VLAN41 Interface VLAN42 Port 2/4 Station A is Layer 3 switching through port 2/4 to Station B

59 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. BCMSN7-59 Port 2/7 Impact of a Host Move on the MLS Cache (cont.) Flush Entry From MLS Cache Candidate Packet Enabled Packet A B MLS-RP Interface VLAN41 MLS Port Designation Interface VLAN42 Destination IP Source IP Port DstPrt SrcPrt Destination Mac Vlan Port C is directly connected, VLAN41 C is directly connected, VLAN 42 Station B is moved to port 2/7 The MLS cache is flushed

60 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. BCMSN7-60 Impact of a Host Move on the MLS Cache (cont.) New MLS Cache Entry C is directly connected, Vlan11 C is directly connected, Vlan 12 C is directly connected, VLAN41 C is directly connected, VLAN 42 A B MLS-RP MLS Port Designation Interface VLAN41 Interface VLAN42 Destination IP Source IP Port DstPrt SrcPrt Destination Mac Vlan Port TCP b /7 A new MLS cache entry is established Station A is Layer 3 switching through port 2/7 to Station B Port 2/7

61 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. BCMSN7-61 Laboratory Exercise: Visual Objective Switch Block X VLAN x1 VLAN x3 VLAN x2 VLAN x4 Multilayer Switched IP Flow

62 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. BCMSN7-62 Summary Multilayer switching enhances IP routing performance Cisco MLS switches consists of both routing and switching entities that function together to effect MLS MLS identifies and maintains a separate cache entry for each MLS flow Flow mask determine how MLS entries are created in the MLS cache The presence or absence of ACLs determine the flow mask used Changes to the routing table in the MLS-RP may or may not affect MLS cache entries.

63 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. BCMSN7-63 Review Explain how the routing and switching functions of a Cisco MLS switch work together to enable multilayer switching. Describe the three flow mask modes and the impact ACLs have on those modes. Discuss how various router/switch configuration can effect multilayer switching.

64 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. BCMSN7-64 Review (Text Only)

65 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. BCMSN7-65 Review (Text Only)

66 © 1999, Cisco Systems, Inc. BCMSN7-66 Laboratory Exercise: Diagram (Notes Page)


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