Presentation on theme: "Immigration, Trade and Transportation: BNA at Mid-Century What social and economic forces were changing North America in the middle of the 19 th Century?"— Presentation transcript:
Immigration, Trade and Transportation: BNA at Mid-Century What social and economic forces were changing North America in the middle of the 19 th Century? Of what effect was the end of mercantilism and the existence of reciprocal trade? What is a political deadlock, how did it happen and how was it broken?
Forces of Change… Social Economic Technical Context… Political Deadlock BNA at Mid-Century
Forces of Change: Social Immigration Population 1840- 2 million Population 1867- 4 million Annexation 1849- high point in the movement Annexationists- English-speaking, merchants No support from Canadiens. Why?
To the People of Canada The reversal of the ancient policy of Great Britain whereby she withdrew from the colonies…protection in her markets, has produced the most disastrous effects upon Canada. In surveying the actual condition of the country what but ruin or rapid decay meets the eye!...our country stands before the world in humiliating contrast with its immediate neighbours, exhibiting every symptom of a nation sinking to decay. With super abundant water power and cheap labour, especially in Lower Canada, we have yet no domestic manufactures; …Our institutions, unhappily, have not that impress of permanence which alone can impart security and inspire confidence, and the Canadian market is too limited to inspire the foreign capitalist. While the adjoining States are covered with a network of thriving railways, Canada possesses but three lines, which together, scarcely exceed 50 miles in length… a fatal symptom of the torpor overspreading the land… of all remedies that have been suggested for the acknowledged and insufferable ills with which our country is afflicted, there remains but one to be considered… …THIS REMEDY CONSISTS IN THE FRIENDLY AND PEACEFUL SEPARATION FROM BRITISH CONNECTION AND A UNION UPON EQUITABLE TERMS WITH THE GREAT NOTH AMERICAN CONFEDERACY OF SOVERIEGN STATES Forces of Change: Social
Forces of Change: Economic End of Mercantilism an economic system in which a nation depends on its colonies to supply raw materials and markets for manufactured goods. Case in point: Canadian Corn Act (1843)- pg 73 Caused a depression throughout BNA Timber in the Maritimes Necessity is the mother of all invention NB, NS, Quebec turned to shipbuilding- 700/year in 1860s Timber, grain, fish thanks to US Civil War (1861-1865) and Crimean War (1854-1856)
Reciprocity trade agreement based on mutual agreement Goods pass freely without barriers (quotas, tariffs, duties) Access needed to make up for loss of British market 1840s- American government not in agreement, due to pressure from Vermont & Massachusetts. 1849- Halifax Conference Forces of Change: Economic US Interests Fishing rights to Maritime inshore fisheries Canadian Interests Newfoundland: fish Nova Scotia: coal New Brunswick: timber Canada East/West: flour Increased level of prosperity Basis for negotiating common interests
Forces of Change: Technological See railway maps page 78
Forces of Change: Technological Power of railways Increased cargo of goods and people Steady speed (50kph) Weather not a (major) hindrance Connections enhanced to US markets Telegraph lines News Ideas Change to where people lived Some small rural communities declining due to manufacturers taking over small suppliers Some mills closed as production done in cities New communities created along the expanding lines (especially into Western Canada)
Forces of Change: Technological Building of the Grand Truck Railway Welcome by those in industry and commerce. Why? Expensive and ambitious- bailed out by the United Canadas. Why does government participate in infrastructure projects? Why does government bail out private projects? Modern Connection: P3s
Responsible Government: Canadas (IV) Election 1844 Tories win a majority. Metcalfe (GG) appoints Tories to Executive Council Election 1848 Refomers win large majority. Metcalfe has resigned, GG is now Elgin (Durhams son in law), Secretary is now Grey (Durhams brother in law). Elgin calls upon Baldwin and LaFontaine to form Executive Council. They select from their Assembly. Test #1 1849 Rebellion Losses Bill Elgin did not favour passage; signs it. Test #2 1859 tariffs (20%) on imported goods to raise money for public works. British merchants upset, British government threatens to dissallow, but eventually backs down.
Context: Political Deadlock Overarching problem: Lack of stable government. Why is a stable government desirable? 1.Equal distribution of seats between Canada West and Canada East. Recall: why was this done, and for whose benefit? Canada East able to be dominating force. Case in point: 1851 Roman Catholic schools support Challenge of the needed double majority. 2. Large number of political parties and independent members. Conservative Party, Bleus, Reformers, Liberal Party, Clear Grits, Parti Rouge. Representation by population. Census 1851: Canada West (952, 000) Canada East (890, 000). How has this changed? Who would rep by pop benefit? Loose fish. Non-confidence.
Context: Political Deadlock Overarching problem: Lack of stable government. 5 successive coalition governments in 2 years. Administrative standstill. Economic, social and political ineffectiveness.
Context: Political Deadlock Overarching problem: Lack of stable government. Solution? The Great Coalition. Clear Grits Canada West George Brown Conservative Party Canada West (John A Macdonald, Alan McNab) Bleus Canada East Geroge-Etienne Cartier Moderate Expansion of industry and commerce Liberals Canada West Francis Hinks Reformers Parti Rouge Canada East Antoine-Aime Dorion
Context: Political Deadlock Overarching problem: Lack of stable government. Solution? The Great Coalition. Clear Grits Canada West George Brown Conservative Party Canada West (John A Macdonald, Alan McNab) Bleus Canada East Geroge-Etienne Cartier Moderate Expansion of industry and commerce Liberals Canada West Francis Hinks Reformers Parti Rouge Canada East Antoine-Aime Dorion Galt See pg 84
Les Devoirs Read chapter 4 (pages 72-86) Complete questions 1, 2, 8 and 9 on page 86 Complete your assigned question and post to wikispace before next class. Page and Question StudentsPage and Question Students Pg 75 #1Philip, Andrew CPg 79 #1Raul, Vincent Pg 75 #2Thomas, JerryPg 79 #2Marcus Pg 75 #3Max, NicholasPg 82 # 3Josh Pg 76 #1Edmond, AdamPg 82 #4Andrew W, Jacky Pg 77 #1Benny, JeffreyPg 85 #1Ruoni, Rocky Pg 77 #2Conor, PatrickPg 85 #2 Pg 85 #3 Ray Brendan