Presentation on theme: "1 Facoltà di Economia Corso di Laurea Specialistica Economia Manageriale; Economia e Finanza Economia e Management Turismo-Ambiente Business English-English."— Presentation transcript:
1 Facoltà di Economia Corso di Laurea Specialistica Economia Manageriale; Economia e Finanza Economia e Management Turismo-Ambiente Business English-English for Tourism LETTURA ED ELABORAZIONE SCRITTA DEL TESTO ECONOMICO (Modulo 1) Prof.ssa Luisanna Fodde
Written/Spoken Language Face-to-face communication Writer-reader communication Speech production/Written production Language control in speech and writing: Pronunciation, intonation, accent, non-verbal communication (SPEECH) Style, grammar, structure, orthography (WRITING)
SOME TIPS/SUGGESTIONS Presumption: Italian as Leading Language Lexical Choice Distractions Text Structure
Presumption: Italian as Leading Language ADJECTIVES (position, gender and number: “others people”; “many newspapers important”) WORD ORDER (SVO: “Is necessary a cure”; “is important to be friends”) FALSE FRIENDS (actually, eventually…) INVENTIONS (“Comparated”, “bag of study ”; “producted”) USE OF TENSES (“is not ended”, “are arrived”) ORTHOGRAPHY (months: january, february… years: in the 1984, nationality: german, italian; other: indipendence ; )
Lexical Choice Confusing word classes, e.g. dead, died Acronyms, e.g. EU/ UE, ONU/UN Spelling, e.g. Bruxel, Whashinton Translation of toponyms L’Aia / The Hague Collocations This depends from/on me?? The reason of/for?? To do/make business; to do/make a deal?? Make/do money; make/do promise?? Take/make a decision?? To do/make mistakes?
DISTRACTIONS CONCORDANCES e.g. he cry, much persons, America and his partners COHERENCE active/passive; past/present; plural/singular ORTHOGRAPHY e.g. wich, whit, whome IRREGULAR / REGULAR VERBS e.g. drived, gived, lead-leaded
Text Structure Purpose defines the type of texts: WHY? Readers define the type of texts: WHO? Context defines the type of texts: WHERE? Purpose, readers and context define the text styleHOW?
Text Structure Purpose defines the type of texts: WHY? - WRITE AN EMAIL TO HAVE INFORMATION ABOUT A MASTERS PROGRAMME IN TOURISM & MANAGEMENT Readers define the type of texts: WHO? - YOU – the writer - THE DIRECTOR OF STUDIES – the reader Context defines the type of texts: WHERE? - What is the means of communications? - What are your respective positions/roles/titles/culture? Purpose, readers and context define the text style - HOW are you going to write this email?
Text Structure Purpose defines the type of texts: WHY? - WRITE AN EMAIL TO HAVE INFORMATION ABOUT A WINE TRADE SHOW BEING ORGANIZED NEXT YEAR IN DUBAI Readers define the type of texts: WHO? - YOU – the writer - THE TRADE SHOW ORGANIZER – the reader Context defines the type of texts: WHERE? - What is the means of communications? - What are your respective positions/roles/titles/culture? Purpose, readers and context define the text style - HOW are you going to write this email?
WINE FAIR/MASTERS PROGRAM Main Errors CONCORDANCES: REGULAR/IRREGULAR verbs: ORTHOGRAPHY: CONFUSIONS: INVENTIONS: OTHER:
A Note on Style “Buongiorno Prof.”“Buona prof.ssa”, “buongiorno proff.” “Salve, sono C.C., io dovrei partire con il progetto erasmus a T.” buongiorno professoressa sono F.,la studentessa Erasmus....volevo sapere se… “……Secondo Lei, c'è qualche problema per l'approvazione degli esami? Quando posso venire nel suo ufficio per avere dei chiarimenti? Attendo una sua risposta” “So che il suo orario di ricevimento è il lunedì e lei gradisce sia rispettato ma non potrebbe fare un'eccezione? Domani cioè venerdì mattina è possibile fissare un incontro?Aspetto una sua risposta”. “Egregia Professoressa Fodde, alla tastiera E. S.(matr. …. del corso di Economia _Manageriale):la studentessa vincitrice della Borsa Erasmus”
A Note on Style “in effetti, per i crediti, la differenza tra 4 e 8 e' tanta, ma mi informero' e le faro' sapere. comunque, per quanto riguarda l'esame studente…….., me lo potete convalidare anche se non c'e' l'esatto corrispondente a cagliari???” bye hey ho let's go” buongiorno, scusi se la disturbo, sono una ragazza che segue la falcoltà di economia e gestione dei servizi turistici, vorrei sapere se per lunedì la lezione sarà da mezzogiorno alle tre o dalle tre alle sei, la ringrazio, buongiorno “Prof.ssa ci fa sempre piacere ricevere le sue mail ma questa volta si va veramente oltre ogni + rosea aspettativa ;-) Finalmente notizie!!!! Grazie a nome di tutti e tre! A presto! P.S.:La brochure ?!?”
A Note on Style Salve Sono uno studente del corso di economia e gestione aziendale, volevo sapere riguardo ai testi consigliati per coloro che hanno sostenuto un punteggio maggiore di 23, se quest'ultimi sono gli stessi che verranno utilizzati poi durante il corso del secondo semestre o sono materiale di approfondimento, mi potrebbe dire inoltre se questo è il suo sito: http://economia.unica.it/inglese nello stesso posto trovarvi indicati il materiale succitato? Grazie, buona giornata http://economia.unica.it/inglese
A Note on Style “hi am comin in 20mins…” “Am trying a few people 2 c if they can do course. I’ll sms u names + numbers….” “Just spoke 2 Anna 2 organise going 2 Rome, I’ll have all results on thurs would u like 2 c them b4 I go?”
E-mails Used increasingly in international business to replace letters, faxes and sometimes phonecalls Why?INEXPENSIVE, EASY-TO-USE -Style of writing can vary, but usually…. more INFORMAL However…… we must pay attention to: 1.Our reader and our purpose, and adapt style of writing accordingly; 2.HUMOR/JOKES; 3.E-mails are public; 4.Sending something important? Use follow-up faxes or letters! 5.Keep track! File and Print!! Vedi : p. 18-19 Skills; pp-9-13 dispensa
MASTERS PROGRAMME - REPLY Purpose defines the type of texts: WHY? - WRITE AN EMAIL TO THE ITALIAN STUDENT WHO REQUESTED INFORMATION ON YOUR MASTER PROGRAM - Your email should contain information on: UNIVERSITY CALENDAR; COURSE START; TYPE OF LESSONS; COMPULSORY EXAMS; ACCOMMODATION; ANY OTHER USEFUL INFO Readers define the type of texts: WHO? - YOU – the Director of Studies - AN ITALIAN GRADUATE STUDENT – the reader Context defines the type of texts: WHERE? - What is the means of communications? - What are your respective positions/roles/titles/culture? Purpose, readers and context define the text style - HOW are you going to write this email?
WINERY- REPLY Purpose defines the type of texts: WHY? - WRITE AN EMAIL TO THE ITALIAN WINE PRODUCER WHO REQUESTED INFORMATION ON YOUR WINE TRADE SHOW - Your email should contain information on: SITE OF THE TRADE SHOW; COUNTRIES AND WINERIES PARTICIPATING; SCHEDULE OF EVENTS; ACCOMMODATION; ANY OTHER USEFUL INFO Readers define the type of texts: WHO? - YOU – The Trade Show organizer - AN ITALIAN wine producer – the reader Context defines the type of texts: WHERE? - What is the means of communications? - What are your respective positions/roles/titles/culture? Purpose, readers and context define the text style - HOW are you going to write this email?
Other Errors - STRUCTURE: PUNCTUATION, CHANGING PARAGRAPH ACCORDING TO TOPIC FORM/STYLE As you requested, I am sending/enclosing/attaching information on ………… Herein enclosed/attached you will/can find information/ a file/ a document on Please find enclosed/attached information on ….. I have enclosed/attached At the end of this message you will/can find …… As you requested, I am writing / I am pleased to give you some information….
19 Types of sentences Dear Mario, With reference to the arrangements we made yesterday, I am writing to inform you about our next conference. The conference will be held at the Hotel T, in Cagliari, on Thursday November 12 at 9,00…... Following our telephone conversation yesterday, I am writing to confirm our next meeting. As for our meeting, I can confirm you that …. As regards our meeting, I can confirm you that… With regards to our meeting, I can confirm you that… Herein enclosed, please find… (attached) I enclose, I am enclosing (attach, attaching)
THE RUSSIAN TOURIST MARKET Purpose defines the type of texts: WHY? - WRITE AN EMAIL TO THE RUSSIAN TOURIST BOARD TO INTRODUCE YOUR HOTEL AND START NEW FORMS OF COLLABORATION WITH THE RUSSIAN TOURIST MARKET - Your email should contain information on: YOUR HOTEL FACILITIES; IDEAS FOR A MEETING AND VISITS OF RUSSIAN TOUR OPERATORS TO SARDINIA Readers define the type of texts: WHO? - YOU – The hotel manager - The Russian tourist board Director – the reader Context defines the type of texts: WHERE? - What is the means of communications? - What are your respective positions/roles/titles/culture? Purpose, readers and context define the text style - HOW are you going to write this email?
22 CLARIFICATIONS (p. 14-15) CLARIFICATIONS (p. 14-15) Dear Umesh, It was good to speak to you. I just wanted to check the details of our arrangements. So, we are meeting on Thursday 17 June at 12.00. We said the meeting will be (take place) at your office. Can you confirm the exact address, please? It’s Bridge Street, what number? I am going to (will) bring our company video, I just want to know if you prefer to have the Latin American videos as well as the Asian ones. How about lunch afterwards? Is 13.30 ok for you? We could go to the Mayflower, it’s a nice American restaurant across the road from your office. Let me know what you think. If you need to contact me here’s my mobile phone number: Can you send me yours? Thanks and all the best Luisanna
23 CLARIFICATIONS (p. 14-15) CLARIFICATIONS (p. 14-15) Dear Jo, I’m not sure what your ‘yes’ was referring to; could you clarify? Just a couple of other things I want to clear up: - In your email you say that the meeting will be postponed to Thursday. Do you mean Thursday next week? What about the time and the place (Same time and place)? - As for the estimated cost. The figure you mention, is it in pounds, dollars, or euros (which currency are you referring to)? - Lastly, Andrea Cavalieri, the senior contractor, is it a he or a she? Please answer asap (Please confirm asap) Carrie
24 CLARIFICATIONS P. 15 CLARIFICATIONS P. 15 Dear Ms Tau Pei Lin, Thank you for your email concerning my travel arrangements. I can confirm that I will be arriving on Monday at 05.00 at Beijng airport. Will you/ somebody meet me at the airport? As for the meeting with your lawyers, I would like to know the exact time and place. You say that a Mr. Chang will attend the meeting. Can you remind me about his position in the company? What is his first name? Also, you mention a dinner on Sunday. I am sure there must be a mistake or misunderstanding. As you know, I am leaving on Sunday morning. I would be very pleased to come. Can I bring my wife? (Is my wife invited?). I look forward to hearing from you soon, Sincerely J. Peters
25 REQUESTS AND REPLIES p. 16; pp. 60-61 Skills Dear Don, IT TRAINING COURSES Thank you for your interest in our IT training courses. Our company is an established training firm with 30 years’ experience in the field. Our goal is to always train IT professionals in the latest technology. As you requested, I am enclosing our course programme for the current year. We will be pleased to offer our advice and help in selecting the right course for you. In case you need any further information, do not hesitate to contact me on my direct phone: 339-2765421. I look forward to welcoming you soon to our courses. Best regards, Laura Diaz, Manager IT TECHNOLOGY inc.
28 REQUEST EMAILS (p.17) Dear Sirs, Just a short message to request immediate payment of our invoice n. 372b, which is now six months overdue. We have tried to contact you for several weeks now, always unsuccessfully. We regret to inform you that until the overdue balance on your account is fully and immediately settled, no new orders will be accepted from your part/firm. We hope this unfortunate occurrence will be resolved as soon as possible so that we can continue to do business with you as successfully as we have in the last few years. Your sincerely, Phil Collins General Manager RESS & SONS, Ltd
Faxes (23-25) -Well-established means of communication. -Fast, convenient, flexible FORMAT: senders’ and receivers’ INFORMATION STYLE: similar to letters (FORMULAIC EXPRESSIONS) less formal sometimes 1.Address not written in full; 2.Each page must be numbered; 3.Signatures in full; 4.Hand-written faxes sometimes acceptable; 5.Care for details important
Letters (Snail mail) Still used in formal written communication (SPECIALLY IF PRINTED IN GOOD PAPER) for: FORMAL INTRODUCTIONS TO COMPANIES; CONFIRMATION OF CONTRACTS; THANK-YOU MESSAGES -They can be a useful back-up to important e-mails or faxes; -They can be used to send bulky material (brochures, samples); -They can be used when there are technological problems
Letters LAYOUT (pp. 27- 30) -Blocked or Indented layout. No commas for addresses; -Initials to be included: Mr K Jennings; -Letters beginning with name in salutation (Dear Mr Jennings) should end Yours sincerely (Yours truly, Sincerely Yours in the US); -Letters beginning with Dear Sir, Dear Sirs, should end Yours faithfully; Gentlemen (very American and very sexist, not recommended internationally)