Presentation on theme: "28.1: Origins of the Movement After WWII Great Migration Move to democratic party."— Presentation transcript:
28.1: Origins of the Movement After WWII Great Migration Move to democratic party
Truman Acts 1.Presidential Committee on Civil Rights 2.Report: To Secure these Rights a.Permanent CR div. in J.D. b.Voting rights protection c.Antilynching leg d.Address housing segregation 3. Ended segregation in the armed forces 4. Used CR as Democratic platform
A. Origins of the Movement Challenging Segregation in Court 1.NAACP a.Goal: To fight and end segregation through the Supreme Court b.Lead Attorney: Thurgood Marshall c.First AA Supreme Court Justice; retired 1991; died Rosa Parks defended by E.D. Nixon; boycott led by MLK
First AA to become part of the MLB Participated in the CRM
7. Brown v. B.O.E. (5/1954) a.Four case re: segregation in education b.Linda Brown c.Supreme Court ruled segregation was unconstitutional i.Overturned separate but equal doctrine ii.separate is inherently unequal iii.with all deliberate speed?
4. Crisis in Little Rock a.Governor Faubus refused the Little Rock Nine to enter school; used segregation/white supremacy as election platform b.Orders Ark Natl Guard to stop students from entering c.Eisenhower placed Guard under federal control; students allowed in d.Not protected within the school? e.Televised … f.The following year, before start of the school year, Faubus closed the three HS is Little Rock
Dr. MLK, Jr. Commonality? Helps develop the SCLC
Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee 1. Members usually young college students; nonviolence 2. Wanted only Blacks to fight for the cause (Kling) 3.Emphasized Black pride 4.Caused some discord amongst the AA community
Election of 1960 & the CRM Each flip-flop during election JFK Put CR division of JD to use; Eisenhower did not Appts. AA to federal positions Committee on Equal Employment Opportunity
Kennedy and Civil Rights 1.Supporter of the CRM 2.AG RFK help get MLK out of jail after demonstration 3.AA help JFK get elected 4.Slow to respond once in office – need Southern Democrats to help pass bills 5.ICC to desegregated interstate buses and terminals
James Meredith & Ole Miss
Freedom Rides 1. Began with CORE organization a.Congress of Racial Equality b.Led by James Farmer c.one of the earliest org. geared at nonviolent protest
2. Goal of freedom rides? a.Test desegregation ruling on interstate bus routes and terminals b.Violence = attention of federal govt. c.Not effective; eventually break up
KKK at terminal
Violence in Birmingham, Ala. 1.Need to get JFK to respond 2.MLK – most seg. city in the U.S. 3.Bull Connor, Safety commissioner/mayor candidate a.Responds with harsh force b.Televised
Birmingham, Alabama Letter from MLK I guess it is easy for those who have never felt the stinging darts of segregation to say, Wait. But when you have seen hate-filled policemen curse, kick, brutalize and even kill your black brothers and sisters;…when you see the vast majority of your twenty million Negro brothers smothering in the air-tight cage of poverty;…when you have to concoct an answer for a five-year-old son asking:…Daddy, why do white people treat colored people so mean?…then you will understand why we find it difficult to wait.
1.I say, segregation now! Segregation tomorrow! Segregation forever! - George Wallace, Gov. of Alabama, Pres. Kennedy orders Wallace to desegregate U of Ala
1963 Birmingham Bombing
Medgar Evers 1.NAACP official, veteran, assassinated by Byron de la Beckwith
March on Washington August 28, 1963 goal: to persuade congress to pass Kennedys civil rights bill Criticized by Mr. X
Civil Rights Act of Passed while Pres. LB Johnson in office 2.Illegal to discriminate based on race, religion, national origin, and gender in employment and public facilities. 3.EEOC – bans employment discrimination based on race, religion, gender, and national origin
SNCC and CORE Freedom Summer: Mississippi Burning
Malcolm X Little 1.member of the Nation of Islam 2.advocated armed self- defense & black nationalism 3.received a lot of press/controversial 4.Hajj/returns w/Ballots or Bullets theory 5.Assassinated during speaking engagement
The Struggle for Voting Rights 1.Selma Campaign (Alabama 1965) a.50% of population were AA - Only 3% registered voters b.Voter-registration drive organized in hopes of violent response by whites so that Johnsons admin. would pass voting act.
Bloody Sunday: Alabama state troopers attack civil- rights demonstrators outside Selma, Alabama, on Bloody Sunday, March 7, 1965.
Voting Rights Act Got rid of literacy test 2.Agents of the Federal govt could register voters 3.Registered African American voters tripled in the South; in Selma = 10-60%/4 yrs.