Presentation on theme: "Local Capacities for Peace Project"— Presentation transcript:
1 Local Capacities for Peace Project “DO NO HARM”Local Capacities for Peace ProjectA collaborative effort, inductive and reflective learning process involving donor agencies, international humanitarian agencies and local /field aid workers –(from 1992) Triggered by events in Eastern Europe & AfricaThe framework is a series of steps (a set of tools) for systematic analysis of the various factors that describe and identify a specific context of violent conflict and interactions between humanitarian /development assistance and the conflict situationIt helps aid /development workers and donors to understand the complex relationship between aid and a conflictIt can be used as a planning, monitoring, evaluation and a programme review tool
2 IMPLICIT ETHICAL MESSAGES THE CONTEXT OF CONFLICT - DETAILED CONFLICT PROFILEAIDDIVIDERSSystems and InstitutionsAttitudes and ActionsDifferent Values and InterestsDifferent ExperiencesSymbols and OccasionsCONNECTORSShared Values and InterestsCommon ExperiencesORG.MANDATEHQ. POLICIESFUNDRASINGREDISGNWHYWHENWHEREWHATWITH WHOMBY- WHOHOWRESOURCE TRANFERSIMPLICIT ETHICAL MESSAGESPROGRAMMEOPTINSOPTINS
3 Lessons LearnedThe Context of Conflict is characterized by two sets of realities.The Division and Tensions between groups - War Interests or Capacities for WarSurprising and far more interesting - the context of conflict is also characterized by things that connect the sides at war - local capacities for peace.Humanitarian/development assistance is given to meet emergency /development needs of the client communities
4 Lessons Learned Cont:These needs are, at least in part, created by insecurity, warring and or breakdown in social institutionsWhen aid is given in the context of conflict, it becomes a part of that context and either reinforces and exacerbates the divisions and tensions or supports and strengthens capacities for peaceEven where there is there is no active violent conflict development assistance can trigger latent conflict into valenceNot all aspects of the entire Aid have a purely positive or a poorly negative effect but only discrete elements (details) within it
5 Step 1 CONTEXT OF CONFLICT Analysis of the Identify and describe the actual (geographical) location of conflict – where ?Identify the conflicting parties, describe and name them; describe other groups behind the scenes and those not actually fighting – who?Describe how the fighting is organized, and weapons used –how?Describe and quantify the nature and magnitude of destruction of property, loss of lives, displacements and suffering – what?, who?, how many?Describe the activities which the groups are normally engaged in when there is no war – daily lives, non-war activitiesFind out reasons why the groups are fightingDescribe, if any, the kind of assistance provided by any agency, how it is provided and who are the primary and secondary stakeholdersEnsure that your conflict profile is as detailed as possible if your analysis is incomplete, your conclusions will be insufficient and your project design inadequate
6 Identify, analyze, disaggregate and categorize Step 2Identify, analyze, disaggregate and categorizeDIVIDERSThe more obvious tensions and divisions or war interests in conflict situations are called Dividers. These are categorized as follows:-Systems and InstitutionsAttitudes and ActionsDifferent Values and InterestsDifferent ExperiencesSymbols and Occasions
7 Identify, analyze, disaggregate and categorize Step 3Identify, analyze, disaggregate and categorizeCONNECTORSIn the midst of warfare, there continue to exist a whole series of things that connect people who are fighting. These are called Connectors and are categorized as follows:-Systems and InstitutionsAttitudes and ActionsShared Values and InterestsCommon ExperiencesSymbols and Occasions
8 Analyze, disaggregate and un pack the elements of the Step 4Analyze, disaggregate and un pack the elements of theAID PROGRAMMEAid programmes are multi-layered and wrapped up "packaged" in organizational policies and programmatic issues and decisions. Each and every decision has its own effects on the dividers and connectors1. Organizational LayersThe Organizational mandateHeadquarter Policies and ArrangementsFund raising – Resource mobilization, allocation and donor conditionsAid and emergency relief are often provided with the best of motives:to assist people in desperate situations to recover their dignityto support their efforts to build sustainable livelihoods in the future,to empower them to challenge injustice.
9 Analyze disaggregate and un pack the elements of the Step 4 contAnalyze disaggregate and un pack the elements of theAID PROGRAMME cont.2. Programme LayersThe usual programme planning monitoring and evaluation Questions and IssuesWhy? - JustificationWhere? - LocationWhat - Hard /SoftwareWhen? - Time frameWith Whom? - PartnersBy Whom? - StaffingHow? - StrategiesAnswers and details for each of these questions matter
10 Step 5Identify and analyze theMECHANISMSby which Aid interacts with and dividers / connectorsThere are two clear patterns in through which aid interacts with conflict –Resource Transfers (RTs)Implicit Ethical Messages (IEMs)From these patterns and relationshipsanticipate interactions in different settingsthink in advance, on how to avoid the negative, conflict-reinforcing impactsencourage the positive, conflict-reducing impacts
11 Step 5 contResource TransfersAll aid programmes involve transfer of some resources into a resource-scarce environment of conflictFor the local people, these resources represent power and wealth. Hence they become part and parcel of the conflict, frequently changing the balance of power in the community.The five mechanisms includeTheft, Allocation Effects - Diversion of resourcesMarket Effects - Distortion of local economyDistributional Effects - control of resourcesSubstitution Effects - Undermining local production and creating dependency syndromeLegitimization De-legitimization Effects - Manipulation of persons and groups
12 Implicit Ethical Messages Step 5 cont.Implicit Ethical MessagesWhile the intended message of aid is one of compassion and solidarity, the unintended messages from the attitudes , conduct and relationships of aid workers often reinforce violent conflict.The LCP Project has identified seven types of negative implicit ethical messagesArms and Power- Acceptance of the terms of warDisrespect, Mistrust - Competition among Aid AgenciesAid Workers and Impunity – Waste of resourcesDifferent Values for Different Lives and Items - Undermining normal, peace-time valuesPowerlessness – Not taking responsibility for own actionsBelligerence attitude - Tension, SuspicionPublicity – unbalanced reporting
13 Step 6 Develop alternative PROGRAMME OPTIONS The analysis of how a particular assistance programme interacts with specific conflict through RTs and IEMs, clarifies the impacts of aid on the conflict situationIf the impact is negative i.e.:-If some aspects of the programme tend to worsen / strengthen divisions and or weaken connectorsIf some aspects of the programme seem to be missing opportunities to reduce divisions or to strengthen connectorsDevelop alternative options;-BrainstormTake specific local circumstances into accountThink outside the boxBe creative and innovativeDo not generalizeCross check ideas and options generated
14 Step 7 REDESIGN the Programme The process of programme design and redesign must be dynamic.Conflict itself is dynamic; a "divider" today may be a "connector" tomorrow and vice versa. The process should therefore be interactive and repeatedly used to check the effects of the programme on conflictLook at the complete aid programme in its context and identify all the ways in which that aid programme interacts with the conflict.Think of options, in that context, for delivering the same goods without repeating the negative impacts and, where possible, enhancing the positive impacts.
15 Discovering And Enhancing New Capacities For Peace In every intense conflict:-there are people who become involved simply because they could see no way out.Others remain silent and accept what is done in their name because to resistance would demand too high a price.The compelling sense of group identity in, for example, an “ethnic” conflict, is born primarily of fearGroup / ethnic identity overwhelms other sentiments such as morality and friendship with members of the “enemy” group
16 AID AND PEACE Space: Voice: Incentives: There here are three ways in which Aid can strengthen and support both new and existing capacities for peace, without drastic changes in the aid programmes themselvesSpace:Aid can provide space for people to act in “non-war” ways, and engage with those in the opposing side / s in joint initiativesAgencies can encourage people to keep alive the hope of a shared future, and perhaps help to work towards such a visionVoice:Agencies can use aid to provide a forum where peace and cooperation can be discussedThey initiate discussions on peace and conflict resolution in meetings and workshopsIncentives:Agencies can use their financial and other resources and their access to the wider world and to the media, to encourage actions and expressions of view which work towards peace.They can discourage activities which promote hostility.They can adopt a clear policy to counter war-related propaganda with informationThey motivate people to withdraw their support for, and participation in hostilities
17 “DO NO HARM” CHECKLIST Envelop questions to check the following Impacts on Other CommunitiesThe relationship between the people your organization is assisting and their neighborsEffects of Resources on Perceptions and RelationshipsOther organization / s or someone else already doing similar activities in the same area your organization is operating or nearbyReactionsPromotion of tolerance and acceptanceRisk of ViolenceAssessment of the risks of violence in the place where the activities are implemented and in the surrounding areasLong Term EffectsThe long-term consequences on inter-communal relations of these activities in the way you do them
18 Exercise Breaking News: Yellow People Quick Help Agency Green PeopleBlue PeopleDisplacedQuick Help AgencyBreaking News:Human catastrophe – Genocide in the makingThousands displacedWomen and children dying of cholera outbreak.Men slaughtered as the Green people military forces invade and annex the northern province of Blue people country.Yellow people government vowed to attack Green People if the government does not stop incursion.You are staff of QHA. What means can you use to get quick aid to the displaced in Blue People country?