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Nervous system disease can affect

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Presentation on theme: "Nervous system disease can affect"— Presentation transcript:

1 Assessment and diagnosis of patients with problems related to the nervous system

2 Nervous system disease can affect
Consciousness Mentation Movement Sensation Integrated regulation eg breathing, circulation, temperature control, elimination, special senses eg eye, ear, nose, throat

3 1. Health/Nursing History
ASSESSMENT 1. Health/Nursing History Put patient at ease, consider reliability of patient Patient to tell own story Avoid suggesting S & S History will help in focusing the neurologic examination Mode of onset and course of illness: quality intensity distribution duration frequency of S & S

4 Past History Medical & surgical eg infections & laminectomies Injuries e.g. MVA Medication Pre-natal and peri -natal problems? Eg exposure to German measles/complication at birth Growth or development history  milestones met?

5 Personal/Social History
Family History Neuro problems may be congenital or hereditary e.g. epilepsy/ hydrocephalus Personal/Social History Changes in daily living routines? Appetite, sleep, exercise Recreation, occupation Stressors, sexual practices

6 Review other systems Neuro dysfunction common in system illness e.g. neuropathy related to diabetes mellitus

7 Conduct review of neurological function (Screening purposes)
2. Health Assessment Conduct review of neurological function (Screening purposes) Mentation Function (cerebral function) Cerebellar Function (screen co-ordination) Motor Function (Movement) Sensory Function (Sensation) Integrated regulation Coping aspects

8 Important Points Symmetry of function and findings on both sides of body is important to note Always compare one side with the other Integrate with examination of other systems

9 State of consciousness Memory Cognition Affect (mood)
Examination Mental status State of consciousness Memory Cognition Affect (mood) Ideational content (hallucinations)

10 Appearance Height, weight, grooming, clothing, posture, gait Behavior & Psychomotor activity Movement, nail biting, agitation Attitude towards interviewer/people Co-operative, eye contact, guarded Speech Rate of production – rapid Quality – stutter

11 Responsiveness to environment
Reduced? Ability to carry out orders Protrusion of tongue, put finger on nose Mood “I feel" Tone of voice Emotional expression Your observation

12 Appropriateness Laughing but feels sad Anxiety – patient description “I’m a nervous wreck Observation Tremor, sweating Productivity Overabundance, poverty

13 Nature of thoughts Content Associative processes How thoughts are linked, loosening of association Obsessions What patient is thinking about Phobias Fear for people

14 Delusions False fixed belief Perceptual disturbances Hallucination Time Time, date, year Place State where

15 Person Own name, family names Remote memory Childhood Recent past Last 3 months Recent Previous days news, breakfast

16 Immediate retention and recall
3 unrelated items, 6 digits forward and then backward Information & intelligence Calculate change, state president, provinces, patient background Concentration Abstract thinking

17 Judgment Hit an elderly person Insight Understanding Dreams About life Reliability Medical records, patient doesn’t contradict himself

18 Test in conjunction with skeletal system Test muscle mass, tone,
Cerebellar Function To screen coordination of voluntary muscular movement, posture and balance Motor Function Test in conjunction with skeletal system Test muscle mass, tone, strength, abnormalities eg twitching

19 Test sensitivity to the following and compare both sides of the body:
Sensory Function Test sensitivity to the following and compare both sides of the body: Touch (Cotton) Pain (pin-prick) Vibration (tuning fork) Position

20 Check: Breathing Circulation Temperature control Elimination
Integrated Regulation Check: Breathing Circulation Temperature control Elimination

21 EXAMINATIONS: Neurological examinations Cerebral angiogram CAT scan MRI scan Electro-encephalogram Lumber puncture Myelogram

22 Cranial Nerves Observation Ptosis (III) Facial Droop or Asymmetry (VII) Hoarse Voice (X) Articulation of Words (V, VII, X, XII) Abnormal Eye Position (III, IV, VI) Abnormal or Asymmetrical Pupils (II, III)

23 Involuntary Movements Muscle Symmetry
Motor Observation Involuntary Movements Muscle Symmetry Left to Right Proximal vs. Distal Atrophy Pay particular attention to the hands, shoulders, and thighs. Gait

24 Muscle Tone Ask the patient to relax. Flex and extend the patient's fingers, wrist, and elbow. Flex and extend patient's ankle and knee. There is normally a small, continuous resistance to passive movement. Observe for decreased (flaccid) or increased (rigid/spastic) tone.

25 Muscle Strength Test strength by having the patient move against your resistance. Always compare one side to the other. Grade strength on a scale from 0 to 5 "out of five":

26 2. Cerebral Angiogram

27 Definition  Cerebral Angiography is an x-ray procedure used to visualize the blood vessels of the neck, head and brain (cerebral = head, angio = blood vessel, graphy = picture).

28 What is it used for?  This test may be used for evaluating any disease which effects the blood vessels of the head, neck or brain. Most commonly it is used to look for narrowing of the blood vessels in the neck that can be associated with a risk of stroke, or in looking for weak points in the vessels that might cause hemorrhage.

29 Preparation shower the evening before or morning of testing to ensure skin is clean (the area will be further cleaned with antiseptic solution at the time of the test). Some medications need to be withheld before the examination because they may interact with the dye - ask for instructions from the radiology. NPO / light breakfast Declare any history of asthma, allergies, diabetes mellitus, or any medications,

30 Are there side effects?  groin areas will be shaved. Some discomfort when the freezing is injected to numb the area in the groin, Remainder of the test is usually painless. Injection of the dye = associated with a warm feeling in the head or a metallic taste in the mouth. Rarely people note flashes of light in their vision. Serious side effects can include allergic reaction to the dye, bleeding or haematoma at the catheter insertion site or stroke. Bleeding at the insertion site is avoided by firm compression of the site for 15 minutes, application of a tight pressure bandage for several hours, lying with the hip and leg straight for about 6 hours and staying mostly in bed for about 24 hours.

31 3. CAT scan

32 Definition Computed Tomography (CT) is a computer assisted X-ray in which two dimensional pictures are obtained of parts of the body. 

33 What is it used for? computer is able to produce a two dimensional view or 'slice' of the area scanned, allowing a better view of the individual structures. used to identify any structural abnormality of the tissue including tumors, swelling, strokes, scarring, bleeding, protrusion of discs in the back etc.

34 Preparation Preparation depends upon the area being scanned. For CT of the brain and spinal column there is usually no preparation.

35 Are there side effects? Apart from the needle to inject the dye CT scanning is painless. no adverse reactions to the scan, but there can be rare allergic reactions to the dye. Inform docter of history of allergies

36 4. MRI scan

37 Definition employs powerful magnetic fields and radio waves to produce detailed images of body structures.

38 What's it used for? Images from MRI are often superior to those from CT scanning, particularly for soft tissues, brain, spinal cord, joints and the abdomen, and in certain conditions such as Multiple sclerosis.

39 Preparation Do not wear any makeup the day of the scan (some brands contain metal components).

40 Are there side effects? painless procedure with no side effects. involves a magnetic field it can not be done on people who have any implanted devices such as a cardiac pacemaker, a cerebral aneurysm clip, a neuro stimulator or an implanted hearing aid. presence of fragments or shrapnel in the body would have to be excluded for the MRI to be done. persons subject to claustrophobia  or unable to lie flat for an extended period of time may not be able to tolerate a scan. 


42 5. Electro-encephalogram
Definition Electroencephalography measures the electrical activity of the brain derived from leads (electrodes) on the scalp.

43 What is it used for? primarily in the diagnosis and monitoring of seizures and epilepsy. It is also useful in other circumstances including sleeping disorders, encephalitis (inflammation of the brain), some metabolic or chemical disturbances of the brain and in recognizing large structural abnormalities such as tumors.

44 Preparation usually no preparation needed and the test itself is painless.  The electrodes that are placed on the scalp are often glued on with a paste which can be difficult to remove and causes the hair to be messy. A cap or hat to cover the hair is a good idea. Sometimes the study is done in a 'sleep deprived' or over tired state. This increases the sensitivity of the EEG in picking up seizure activity. In these cases the patient will need to stay up all night without the benefit of any stimulants such as coffee and have the test done first thing in the morning.

45 6. Lumber puncture

46 Definition Lumbar puncture (LP) is the insertion of a needle into the sub arachnoid space of the lumbar region for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes.

47 What's it used for? to obtain a sample of CSF for testing. identifying infections such as meningitis and encephalitis and in cases where they are suspected must be carried out quickly. identifying CSF abnormalities in other diseases of the nervous system including multiple sclerosis,

48 Preparation There is no preparation required. If going home after the test - ensure that the patient has a ride and not drive himself. The test is usually done with the patient lying on their side, with their knees drawn up and their back arched towards the doctor. This spreads apart the bones between which the needle is passed. Occasionally it is done in the sitting position or under X-ray guidance.

49 Are there side effects? There is minor discomfort Local anesthetic is usually injected before the spinal needle is inserted.  anxiety - serious side effects are remarkably rare. most common is headache which occurs in about 40% of people and begins within 48 hours and resolves spontaneously in  less than 5 days. It is typically better with lying flat and worse while standing.

50 7. Myelogram What is it? older test that is still used to examine the spinal canal and spinal cord. A special dye myelogram is used only for very special purposes, such as for complicated revision spine surgeries. It is rarely the first test used

51 Why is it done? unusual indentations or abnormal shapes in the spinal cord. The myelogram is useful for patients who have metal plates and screws in their spine, which prevents them from having either a CT or MRI scan.

52 What are the limitations?
does not show the soft tissues shows only the bones and the spinal fluid where the dye has mixed with the fluid.

53 What are the risks? Myelogram requires a spinal tap - more risks associated with it than most other tests. meningitis, spinal headache, and allergic reaction to the dye.

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