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Possible Cooperation with OIC Pungky Sumadi Director of Social Protection and Welfare National Development Planning Agency Republic of Indonesia First.

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Presentation on theme: "Possible Cooperation with OIC Pungky Sumadi Director of Social Protection and Welfare National Development Planning Agency Republic of Indonesia First."— Presentation transcript:

1 Possible Cooperation with OIC Pungky Sumadi Director of Social Protection and Welfare National Development Planning Agency Republic of Indonesia First Meeting of the Development and Cooperation Institutions (DCIs) of the OIC Member States Istanbul May, 2009

2  Poverty: Definition and Some Indicators.  Macro Economic Management and Poverty Reduction Strategy.  Program Nasional Pemberdayaan Masyarakat (PNPM) / National Community Empowerment Program.  Program Keluarga Harapan (Household Conditional Cash Transfer / CCT.)  PNPM Generasi Sehat dan Cerdas (Community CCT.)  Possible Cooperation Presentation Outline

3  Poverty: Definition and Some Indicators.  Poverty Reduction Strategy.  Program Nasional Pemberdayaan Masyarakat (PNPM) / National Community Empowerment Program.  Program Keluarga Harapan (Household CCT.)  PNPM Generasi Sehat dan Cerdas (Community CCT.) Presentation Outline

4  PRSP: Those who are not able to meet one of the following basic rights: food, job, education, health, land, shelter, water and sanitation, natural resources management and environment, security and participation.  2008 poverty line: Income is less than Rp ,- /person/month (PPP USD 1.62)  Learning from past experience, the Government cannot alleviate poverty by itself. The poor community has to be in the driver’s seat. Definition of Poverty

5 Poverty Trend in Indonesia: Years Note: A revision has been made in method in 1998, encompassing the expansion of commodities coverage and inter- regional comparability. The Total Number of Poor Population is Still High 5

6 29,30% 52,32% 21,21% 43,86% 7,86% 20,76% 9,29% 27,89% Non-poor Poor Household without access to safe water Household without access to sanitation Household with children aged not enrolled in junior high school Household with birth attended by traditional paramedics 0%10%20%30%40%50%60% Source: SUSENAS 2002, BPS Some Other Indicators Household w/o access to sanitation

7 School< povertyPoorestRichest ParticipationlineQ1Q2Q3Q4Q5Total Age 7-12 years Attending School Not at school Never Drop out TOTAL Age years Attending School Not at school Never Drop out TOTAL Age years Attending School Not at school Never Drop out TOTAL Source: calculated based on BPS, SUSENAS 2004; Note: Q1= is the poorest quintile; Q5= is the richest quintile. School Participation by Income Classification

8 Several Poverty Indicators, per Region, 2005 Source: BPS, 2005 % 8

9 The Poor Population are Scattered and not Evenly Isolated (2008)  5 million: East Java, Central Java, and West Java  1-2 million: North Sumatera, South Sumatera, Lampung, NAD (Aceh), West Nusatenggara, East Nusatenggara, South Sulawesi  500 thousand – 1 million: Papua, South East Sulawesi, West Kalimantan, Banten, DIY (Yogyakarta), Riau, West Sumatera. 57 percent of the poor population is concentrated in Java 9

10  Poverty: Definition and Some Indicators.  Macro Economic Management and Poverty Reduction Strategy.  Program Nasional Pemberdayaan Masyarakat (PNPM) / National Community Empowerment Program.  Program Keluarga Harapan (Household CCT.)  PNPM Generasi Sehat dan Cerdas (Community CCT.) Presentation Outline

11 Economic growth and stability Employ- ment oppor- tunity Poverty reduction Improved Social Welfare Fulfillment of Basic Needs Programs Dev’t of Social Protection Program Harmonization Of Comm. Emp. Programs PNPM: Comm infrastructure Comm productive activities. Env. Improvement. HRD Fiscal-monatery policy Infrastructure programs Investment im- prov’t programs Improv’t of fiscal policies. Energy accel’tion prog Spec Ec. zoning Micro credit prog. (KUR) Price stabilization program (rice, etc.) Health. Education Basic services & infra CCTs, UCT, Old age, Disabled Labor improv’t Programs (migrant Workers, training Facilities, etc.) Macro Ec. Mgt and Poverty Reduction Strategies in 2009

12  Poverty: Definition and Some Indicators.  Macro Economic Management and Poverty Reduction Strategy.  National Program on Community Empowerment/(PNPM).  Program Keluarga Harapan (Household Conditional Cash Transfer / CCT.)  PNPM Generasi Sehat dan Cerdas (Community CCT.) Presentation Outline

13 National Program on Community Empowerment (PNPM)  Definition PNPM is a program that places poor communities as the driver in the decision making process of local development.  Component Community facilitation. Block grant (USD 163,000/sub-district/yr). Local government facilitation.  Coverage and Budget Coverage 2009: All urban and rural sub-districts in the country (more than 6408.) Budget 2009: USD 1.2 billion.

14 3. Poverty Reflection: Pov. Identification. Conceptualizing poverty. Identify cause of pov. Identify potential to overcome problems. 2. Comm. Meeting: Developing sense of comm. Democratizing comm. Awareness of self existense. 1. Socialization to Community: Social mapping Program socialization 8. Beneficiaries: Community groups (esp. the poor) 6. Plan Development: Identification & prioritization. Development of programs and activities. Discussion with service provider (community CCT.) 5. Community Organizing: Establish functional comm. institution through democratic and value based approach. 7. Execution of Activities: Establish smaller groups of beneficiaries. Establish common ‘space’ to independently solve problems. 4. Comm. Self Mapping: Conceptualizing needs and local potentials. Problem solving. PNPM - Community Empowerment Process PNPM Community Empowerment Process

15 Education Health Agriculture Fisheries Forestry Infrastructure Etcetra Main PNPM Programs  Consist of: KDP (rural.) UPP (urban.) RISE (fast growing rural districts.) SPADA (disadvantage / special areas.)  PNPM components: Open menu community grants. Comm. facilitatiion, technical supervision, training and local gov’t empowerment facilities. PNPM support programs  All sectoral programs (including legal sector.)  PNPM support components: Sectoral community grants. Sectoral / technical facilitators. Legal Gender Harmonization of Community Empowerment Program within PNPM

16 Harmonization at National Level  Coordination among ministries is still a problem.  Among donor is even easier  PNPM Support Facility.  Improve everything related to tap international financial resources (budgeting, procurement, reporting/accounting) and make better use of them.

17 Natural Disaster Management and Mitigation  Indonesia is in the natural disaster prone area.  Community (with empowerment approach) was able to build approximately 70,000 houses in Aceh and more than 220,000 houses in Yogyakarta in one year.  Coordination has been the ghost of development – do it well!

18  Poverty: Definition and Some Indicators.  Poverty Reduction Strategy.  Program Nasional Pemberdayaan Masyarakat (PNPM).  Program Keluarga Harapan (Household Conditional Cash Transfer.)  PNPM Generasi Sehat dan Cerdas (Community CCT.) Presentation Outline

19 Health and Nutrition:  To improve access of the poor to basic health care (especially for children and expecting and lactating women).  To improve nutrition condition of the poor children. Health and Nutrition:  To improve access of the poor to basic health care (especially for children and expecting and lactating women).  To improve nutrition condition of the poor children. Education:  To improve net enrollment in elementary and junior secondary school for the poor children.  Target group especially for the children who are outside the school system. Education:  To improve net enrollment in elementary and junior secondary school for the poor children.  Target group especially for the children who are outside the school system. In the long run: Improve quality of human resources Break poverty chain Objectives

20  A replacement for the Unconditional Cash Transfer (Beneficiaries: 19,1 million household.)  Poor data quality.  Pilot in 348 subdistricts in 7 provinces in  Design: more or less similar to Mexico’s Oportunidades.  Implementing Agency: Ministry of Social Affairs (central) and local governments, in coordination with Health, Education, Pos Indonesia (payment), KOMINFO (socialization) and Central Statistics Agency (data.) Program Keluarga Harapan (Household CCT)

21  Targeting mechanism: geographical and Proxy Means Testing methods.  2007 Budget: Originally USD 450 million, covering 1 million household, split into demand side (USD 125 million) and the rest was for supply side (mainly education.)  Target beneficiaries: Originally households (+/- 2 million people.) Actual: households (1.28 million people.)  Actual used of 2007 budget: USD 67 million (due to 15% budget cut and reduced # of beneficiaries.)  2009: USD 100 million for 720,000 households. Program Keluarga Harapan (Household CCT)

22  Benefit: Fixed assistance/family: $21.50/year. Health: $86/year for expecting/lactating woman and children under 5. Education: $43/year for elementary school and $ 86/year for junior high.  Evaluation design: Baseline survey. Rapid assessment (what’s wrong with the design.) 2 yearly evaluation. Program Keluarga Harapan (Household CCT)

23  Poverty: Definition and Some Indicators.  Poverty Reduction Strategy.  Program Nasional Pemberdayaan Masyarakat (PNPM).  Program Keluarga Harapan (Household Conditional Cash Transfer / CCT.)  PNPM Generasi Sehat dan Cerdas (Community CCT.) Presentation Outline

24  Definition: A community-based CCT. Household CCT conditionalities apply, but benefit goes to community to decide.  Coverage and Budget: 129 sub-districts (1625 villages = 1,1 million people) treatment and 129 sub-districts control. No overlaps with household CCT. Budget USD 6 million for 2 years.  Benefit: USD 8700/village/yr.  Duration of pilot activities: PNPM GENERASI SEHAT DAN CERDAS (Community CCT)

25  Health Indicators: Expecting mothers: At least 4 times check ups and receive iron tablets. Delivery assisted by medical professionals. Post natal care (incl. the new born child.) 0-59 month child: routine check up, receive vitamin A.  Education Indicators: Students 6 – 15 yrs are enrolled in schools with at least 85% attendance. How Does the Project Achieve Its Objectives?

26  Health: Public awareness. Food supplement. Transport cost for mothers and midwifes. Subsidy / savings for deliveries. Equipment for health centers. Improve local infrastructure of health centers. How Do They Use the Money?  Education: School uniforms, books, shoes for students. Transport cost. Bikes for junior high students. Remuneration for voluntary teachers. Improvement / building additional classrooms. Improvement of school related infrastructure.

27  South-South cooperation and exchange of experience in macro economic management—including experience in handling current global crisis—and community empowerment approach in poverty reduction, and natural disaster management / mitigation.  Training and capacity building programs in monitoring and evaluation of the above subjects.  Statistical cooperation in MDG monitoring indicators, poverty targeting (especially at individual levels.)  For Indonesia: reduce traditional western-controlled sources of funds and mobilize new resources from OIC members countries.  Jakarta Commitment: Bringing donor community to be in line with Indonesia’s development agenda and improving aid effectiveness. Possible Cooperation

28 TERIMA KASIH


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