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PISA OECD Programme for International Student Assessment Seeing learning outcomes in Israel through the prism of global comparisons Andreas Schleicher.

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Presentation on theme: "PISA OECD Programme for International Student Assessment Seeing learning outcomes in Israel through the prism of global comparisons Andreas Schleicher."— Presentation transcript:

1 PISA OECD Programme for International Student Assessment Seeing learning outcomes in Israel through the prism of global comparisons Andreas Schleicher Seeing learning outcomes in Israel through the prism of global comparisons Jerusalem, 13 May 2009 Prof. Andreas Schleicher Head, Indicators and Analysis Division OECD Directorate for Education

2 PISA OECD Programme for International Student Assessment Seeing learning outcomes in Israel through the prism of global comparisons Andreas Schleicher Israel in PISA 2006 r Compared with the 30 OECD countries, 15-year-olds in Israel… Rank 28 th in science and reading, tie 28 th in mathematics Perform similarly whether they have an immigrant background or not Report a positive general and personal value on science Report a higher level of self-concept in science Report a lower level of interest and instrumental motivation in science but a higher level of future-oriented motivation Report a lower level of engagement with environmental issues Are in schools that vary in their performance more so than on average in OECD countries, with half of that variation accounted for by social background (often jointly with school factors) Are in schools with significant ability grouping Perform similarly whether in public or private schools Are in schools that report significant pressure from parents for high academic standards

3 PISA OECD Programme for International Student Assessment Seeing learning outcomes in Israel through the prism of global comparisons Andreas Schleicher Israel in OECD’s 2008 edition of Education at a Glance r Among the 30 OECD countries plus Brazil, Chile, Estonia, Russia and Slovenia, Israel ranks… 5 th in the proportion of adults in skilled jobs 5 th in tertiary attainment among young adults (down from 2 nd in older generation) 9 th in upper secondary graduation rates 2 nd in upper secondary graduation rates in programmes designed to prepare students for access to universities 16 th in tertiary-type A entry rate, 14 th in tertiary-type A graduation rates (but only 13 th in annual growth since 2000) 9 th in terms of the income benefits of tertiary education for males, 15 th for females 4 st in spending on school education relative to GDP, but only 23rd in terms of spending per student (primary through tertiary) 8 th in terms of the volume of instruction time (9-14 year-olds) 4 th in primary-grade class sizes 29 th in salaries for experienced school teachers (US$ PPP)

4 PISA OECD Programme for International Student Assessment Seeing learning outcomes in Israel through the prism of global comparisons Andreas Schleicher This session

5 PISA OECD Programme for International Student Assessment Briefing of Council 14 November 2007 There is nowhere to hide The yardstick for success is no longer improvement by national standards but the best performing education systems

6 PISA OECD Programme for International Student Assessment An international glance on education Andreas Schleicher A world of change in baseline qualifications Approximated by percentage of persons with high school or equivalent qualfications in the age groups 55-64, 45-55, und years % 1. Excluding ISCED 3C short programmes 2. Year of reference Including some ISCED 3C short programmes 3. Year of reference

7 Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD) Tertiary-type A graduation rate A world of change – college education Graduate supply Cost per student

8 Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD) Tertiary-type A graduation rate A world of change – college education United States Finland Graduate supply Cost per student

9 Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD) Tertiary-type A graduation rate A world of change – college education Australia United States (2000) Finland

10 Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD) Tertiary-type A graduation rate A world of change – college education

11 Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD) Tertiary-type A graduation rate A world of change – college education

12 Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD) Tertiary-type A graduation rate A world of change – college education

13 Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD) Tertiary-type A graduation rate A world of change – college education

14 Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD) Tertiary-type A graduation rate A world of change – college education United States Australia Finland Israel 5 th in university attainment in the younger generation (but down from 2 nd in the older generation)

15 Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD) Tertiary-type A graduation rate A world of change – college education United States

16 Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD) Tertiary-type A graduation rate A world of change – college education United States

17 Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD) Tertiary-type A graduation rate A world of change – college education United States

18 Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD) Tertiary-type A graduation rate A world of change – college education United States

19 Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD) Tertiary-type A graduation rate A world of change – college education United States

20 Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD) Tertiary-type A graduation rate A world of change – college education

21 Expenditure per student at tertiary level (USD) Tertiary-type A graduation rate A world of change – college education Finland United States r Rising higher education qualifications seem generally not to have led to an “inflation” of the labour-market value of qualifications. In all but three of the 20 countries with available data, the earnings benefit increased between 1997 and 2003, in Germany, Italy and Hungary by between 20% and 40%

22 PISA OECD Programme for International Student Assessment Seeing learning outcomes in Israel through the prism of global comparisons Andreas Schleicher Moving targets Future supply of high school graduates

23 PISA OECD Programme for International Student Assessment Seeing learning outcomes in Israel through the prism of global comparisons Andreas Schleicher Future supply of high school graduates Future supply of college graduates

24 PISA OECD Programme for International Student Assessment Seeing learning outcomes in Israel through the prism of global comparisons Andreas Schleicher How the demand for skills has changed Economy-wide measures of routine and non-routine task input (US) (Levy and Murnane) Mean task input as percentiles of the 1960 task distribution The dilemma of schools: The skills that are easiest to teach and test are also the ones that are easiest to digitise, automate and outsource

25 PISA OECD Programme for International Student Assessment Seeing learning outcomes in Israel through the prism of global comparisons Andreas Schleicher A three-yearly global assessments to… … examine the performance of 15-year-olds in key subject areas as well as a wider range of educational outcomes Including students attitudes to learning and their learning behaviour …collect contextual data from… …students, parents, schools and systems… …in order to identify policy levers shaping learning outcomes Coverage Representative samples of between 3,500 and 50, year-old students drawn in each country Most federal countries also draw state-level samples OECD’s PISA assessment of the knowledge and skills of 15-year-olds

26 PISA OECD Programme for International Student Assessment Seeing learning outcomes in Israel through the prism of global comparisons Andreas Schleicher Deciding what to assess... looking back at what students were expected to have learned …or… looking ahead to how well they can extrapolate from what they have learned and apply their knowledge and skills in novel settings. For the PISA assessment of the knowledge and skills of 15-year-olds, OECD governments chose the latter

27 PISA OECD Programme for International Student Assessment Seeing learning outcomes in Israel through the prism of global comparisons Andreas Schleicher Strengths and weaknesses in math The real world The mathematical World A real situation A model of reality A mathematical model Mathematical results Real results Understanding, structuring and simplifying the situation Making the problem amenable to mathematical treatment Interpreting the mathematical results Using relevant mathematical tools to solve the problem Validating the results

28 PISA OECD Programme for International Student Assessment Seeing learning outcomes in Israel through the prism of global comparisons Andreas Schleicher Coverage of world economy 77%81% 83% 85%86%87% OECD’s PISA assessment of the knowledge and skills of 15-year-olds

29 PISA OECD Programme for International Student Assessment Seeing learning outcomes in Israel through the prism of global comparisons Andreas Schleicher Average performance of 15-year-olds in science – extrapolate and apply High science performance Low science performance … 18 countries perform below this line

30 PISA OECD Programme for International Student Assessment Seeing learning outcomes in Israel through the prism of global comparisons Andreas Schleicher Increased likelihood of postsec. particip. at age 19 associated with reading proficiency at age 15 (Canada) after accounting for school engagement, gender, mother tongue, place of residence, parental, education and family income (reference group Level 1)

31 PISA OECD Programme for International Student Assessment Seeing learning outcomes in Israel through the prism of global comparisons Andreas Schleicher Strengths and weaknesses of countries in science relative to their overall performance France OECD (2007), PISA 2006 – Science Competencies for Tomorrow’s World, Figure 2.13 Science competencies Science knowledge

32 PISA OECD Programme for International Student Assessment Seeing learning outcomes in Israel through the prism of global comparisons Andreas Schleicher Strengths and weaknesses of countries in science relative to their overall performance Czech Republic OECD (2007), PISA 2006 – Science Competencies for Tomorrow’s World, Figure 2.13 Scientific competencies Scientific knowledge 20

33 PISA OECD Programme for International Student Assessment Seeing learning outcomes in Israel through the prism of global comparisons Andreas Schleicher OECD (2007), PISA 2006 – Science Competencies for Tomorrow’s World, Figure 2.13 Science competencies Science knowledge Strengths and weaknesses of countries in science relative to their overall performance Israel

34 PISA OECD Programme for International Student Assessment Seeing learning outcomes in Israel through the prism of global comparisons Andreas Schleicher Average performance of 15-year-olds in science – extrapolate and apply Low average performance Large socio-economic disparities High average performance Large socio-economic disparities Low average performance High social equity High average performance High social equity Strong socio- economic impact on student performance Socially equitable distribution of learning opportunities High science performance Low science performance

35 PISA OECD Programme for International Student Assessment Seeing learning outcomes in Israel through the prism of global comparisons Andreas Schleicher Durchschnittliche Schülerleistungen im Bereich Mathematik Low average performance Large socio-economic disparities High average performance Large socio-economic disparities Low average performance High social equity High average performance High social equity Strong socio- economic impact on student performance Socially equitable distribution of learning opportunities High science performance Low science performance 15

36 PISA OECD Programme for International Student Assessment Seeing learning outcomes in Israel through the prism of global comparisons Andreas Schleicher School performance and socio-economic background Germany Student performance Advantage PISA Index of socio-economic background Disadvantage Schools proportional to size Student performance and students’ socio-economic background within schools School performance and schools’ socio-economic background Student performance and students’ socio-economic background

37 PISA OECD Programme for International Student Assessment Seeing learning outcomes in Israel through the prism of global comparisons Andreas Schleicher School performance and socio-economic background Israel Student performance Advantage PISA Index of socio-economic background Disadvantage Schools proportional to size Student performance and students’ socio-economic background within schools School performance and schools’ socio-economic background Student performance and students’ socio-economic background

38 PISA OECD Programme for International Student Assessment Seeing learning outcomes in Israel through the prism of global comparisons Andreas Schleicher School performance and socio-economic background Finland Student performance Advantage PISA Index of socio-economic background Disadvantage Schools proportional to size Student performance and students’ socio-economic background within schools School performance and schools’ socio-economic background Student performance and students’ socio-economic background

39 PISA OECD Programme for International Student Assessment Briefing of Council 14 November 2007 How to get there Some policy levers that emerge from international comparisons

40 PISA OECD Programme for International Student Assessment Briefing of Council 14 November 2007 A framework for analysis National educ, social and economic context Structures, resource alloc and policies Social & economic outcomes of education Community and school characteristics Student learning, teacher working conditions Socio-economic background of learners Antecedents contextualise or constrain ed policy The learning environment at school Teaching, learning practices and classroom climate Individ attitudes, engagement and behaviour Output and performance of institutions Quality of instructional delivery Quality and distribution of knowledge & skills Policy Levers shape educational outcomes Outputs and Outcomes impact of learning Individual learner Level A Instructional settings Level B Schools, other institutions Level C Country or system Level D Domain 3Domain 2 Domain 1 20

41 PISA OECD Programme for International Student Assessment Seeing learning outcomes in Israel through the prism of global comparisons Andreas Schleicher High ambitions and universal standards Rigor, focus and coherence Great systems attract great teachers and provide access to best practice and quality professional development

42 PISA OECD Programme for International Student Assessment Seeing learning outcomes in Israel through the prism of global comparisons Andreas Schleicher Challenge and support Weak support Strong support Low challenge High challenge Strong performance Systemic improvement Poor performance Improvements idiosyncratic Conflict Demoralisation Poor performance Stagnation

43 PISA OECD Programme for International Student Assessment Seeing learning outcomes in Israel through the prism of global comparisons Andreas Schleicher Human capital International Best Practice Principals who are trained, empowered, accountable and provide instructional leadership Attracting, recruiting and providing excellent training for prospective teachers from the top third of the graduate distribution Incentives, rules and funding encourage a fair distribution of teaching talent The past Principals who manage ‘a building’, who have little training and preparation and are accountable but not empowered Attracting and recruiting teachers from the bottom third of the graduate distribution and offering training which does not relate to real classrooms The best teachers are in the most advantaged communities

44 PISA OECD Programme for International Student Assessment Seeing learning outcomes in Israel through the prism of global comparisons Andreas Schleicher Human capital (cont…) International Best Practice Expectations of teachers are clear; consistent quality, strong professional ethic and excellent professional development focused on classroom practice Teachers and the system expect every child to succeed and intervene preventatively to ensure this The past Seniority and tenure matter more than performance; patchy professional development; wide variation in quality Wide achievement gaps, just beginning to narrow but systemic and professional barriers to transformation remain in place

45 PISA OECD Programme for International Student Assessment Seeing learning outcomes in Israel through the prism of global comparisons Andreas Schleicher High ambitions Access to best practice and quality professional development Accountability and intervention in inverse proportion to success Devolved responsibility, the school as the centre of action

46 PISA OECD Programme for International Student Assessment Seeing learning outcomes in Israel through the prism of global comparisons Andreas Schleicher PISA score in science School autonomy, standards-based examinations and science performance School autonomy in selecting teachers for hire

47 PISA OECD Programme for International Student Assessment Seeing learning outcomes in Israel through the prism of global comparisons Andreas Schleicher Local responsibility and national prescription National prescription Schools leading reform Schools today The industrial model, detailed prescription of what schools do Schools tomorrow? Building capacity Finland today Every school an effective school Towards system-wide sustainable reform

48 PISA OECD Programme for International Student Assessment Seeing learning outcomes in Israel through the prism of global comparisons Andreas Schleicher Public and private schools Private schools perform better Public schools perform better % Score point difference

49 PISA OECD Programme for International Student Assessment Seeing learning outcomes in Israel through the prism of global comparisons Andreas Schleicher Pooled international dataset, effects of selected school/system factors on science performance after accounting for all other factors in the model OECD (2007), PISA 2006 – Science Competencies from Tomorrow’s World, Table 6.1a 20 Schools practicing ability grouping (gross and net) Academically selective schools (gross and net) but no system-wide effect School results posted publicly (gross and net) One additional hour of science learning at school (gross and net) One additional hour of out- of-school lessons (gross and net) One additional hour of self-study or homework (gross and net) School activities to promote science learning (gross and net) Schools with greater autonomy (resources) (gross and net) Each additional 10% of public funding (gross only) Schools with more competing schools (gross only) School principal’s perception that lack of qualified teachers hinders instruction (gross only) School principal’s positive evaluation of quality of educational materials (gross only) Measured effect Effect after accounting for the socio-economic background of students, schools and countries

50 PISA OECD Programme for International Student Assessment Seeing learning outcomes in Israel through the prism of global comparisons Andreas Schleicher Creating a knowledge-rich profession in which schools and teachers have the authority to act, the necessary knowledge to do so wisely, and access to effective support systems The tradition of education systems has been “knowledge poor” The future of education systems is “knowledge rich” National prescription Professional judgement Informed professional judgement, the teacher as a “knowledge worker” Informed prescription Uninformed professional judgement, teachers working in isolation Uninformed prescription, teachers implement curricula

51 PISA OECD Programme for International Student Assessment Seeing learning outcomes in Israel through the prism of global comparisons Andreas Schleicher Strong ambitions Access to best practice and quality professional development Accountability Devolved responsibility, the school as the centre of action Integrated educational opportunities From prescribed forms of teaching and assessment towards personalised learning

52 PISA OECD Programme for International Student Assessment Seeing learning outcomes in Israel through the prism of global comparisons Andreas Schleicher Durchschnittliche Schülerleistungen im Bereich Mathematik Low average performance Large socio-economic disparities High average performance Large socio-economic disparities Low average performance High social equity High average performance High social equity Strong socio- economic impact on student performance Socially equitable distribution of learning opportunities High science performance Low science performance Early selection and institutional differentiation High degree of stratification Low degree of stratification 6

53 PISA OECD Programme for International Student Assessment Seeing learning outcomes in Israel through the prism of global comparisons Andreas Schleicher Paradigm shifts Prescription Informed profession UniformityEmbracing diversity DemarcationCollaboration Provision Outcomes Bureaucratic – look upDevolved – look outwards Talk equityDeliver equity Hit & miss Universal high standards Received wisdomData and best practice The old bureaucratic education systemThe new enabling education system

54 PISA OECD Programme for International Student Assessment Seeing learning outcomes in Israel through the prism of global comparisons Andreas Schleicher Money matters - but other things do too

55 PISA OECD Programme for International Student Assessment Seeing learning outcomes in Israel through the prism of global comparisons Andreas Schleicher Spending choices on secondary schools Contribution of various factors to upper secondary teacher compensation costs per student as a percentage of GDP per capita (2004) Percentage points

56 PISA OECD Programme for International Student Assessment Seeing learning outcomes in Israel through the prism of global comparisons Andreas Schleicher Why care? r Progress Concerns about skill barriers to economic growth, productivity growth and rates of technological innovation –One additional year of education equals to between 3 and 6% of GDP –Rising tertiary level qualifications seem generally not to have led to an “inflation” of the labour-market value of qualifications (in all but three of the 20 countries with available data, the earnings benefit increased between 1997 and 2003, in Germany, Italy and Hungary by between 20% and 40%) r Fairness Concerns about the role of skills in creating social inequity in economic outcomes –Both average and distribution of skill matter to long-term growth (high percentages of low skill impede growth) r Value for money Concerns about the demand for, and efficiency and effectiveness of, investments in public goods

57 PISA OECD Programme for International Student Assessment Seeing learning outcomes in Israel through the prism of global comparisons Andreas Schleicher The cost of inaction Improved GDP from achieving the goal of being first in the world by 2000 Note:*K-12 education expenitures are assumed to be constant at the level attained in These data show that economic benefits from a 1989 reform that raised the U.S. to the highest levels of test performance would cover the cost of K-12 education by 2015 Source:Eric Hanushek Percent addition to GDP 10-year reform 20-year reform 30-year reform Total U.S. K-12 spending

58 PISA OECD Programme for International Student Assessment Seeing learning outcomes in Israel through the prism of global comparisons Andreas Schleicher –All national and international publications –The complete micro-level database …and remember: Without data, you are just another person with an opinion


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