The Four Stands (Nation, 2007) Meaning-focussed input Meaning-focussed output Form-focussed instruction Fluency
Involvement Load Hypothesis (Laufer & Hulstijn, 2001) 1.Need 2.Search 3.Evaluate The higher the level of involvement, the more effective the activity
Involvement Load challenge Folse (2006) – Condition One - A gapfill Condition Two - Three gapfills Condition Three - Writing original sentences Which activity has the highest involvement load? Which activity has the highest vocabulary retention?
And the answer is… Folse (2006) – Condition One - A gapfill Condition Two - Three gapfills Condition Three - Writing original sentences
Online activities - Tom Cobbs Compleat Lexical Tutor Available at Test your lexis Concordancer – select English select corpus (written or spoken, academic or general, graded readers etc) enter search word decide whether to sort results one word to left or right of the search word Compare concordance lines from two corpora (for example). Similar patterns of frequency/use/collocations/patterns? Have a play on the website – what else can you find?
The AWL site il-Coxhead/awl/ Information about the AWL Headwords Sublists with family members (most frequent word in italics) Most frequent word family member in each sublist
Sandra Haywoods sites 1.The AWL Gapmaker - ocab/awlhighlighter.htm ocab/awlhighlighter.htm Select a text from the website and copy Paste into window Select sublists of the AWL you want to include (from 1-10) List the gapped words at the bottom or not? 2.The AWL Highlighter - ocab/awlhighlighter.htm ocab/awlhighlighter.htm
Offline activities 1.Gap fills 2.Summary writing 3.Read and retell speaking 5.Debates 6.Class vocabulary box 7.Ping-pong discussions 8.Ranking 9.Twisted dictations 10.Logging vocabulary on the board 11.Vocabulary notebooks 12.Information transfers
References Cobb, T. (n.d.). Compleat lexical tutor. Retrieved October 12, 2007, from Coxhead, A. (n.d.) The Academic Word List. Available at on 17 March Coxhead, A. (2006). Essentials of teaching academic vocabulary. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Folse, K. (2006). The effect of type of written exercise on L2 vocabulary retention. TESOL quarterly, 40 (2), Haywood, S. (n.d.). The AWL Gapmaker. Retrieved 12 October, 2007, from Haywood, S. (n.d.). The AWL Highlighter. Retrieved 12 October, 2007, from Laufer, B., & Hulstijn, J. (2001). Incidental vocabulary acquisition in a second language: The construct of task-induced involvement. Applied linguistics, 22 (1), Nation, I. S. P. (2007). The four strands. Innovation in language learning and teaching, 1 (1), 2-13.