Presentation on theme: "Nervous system disease can affect"— Presentation transcript:
1Assessment and diagnosis of patients with problems related to the nervous system
2Nervous system disease can affect ConsciousnessMentationMovementSensationIntegrated regulation eg breathing, circulation, temperature control, elimination, special senses eg eye, ear, nose, throat
31. Health/Nursing History ASSESSMENT1. Health/Nursing HistoryPut patient at ease, consider reliability of patientPatient to tell own storyAvoid suggesting S & SHistory will help in focusing the neurologic examinationMode of onset and course of illness:qualityintensitydistributiondurationfrequency of S & S
4Past HistoryMedical & surgical eg infections & laminectomiesInjuries e.g. MVAMedicationPre-natal and peri -natal problems? Eg exposure to German measles/complication at birthGrowth or development history milestones met?
5Personal/Social History Family HistoryNeuro problems may be congenital or hereditary e.g. epilepsy/ hydrocephalusPersonal/Social HistoryChanges in daily living routines?Appetite, sleep, exerciseRecreation, occupationStressors, sexual practices
6Review other systemsNeuro dysfunction common in system illness e.g. neuropathy related to diabetes mellitus
7Conduct review of neurological function (Screening purposes) 2. Health AssessmentConduct review of neurological function(Screening purposes)Mentation Function (cerebral function)Cerebellar Function (screen co-ordination)Motor Function (Movement)Sensory Function (Sensation)Integrated regulationCoping aspects
8Important PointsSymmetry of function and findings on both sides of body is important to noteAlways compare one side with the otherIntegrate with examination of other systems
9State of consciousness Memory Cognition Affect (mood) ExaminationMental statusState of consciousnessMemoryCognitionAffect (mood)Ideational content (hallucinations)
10AppearanceHeight, weight, grooming, clothing, posture, gaitBehavior & Psychomotor activityMovement, nail biting, agitationAttitude towards interviewer/peopleCo-operative, eye contact, guardedSpeechRate of production – rapid Quality – stutter
11Responsiveness to environment Reduced?Ability to carry out ordersProtrusion of tongue, put finger on noseMood“I feel" Tone of voiceEmotional expressionYour observation
12AppropriatenessLaughing but feels sadAnxiety – patient description“I’m a nervous wreckObservationTremor, sweatingProductivityOverabundance, poverty
13Nature of thoughtsContentAssociative processesHow thoughts are linked, loosening of associationObsessionsWhat patient is thinking aboutPhobiasFear for people
14DelusionsFalse fixed beliefPerceptual disturbancesHallucinationTimeTime, date, yearPlaceState where
15PersonOwn name, family namesRemote memoryChildhoodRecent pastLast 3 monthsRecentPrevious days news, breakfast
16Immediate retention and recall 3 unrelated items, 6 digits forward and then backwardInformation & intelligenceCalculate change, state president, provinces, patient backgroundConcentrationAbstract thinking
17JudgmentHit an elderly personInsightUnderstandingDreamsAbout lifeReliabilityMedical records, patient doesn’t contradict himself
18Test in conjunction with skeletal system Test muscle mass, tone, Cerebellar FunctionTo screen coordination of voluntary muscular movement, posture and balanceMotor FunctionTest in conjunction with skeletal systemTest muscle mass,tone,strength,abnormalities eg twitching
19Test sensitivity to the following and compare both sides of the body: Sensory FunctionTest sensitivity to the following and compare both sides of the body:Touch (Cotton)Pain (pin-prick)Vibration (tuning fork)Position
20Check: Breathing Circulation Temperature control Elimination Integrated RegulationCheck:BreathingCirculationTemperature controlElimination
22Cranial NervesObservationPtosis (III)Facial Droop or Asymmetry (VII)Hoarse Voice (X)Articulation of Words (V, VII, X, XII)Abnormal Eye Position (III, IV, VI)Abnormal or Asymmetrical Pupils (II, III)
23Involuntary Movements Muscle Symmetry MotorObservationInvoluntary MovementsMuscle SymmetryLeft to RightProximal vs. DistalAtrophyPay particular attention to the hands, shoulders, and thighs.Gait
24Muscle ToneAsk the patient to relax.Flex and extend the patient's fingers, wrist, and elbow.Flex and extend patient's ankle and knee.There is normally a small, continuous resistance to passive movement.Observe for decreased (flaccid) or increased (rigid/spastic) tone.
25Muscle StrengthTest strength by having the patient move against your resistance.Always compare one side to the other.Grade strength on a scale from 0 to 5 "out of five":
27Definition Cerebral Angiography is an x-ray procedure used to visualize the blood vessels of the neck, head and brain (cerebral = head, angio = blood vessel, graphy = picture).
28What is it used for? This test may be used for evaluating any disease which effects the blood vessels of the head, neck or brain. Most commonly it is used to look for narrowing of the blood vessels in the neck that can be associated with a risk of stroke, or in looking for weak points in the vessels that might cause hemorrhage.
29Preparationshower the evening before or morning of testing to ensure skin is clean (the area will be further cleaned with antiseptic solution at the time of the test).Some medications need to be withheld before the examination because they may interact with the dye - ask for instructions from the radiology.NPO / light breakfastDeclare any history of asthma, allergies, diabetes mellitus, or any medications,
30Are there side effects? groin areas will be shaved.Some discomfort when the freezing is injected to numb the area in the groin, Remainder of the test is usually painless.Injection of the dye = associated with a warm feeling in the head or a metallic taste in the mouth.Rarely people note flashes of light in their vision.Serious side effects can include allergic reaction to the dye, bleeding or haematoma at the catheter insertion site or stroke. Bleeding at the insertion site is avoided by firm compression of the site for 15 minutes, application of a tight pressure bandage for several hours, lying with the hip and leg straight for about 6 hours and staying mostly in bed for about 24 hours.
32DefinitionComputed Tomography (CT) is a computer assisted X-ray in which two dimensional pictures are obtained of parts of the body.
33What is it used for?computer is able to produce a two dimensional view or 'slice' of the area scanned, allowing a better view of the individual structures.used to identify any structural abnormality of the tissue including tumors, swelling, strokes, scarring, bleeding, protrusion of discs in the back etc.
34PreparationPreparation depends upon the area being scanned. For CT of the brain and spinal column there is usually no preparation.
35Are there side effects?Apart from the needle to inject the dye CT scanning is painless.no adverse reactions to the scan, but there can be rare allergic reactions to the dye.Inform docter of history of allergies
37Definitionemploys powerful magnetic fields and radio waves to produce detailed images of body structures.
38What's it used for?Images from MRI are often superior to those from CT scanning,particularly for soft tissues, brain, spinal cord, joints and the abdomen,and in certain conditions such as Multiple sclerosis.
39PreparationDo not wear any makeup the day of the scan (some brands contain metal components).
40Are there side effects?painless procedure with no side effects.involves a magnetic field it can not be done on people who have any implanted devices such as a cardiac pacemaker, a cerebral aneurysm clip, a neuro stimulator or an implanted hearing aid.presence of fragments or shrapnel in the body would have to be excluded for the MRI to be done.persons subject to claustrophobia or unable to lie flat for an extended period of time may not be able to tolerate a scan.
425. Electro-encephalogram DefinitionElectroencephalography measures the electrical activity of the brain derived from leads (electrodes) on the scalp.
43What is it used for?primarily in the diagnosis and monitoring of seizures and epilepsy.It is also useful in other circumstances including sleeping disorders, encephalitis (inflammation of the brain),some metabolic or chemical disturbances of the brain andin recognizing large structural abnormalities such as tumors.
44Preparationusually no preparation needed and the test itself is painless. The electrodes that are placed on the scalp are often glued on with a paste which can be difficult to remove and causes the hair to be messy. A cap or hat to cover the hair is a good idea.Sometimes the study is done in a 'sleep deprived' or over tired state. This increases the sensitivity of the EEG in picking up seizure activity. In these cases the patient will need to stay up all night without the benefit of any stimulants such as coffee and have the test done first thing in the morning.
46DefinitionLumbar puncture (LP) is the insertion of a needle into the sub arachnoid space of the lumbar region for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes.
47What's it used for?to obtain a sample of CSF for testing.identifying infections such as meningitis and encephalitis and in cases where they are suspected must be carried out quickly.identifying CSF abnormalities in other diseases of the nervous system including multiple sclerosis,
48PreparationThere is no preparation required. If going home after the test - ensure that the patient has a ride and not drive himself.The test is usually done with the patient lying on their side, with their knees drawn up and their back arched towards the doctor. This spreads apart the bones between which the needle is passed.Occasionally it is done in the sitting position or under X-ray guidance.
49Are there side effects?There is minor discomfortLocal anesthetic is usually injected before the spinal needle is inserted. anxiety - serious side effects are remarkably rare.most common is headache which occurs in about 40% of people and begins within 48 hours and resolves spontaneously in less than 5 days. It is typically better with lying flat and worse while standing.
507. MyelogramWhat is it?older test that is still used to examine the spinal canal and spinal cord.A special dyemyelogram is used only for very special purposes, such as for complicated revision spine surgeries. It is rarely the first test used
51Why is it done?unusual indentations or abnormal shapes in the spinal cord.The myelogram is useful for patients who have metal plates and screws in their spine, which prevents them from having either a CT or MRI scan.
52What are the limitations? does not show the soft tissuesshows only the bones and the spinal fluid where the dye has mixed with the fluid.
53What are the risks?Myelogram requires a spinal tap - more risks associated with it than most other tests.meningitis, spinal headache, and allergic reaction to the dye.