Presentation on theme: "Immigration, Trade and Transportation: BNA at Mid-Century"— Presentation transcript:
1Immigration, Trade and Transportation: BNA at Mid-Century What social and economic forces were changing North America in the middle of the 19th Century?Of what effect was the end of mercantilism and the existence of reciprocal trade?What is a political deadlock, how did it happen and how was it broken?
2BNA at Mid-CenturyForces of Change…SocialEconomicTechnicalContext…Political Deadlock
3Forces of Change: Social ImmigrationPopulation millionPopulation millionAnnexation1849- high point in the movementAnnexationists- English-speaking, merchantsNo support from Canadiens. Why?
4Forces of Change: Social To the People of CanadaThe reversal of the ancient policy of Great Britain whereby she withdrew from the colonies…protection in her markets, has produced the most disastrous effects upon Canada. In surveying the actual condition of the country what but ruin or rapid decay meets the eye!...our country stands before the world in humiliating contrast with its immediate neighbours, exhibiting every symptom of a nation sinking to decay.With super abundant water power and cheap labour, especially in Lower Canada, we have yet no domestic manufactures; …Our institutions, unhappily, have not that impress of permanence which alone can impart security and inspire confidence, and the Canadian market is too limited to inspire the foreign capitalist. While the adjoining States are covered with a network of thriving railways, Canada possesses but three lines, which together, scarcely exceed 50 miles in length… a fatal symptom of the torpor overspreading the land… of all remedies that have been suggested for the acknowledged and insufferable ills with which our country is afflicted, there remains but one to be considered……THIS REMEDY CONSISTS IN THE FRIENDLY AND PEACEFUL SEPARATION FROM BRITISH CONNECTION AND A UNION UPON EQUITABLE TERMS WITH THE GREAT NOTH AMERICAN CONFEDERACY OF SOVERIEGN STATES
5Forces of Change: Economic End of Mercantilism“an economic system in which a nation depends on its colonies to supply raw materials and markets for manufactured goods.”Case in point: Canadian Corn Act (1843)- pg 73Caused a depression throughout BNATimber in the Maritimes“Necessity is the mother of all invention”NB, NS, Quebec turned to shipbuilding- 700/year in 1860sTimber, grain, fish thanks to US Civil War ( ) and Crimean War ( )
6Forces of Change: Economic Reciprocity“trade agreement based on mutual agreement”Goods pass freely without barriers (quotas, tariffs, duties)Access needed to make up for loss of British market1840s- American government not in agreement, due to pressure from Vermont & Massachusetts.1849- Halifax ConferenceUS InterestsFishing rights to Maritime inshore fisheriesIncreased level of prosperityBasis for negotiating common interestsCanadian InterestsNewfoundland: fishNova Scotia: coalNew Brunswick: timberCanada East/West: flour
7Forces of Change: Technological See railway maps page 78
8Forces of Change: Technological Power of railwaysIncreased cargo of goods and peopleSteady speed (50kph)Weather not a (major) hindranceConnections enhanced to US marketsTelegraph linesNewsIdeasChange to where people livedSome small rural communities declining due to manufacturers taking over small suppliersSome mills closed as production done in citiesNew communities created along the expanding lines (especially into Western Canada)
9Forces of Change: Technological Building of the Grand Truck RailwayWelcome by those in industry and commerce. Why?Expensive and ambitious- bailed out by the United Canadas.Why does government participate in infrastructure projects?Why does government “bail out” private projects?Modern Connection: P3s
11Responsible Government: Canadas (IV) Election 1844Tories win a majority.Metcalfe (GG) appoints Tories to Executive CouncilElection 1848Refomers win large majority.Metcalfe has resigned, GG is now Elgin (Durham’s son in law), Secretary is now Grey (Durham’s brother in law).Elgin calls upon Baldwin and LaFontaine to form Executive Council. They select from their Assembly.Test #11849 Rebellion Losses BillElgin did not favour passage; signs it.Test #21859 tariffs (20%) on imported goods to raise money for public works.British merchants upset, British government threatens to dissallow, but eventually backs down.
12Context: Political Deadlock Overarching problem: Lack of stable government. Why is a stable government desirable?Equal distribution of seats between Canada West and Canada East. Recall: why was this done, and for whose benefit?Canada East able to be dominating force. Case in point: 1851 Roman Catholic schools supportChallenge of the needed double majority.2. Large number of political parties and independent members.Conservative Party, Bleus, Reformers, Liberal Party, Clear Grits, Parti Rouge.Representation by population.Census 1851: Canada West (952, 000) Canada East (890, 000). How has this changed? Who would rep by pop benefit?Loose fish.Non-confidence.
13Context: Political Deadlock Overarching problem: Lack of stable government.5 successive coalition governments in 2 years.Administrative standstill.Economic, social and political ineffectiveness.
14Context: Political Deadlock Overarching problem: Lack of stable government.Solution? The Great Coalition.Clear GritsCanada WestGeorge BrownParti RougeCanada EastAntoine-Aime DorionReformersLiberalsCanada WestFrancis HinksConservative PartyCanada West(John A Macdonald, Alan McNab)BleusCanada EastGeroge-Etienne CartierModerateExpansion of industry and commerce
15Context: Political Deadlock Overarching problem: Lack of stable government.Solution? The Great Coalition.GaltClear GritsCanada WestGeorge BrownParti RougeCanada EastAntoine-Aime DorionReformersLiberalsCanada WestFrancis HinksConservative PartyCanada West(John A Macdonald, Alan McNab)BleusCanada EastGeroge-Etienne CartierModerateExpansion of industry and commerceSee pg 84
16Les Devoirs Read chapter 4 (pages 72-86) Complete questions 1, 2, 8 and 9 on page 86Complete your assigned question and post to wikispace before next class.Page and QuestionStudentsPg 75 #1Philip, Andrew CPg 79 #1Raul, VincentPg 75 #2Thomas, JerryPg 79 #2MarcusPg 75 #3Max, NicholasPg 82 # 3JoshPg 76 #1Edmond, AdamPg 82 #4Andrew W, JackyPg 77 #1Benny, JeffreyPg 85 #1Ruoni, RockyPg 77 #2Conor, PatrickPg 85 #2Pg 85 #3RayBrendan