Presentation on theme: "“DO NO HARM” Local Capacities for Peace Project A collaborative effort, inductive and reflective learning process involving donor agencies, international."— Presentation transcript:
“DO NO HARM” Local Capacities for Peace Project A collaborative effort, inductive and reflective learning process involving donor agencies, international humanitarian agencies and local /field aid workers –(from 1992) Triggered by events in Eastern Europe & Africa The framework is a series of steps (a set of tools) for systematic analysis of the various factors that describe and identify a specific context of violent conflict and interactions between humanitarian /development assistance and the conflict situation It helps aid /development workers and donors to understand the complex relationship between aid and a conflict It can be used as a planning, monitoring, evaluation and a programme review tool
THE CONTEXT OF CONFLICT - DETAILED CONFLICT PROFILE AIDDIVIDERS 1.Systems and Institutions 2.Attitudes and Actions 3.Different Values and Interests 4.Different Experiences 5.Symbols and Occasions CONNECTORS 1.Systems and Institutions 2.Attitudes and Actions 3.Shared Values and Interests 4.Common Experiences 5.Symbols and Occasions ORG.MANDATE HQ. POLICIES FUNDRASING REDISIGNREDISIGN REDISIGNREDISIGN WHY WHEN WHERE WHAT WITH WHOM BY- WHO HOW RESOURCE TRANFERS IMPLICIT ETHICAL MESSAGES PROGRAMME OPTIONSOPTIONS OPTIONSOPTIONS
Lessons Learned The Context of Conflict is characterized by two sets of realities. The Division and Tensions between groups - War Interests or Capacities for War Surprising and far more interesting - the context of conflict is also characterized by things that connect the sides at war - local capacities for peace. Humanitarian/development assistance is given to meet emergency /development needs of the client communities
Lessons Learned Cont: These needs are, at least in part, created by insecurity, warring and or breakdown in social institutions When aid is given in the context of conflict, it becomes a part of that context and either reinforces and exacerbates the divisions and tensions or supports and strengthens capacities for peace Even where there is there is no active violent conflict development assistance can trigger latent conflict into valence Not all aspects of the entire Aid have a purely positive or a poorly negative effect but only discrete elements (details) within it
Step 1 Analysis of the CONTEXT OF CONFLICT Identify and describe the actual (geographical) location of conflict – where ? Identify the conflicting parties, describe and name them; describe other groups behind the scenes and those not actually fighting – who? Describe how the fighting is organized, and weapons used –how? Describe and quantify the nature and magnitude of destruction of property, loss of lives, displacements and suffering – what?, who?, how many? Describe the activities which the groups are normally engaged in when there is no war – daily lives, non-war activities Find out reasons why the groups are fighting Describe, if any, the kind of assistance provided by any agency, how it is provided and who are the primary and secondary stakeholders Ensure that your conflict profile is as detailed as possible if your analysis is incomplete, your conclusions will be insufficient and your project design inadequate
Step 2 Identify, analyze, disaggregate and categorize DIVIDERS The more obvious tensions and divisions or war interests in conflict situations are called Dividers. These are categorized as follows:- 1.Systems and Institutions 2.Attitudes and Actions 3.Different Values and Interests 4.Different Experiences 5.Symbols and Occasions
Step 3 Identify, analyze, disaggregate and categorize CONNECTORS In the midst of warfare, there continue to exist a whole series of things that connect people who are fighting. These are called Connectors and are categorized as follows:- 1.Systems and Institutions 2.Attitudes and Actions 3.Shared Values and Interests 4.Common Experiences 5.Symbols and Occasions
Step 4 Analyze, disaggregate and un pack the elements of the AID PROGRAMME Aid programmes are multi-layered and wrapped up "packaged" in organizational policies and programmatic issues and decisions. Each and every decision has its own effects on the dividers and connectors 1. Organizational Layers The Organizational mandate Headquarter Policies and Arrangements Fund raising – Resource mobilization, allocation and donor conditions Aid and emergency relief are often provided with the best of motives : to assist people in desperate situations to recover their dignity to support their efforts to build sustainable livelihoods in the future, to empower them to challenge injustice.
Step 4 cont Analyze disaggregate and un pack the elements of the AID PROGRAMME cont. 2. Programme Layers The usual programme planning monitoring and evaluation Questions and Issues Why? -Justification Where? -Location What -Hard /Software When? -Time frame With Whom?-Partners By Whom? -Staffing How?-Strategies Answers and details for each of these questions matter
Step 5 Identify and analyze the MECHANISMS by which Aid interacts with and dividers / connectors There are two clear patterns in through which aid interacts with conflict – i.Resource Transfers (RTs) i.Implicit Ethical Messages (IEMs) From these patterns and relationships anticipate interactions in different settings think in advance, on how to avoid the negative, conflict-reinforcing impacts encourage the positive, conflict-reducing impacts
Step 5 cont Resource Transfers All aid programmes involve transfer of some resources into a resource-scarce environment of conflict For the local people, these resources represent power and wealth. Hence they become part and parcel of the conflict, frequently changing the balance of power in the community. The five mechanisms include i.Theft, Allocation Effects - Diversion of resources ii.Market Effects - Distortion of local economy iii.Distributional Effects - control of resources iv.Substitution Effects - Undermining local production and creating dependency syndrome v.Legitimization De-legitimization Effects - Manipulation of persons and groups
Step 5 cont. Implicit Ethical Messages While the intended message of aid is one of compassion and solidarity, the unintended messages from the attitudes, conduct and relationships of aid workers often reinforce violent conflict. The LCP Project has identified seven types of negative implicit ethical messages i.Arms and Power- Acceptance of the terms of war ii.Disrespect, Mistrust - Competition among Aid Agencies iii.Aid Workers and Impunity – Waste of resources iv.Different Values for Different Lives and Items - Undermining normal, peace-time values v.Powerlessness – Not taking responsibility for own actions vi.Belligerence attitude - Tension, Suspicion vii.Publicity – unbalanced reporting
Step 6 Develop alternative PROGRAMME OPTIONS The analysis of how a particular assistance programme interacts with specific conflict through RTs and IEMs, clarifies the impacts of aid on the conflict situation If the impact is negative i.e.:- If some aspects of the programme tend to worsen / strengthen divisions and or weaken connectors If some aspects of the programme seem to be missing opportunities to reduce divisions or to strengthen connectors Develop alternative options;- Brainstorm Take specific local circumstances into account Think outside the box Be creative and innovative Do not generalize Cross check ideas and options generated
Step 7 REDESIGN the Programme The process of programme design and redesign must be dynamic. Conflict itself is dynamic; a "divider" today may be a "connector" tomorrow and vice versa. The process should therefore be interactive and repeatedly used to check the effects of the programme on conflict Look at the complete aid programme in its context and identify all the ways in which that aid programme interacts with the conflict. Think of options, in that context, for delivering the same goods without repeating the negative impacts and, where possible, enhancing the positive impacts.
Discovering And Enhancing New Capacities For Peace In every intense conflict:- there are people who become involved simply because they could see no way out. Others remain silent and accept what is done in their name because to resistance would demand too high a price. The compelling sense of group identity in, for example, an “ethnic” conflict, is born primarily of fear Group / ethnic identity overwhelms other sentiments such as morality and friendship with members of the “enemy” group
AID AND PEACE There here are three ways in which Aid can strengthen and support both new and existing capacities for peace, without drastic changes in the aid programmes themselves Space: Aid can provide space for people to act in “non-war” ways, and engage with those in the opposing side / s in joint initiatives Agencies can encourage people to keep alive the hope of a shared future, and perhaps help to work towards such a vision Voice: Agencies can use aid to provide a forum where peace and cooperation can be discussed They initiate discussions on peace and conflict resolution in meetings and workshops Incentives: Agencies can use their financial and other resources and their access to the wider world and to the media, to encourage actions and expressions of view which work towards peace. They can discourage activities which promote hostility. They can adopt a clear policy to counter war-related propaganda with information They motivate people to withdraw their support for, and participation in hostilities
“DO NO HARM” CHECKLIST Envelop questions to check the following Impacts on Other Communities The relationship between the people your organization is assisting and their neighbors Effects of Resources on Perceptions and Relationships Other organization / s or someone else already doing similar activities in the same area your organization is operating or nearby Reactions Promotion of tolerance and acceptance Risk of Violence Assessment of the risks of violence in the place where the activities are implemented and in the surrounding areas Long Term Effects The long-term consequences on inter-communal relations of these activities in the way you do them
Exercise Yellow People Green People Blue People Displace d Quick Help Agency Breaking News: Human catastrophe – Genocide in the making Thousands displaced Women and children dying of cholera outbreak. Men slaughtered as the Green people military forces invade and annex the northern province of Blue people country. Yellow people government vowed to attack Green People if the government does not stop incursion. You are staff of QHA. What means can you use to get quick aid to the displaced in Blue People country?