1 Facoltà di Economia LETTURA ED ELABORAZIONE SCRITTA DEL TESTO ECONOMICO Prof.ssa Luisanna Fodde
Written/Spoken Language Face-to-face communication Writer-reader communication Speech production/Written production Language control in speech and writing: Pronunciation, intonation, accent, non-verbal communication (SPEECH) Style, grammar, structure, orthography (WRITING)
SOME TIPS/SUGGESTIONS Presumption: Italian as Leading Language Language in Context Lexical Choice Distractions Text Structure
Presumption: Italian as Leading Language ADJECTIVES (position, gender and number: “others people”; “many newspapers important”) WORD ORDER (SVO: “Is necessary a cure”; “is important to be friends”) FALSE FRIENDS (actually, eventually…) INVENTIONS (“Comparated”, “bag of study ”; “producted”) USE OF TENSES (“is not ended”, “are arrived”) ORTHOGRAPHY (months: january, february… years: in the 1984, nationality: german, italian; other: indipendence ; )
LANGUAGE IN CONTEXT We normally modify the way we communicate (both in spoken and written language) according to the context SPOKEN LANGUAGE: conversation with friends, conversation with our professors, conversation with people we do not know. Speaking in public, speaking in private, ecc. WRITTEN LANGUAGE: emails (public/private), sms, chats, FB posts, university papers, essays, thesis, formal letters to universities to public organizations.
LANGUAGE IN CONTEXT i know it only because i'm a car's world fan since i was child :) but, if i'm very interested about a file, i must use bittorrent :)) i just see a dark sedan parking under my window with man dressed in black... i'd better run away eheheh :D Of course! It's obvious! But I don't know if only Prof. can accept they or not :D Oh yes,when?Teacher will fix our errors! Last thursday I went in Milano for 3 day
LANGUAGE IN CONTEXT ILIL CU2moro thNCU2morothN cncn u cum 2 my BDay pRt on satdy?ucum2BDaypRtsatdy ILIL cll u wen I gt derclluwengtder my mum wl taK me dermumwltaKder disdis thng S drivN me %-)thngSdrivN%-) I'm 100% Nluv W him100%NluvW EMOTICONS!!!!
Lexical Choice Confusing word classes, e.g. dead, died Acronyms, e.g. EU/ UE, ONU/UN Spelling, e.g. Bruxel, Whashinton Translation of toponyms L’Aia / The Hague Collocations This depends from/on me?? The reason of/for?? To do/make business; to do/make a deal?? Make/do money; make/do promise?? Take/make a decision?? To do/make mistakes?
DISTRACTIONS CONCORDANCES e.g. he cry, much persons, America and his partners COHERENCE active/passive; past/present; plural/singular ORTHOGRAPHY e.g. wich, whit, whome IRREGULAR / REGULAR VERBS e.g. drived, gived, lead-leaded
Some rules to get better writing skills ARTICLES: SINGULAR Always put an article (the-a) with singular COUNTABLE NOUNS same as we do in Italian Ex: a boy, the chair, the scholarship, the man, a student, the environment…. SINGULAR UNCOUNTABLE (time, money, food, choice, globalization, ) no article when considered in a general way, with a general meaning: Ex: MONEY IS INDISPENSABLE; TIME IS MONEY; I NEED FOOD TO SURVIVE But…. The money you gave me yesterday is not enough. I like the food they serve in that restaurant. They think with pleasure about the time they spent with us in California
Some rules to get better writing skills ARTICLES: PLURAL COUNTABLE NOUNS: NO article when considered in a general way, with a general meaning Ex. This article is about brands. Brands are considered as a very important asset…. Students don’t like studying. Professors tend to be strict. But…. The students in our class are very nice. I don’t like the professors who always tell me what to do. The brands sold in that shop are outdated !!!!Plurals in –y: companys-companies
Some rules to get better writing skills CONCORDANCES: This article speak; brands and its power; This brands; New consumers is; The article continue; Positives and negatives aspects of brands; Brands wasn’t built; They was different; SPELLING: RAPPRESENT; SIMBOL; BY-BUY- STORY- HISTORY; OBTEIN WORD CLASSES: This article talks about brands and their powerful. Brands are important for the company successful. It compares the brands’ past with the actually. Principle v principal VERB TENSES: The role of brands is changed; companies are changed, production systems are transformed …
Some rules to get better writing skills WORD ORDER: SVO – A big importance have also logo and slogo INFINITIVE OF PURPOSE: This article speaks about marketing brands (???) in the global economy and the tactics for convince consumers PERSONAL PRONOUNS; RELATIVE PRONOUNS (THEY/THEM, WHO/WHICH/THAT) ADJECTIVES OF NATIONALITY: CAPITAL LETTERS!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
WHAT IS THIS ARTICLE ABOUT? “The article speaks, tells … - is about, highlights, observes, focuses on …” This article is written by John Kenneth which speak of the past company and the future company in USA Burocratic, an heirarchical this companies, companys this choise three ways to look the modern company There are three types of school for divide types of corporations. (…) for survive the companies must change for have more flexibility. They must adapt themselves for survive. It focus on As the article sayd In the time, in the years
WHAT IS THIS ARTICLE ABOUT? “The article speaks, tells … - is about, highlights, observes, focuses on …” This article is about the evolution/development of modern companies. Modern companies have changed very much recently……….. The environment ……………………. Consumers have…………………… So, companies should/must/ will have to…..
WHAT IS THIS ARTICLE ABOUT? THE ARTICLE ARGUES OF THE MODE AS THE OLD COMPANY CHANGES FOR ADAPTED HIS WORK OF THE NEWS TECNOLOGIES This article argued that how the companies to adapt in the environment, how the old companies modificated they are product. During the 1967 – during the 1960s / in 1967 Actual companies The organisation’s companies At the first time companies producted with economies of scales Shareholders have more choice about how to put their money
WHAT IS THIS ARTICLE ABOUT? In the story … The company for look the future must to focus …. The New Industrial State argued the USA to ménage a handful of a big companies who the economy in the name of stability The US’s giant corporations been transformed by global competition This article study old and new ways of organisation in bigs firms Consumers have big chois where spend theyr money In the futer will survive only small companies There are three ways of thought The ways of survive of the companies Through modern flexible production sistem based on lowering of the costs and the increase of the choice
WHAT IS THIS ARTICLE ABOUT? This article is about the relationship between fear and management. Analyzing sport business the author speaks about the generals effects that fear may have on employees. Lots of successful manager use terror in their workplace, but nowadays bosses cannot abuse of their power because of modern laws and scarcity of workers, so they have to manage them with care. The problem is if fear really motivate. To answer to this question there are different points of views. According to S. Snook fear can help to reach particular targets. Differently fear can be disastrous and lead to lots of problems, including state of anxiety. The constant fear is common among artist and services where people with fragile personality and talent are the main product.
Text Structure Purpose defines the type of texts: WHY? Readers define the type of texts: WHO? Context defines the type of texts: WHERE? Purpose, readers and context define the text styleHOW?
Text Structure Purpose defines the type of texts: WHY? - WRITE AN EMAIL TO HAVE INFORMATION ABOUT A MASTERS PROGRAMME IN TOURISM & MANAGEMENT Readers define the type of texts: WHO? - YOU – the writer - THE DIRECTOR OF STUDIES – the reader Context defines the type of texts: WHERE? - What is the means of communications? - What are your respective positions/roles/titles/culture? Purpose, readers and context define the text style - HOW are you going to write this email?
Text Structure Purpose defines the type of texts: WHY? - WRITE AN EMAIL TO HAVE INFORMATION ABOUT A WINE TRADE SHOW BEING ORGANIZED NEXT YEAR IN DUBAI Readers define the type of texts: WHO? - YOU – the writer - THE TRADE SHOW ORGANIZER – the reader Context defines the type of texts: WHERE? - What is the means of communications? - What are your respective positions/roles/titles/culture? Purpose, readers and context define the text style - HOW are you going to write this email?
WINE FAIR/MASTERS PROGRAM Main Errors CONCORDANCES: REGULAR/IRREGULAR verbs: ORTHOGRAPHY: CONFUSIONS: INVENTIONS: OTHER:
A Note on Style “Buongiorno Prof.”“Buona prof.ssa”, “buongiorno proff.” “Salve, sono C.C., io dovrei partire con il progetto erasmus a T.” buongiorno professoressa sono F.,la studentessa Erasmus....volevo sapere se… “……Secondo Lei, c'è qualche problema per l'approvazione degli esami? Quando posso venire nel suo ufficio per avere dei chiarimenti? Attendo una sua risposta” “So che il suo orario di ricevimento è il lunedì e lei gradisce sia rispettato ma non potrebbe fare un'eccezione? Domani cioè venerdì mattina è possibile fissare un incontro?Aspetto una sua risposta”. “Egregia Professoressa Fodde, alla tastiera E. S.(matr. …. del corso di Economia _Manageriale):la studentessa vincitrice della Borsa Erasmus”
A Note on Style “in effetti, per i crediti, la differenza tra 4 e 8 e' tanta, ma mi informero' e le faro' sapere. comunque, per quanto riguarda l'esame studente…….., me lo potete convalidare anche se non c'e' l'esatto corrispondente a cagliari???” bye hey ho let's go” buongiorno, scusi se la disturbo, sono una ragazza che segue la falcoltà di economia e gestione dei servizi turistici, vorrei sapere se per lunedì la lezione sarà da mezzogiorno alle tre o dalle tre alle sei, la ringrazio, buongiorno “Prof.ssa ci fa sempre piacere ricevere le sue mail ma questa volta si va veramente oltre ogni + rosea aspettativa ;-) Finalmente notizie!!!! Grazie a nome di tutti e tre! A presto! P.S.:La brochure ?!?”
A Note on Style Salve Sono uno studente del corso di economia e gestione aziendale, volevo sapere riguardo ai testi consigliati per coloro che hanno sostenuto un punteggio maggiore di 23, se quest'ultimi sono gli stessi che verranno utilizzati poi durante il corso del secondo semestre o sono materiale di approfondimento, mi potrebbe dire inoltre se questo è il suo sito: http://economia.unica.it/inglese nello stesso posto trovarvi indicati il materiale succitato? Grazie, buona giornata http://economia.unica.it/inglese
A Note on Style “hi am comin in 20mins…” “Am trying a few people 2 c if they can do course. I’ll sms u names + numbers….” “Just spoke 2 Anna 2 organise going 2 Rome, I’ll have all results on thurs would u like 2 c them b4 I go?”
E-mails Used increasingly in international business to replace letters, faxes and sometimes phonecalls Why?INEXPENSIVE, EASY-TO-USE -Style of writing can vary, but usually…. more INFORMAL However…… we must pay attention to: 1.Our reader and our purpose, and adapt style of writing accordingly; 2.HUMOR/JOKES; 3.E-mails are public; 4.Sending something important? Use follow-up faxes or letters! 5.Keep track! File and Print!! Vedi : p. 18-19 Skills; pp-9-13 dispensa
MASTERS PROGRAMME - REPLY Purpose defines the type of texts: WHY? - WRITE AN EMAIL TO THE ITALIAN STUDENT WHO REQUESTED INFORMATION ON YOUR MASTER PROGRAM - Your email should contain information on: UNIVERSITY CALENDAR; COURSE START; TYPE OF LESSONS; COMPULSORY EXAMS; ACCOMMODATION; ANY OTHER USEFUL INFO Readers define the type of texts: WHO? - YOU – the Director of Studies - AN ITALIAN GRADUATE STUDENT – the reader Context defines the type of texts: WHERE? - What is the means of communications? - What are your respective positions/roles/titles/culture? Purpose, readers and context define the text style - HOW are you going to write this email?
WINERY- REPLY Purpose defines the type of texts: WHY? - WRITE AN EMAIL TO THE ITALIAN WINE PRODUCER WHO REQUESTED INFORMATION ON YOUR WINE TRADE SHOW - Your email should contain information on: SITE OF THE TRADE SHOW; COUNTRIES AND WINERIES PARTICIPATING; SCHEDULE OF EVENTS; ACCOMMODATION; ANY OTHER USEFUL INFO Readers define the type of texts: WHO? - YOU – The Trade Show organizer - AN ITALIAN wine producer – the reader Context defines the type of texts: WHERE? - What is the means of communications? - What are your respective positions/roles/titles/culture? Purpose, readers and context define the text style - HOW are you going to write this email?
PAG 60 WRITING Dear Don, IT TRAINING COURSES Thank you for your interest in our training courses. My name is Andrea Cassel and I am responsible for our training courses. Herein enclosed please find our course programme for 2009. We are a very well-established company, with a 30 years’ experience in training IT professionals in the latest technology. If you need any help in selecting the right course don’t hesitate to contact us for further information and advice. My direct phone number is: 077-3458799. I look forward to welcoming you in one of our courses. Best regards, Andrea Teaching consultant
Apologise and give reasons Pag. 61 Dear applicant/Dear Mr. Smith, I regret /We regret to inform you that due to the high number of applications, we had to close our workshop. As we announced last month, we decided to have no more than 35 participants because we wanted the workshop to be as interactive as possible. However, given the success we met (because of the success of our workshop) we are planning to hold another similar workshop later in the year. As soon as we have a precise date, we will inform you (we will let you know). Again, I/we apologise for this inconvenience. It goes without saying (Of course) that in case of any cancellations (if there are any cancellations) we will inform you (we will let you know). Best regards, Marta Graham Workshop director
Other Errors STRUCTURE: PUNCTUATION, CHANGING PARAGRAPH ACCORDING TO TOPIC FORM/STYLE As you requested, I am SENDing /TELLing / GIVing you/ATTACHing information on ………… Herein enclosed/attached you will/can find information/ a file/ a document on Please find enclosed/attached information on ….. I have enclosed/attached At the end of this message you will/can find …… As you requested, I am writing / I am pleased to give you some information….
34 Types of sentences Dear Mario, With reference to the arrangements we made yesterday, I am writing to inform you about our next conference. The conference will be held at the Hotel T, in Cagliari, on Thursday November 12 at 9,00…... Following our telephone conversation yesterday, I am writing to confirm our next meeting. As for our meeting, I can confirm you that …. As regards our meeting, I can confirm you that… With regards to our meeting, I can confirm you that…
THE RUSSIAN TOURIST MARKET Purpose defines the type of texts: WHY? - WRITE AN EMAIL TO THE RUSSIAN TOURIST BOARD TO INTRODUCE YOUR HOTEL AND START NEW FORMS OF COLLABORATION WITH THE RUSSIAN TOURIST MARKET - Your email should contain information on: YOUR HOTEL FACILITIES; IDEAS FOR A MEETING AND VISITS OF RUSSIAN TOUR OPERATORS TO SARDINIA Readers define the type of texts: WHO? - YOU – The hotel manager - The Russian tourist board Director – the reader Context defines the type of texts: WHERE? - What is the means of communications? - What are your respective positions/roles/titles/culture? Purpose, readers and context define the text style - HOW are you going to write this email?
36 CLARIFICATIONS (p. 14-15) CLARIFICATIONS (p. 14-15) Dear Umesh, It was good to speak to you. I just wanted to check the details of our arrangements. So, we are meeting on Thursday 17 June at 12.00. We said the meeting will be (take place) at your office. Can you confirm the exact address, please? It’s Bridge Street, what number? I am going to (will) bring our company video, I just want to know if you prefer to have the Latin American videos as well as the Asian ones. How about lunch afterwards? Is 13.30 ok for you? We could go to the Mayflower, it’s a nice American restaurant across the road from your office. Let me know what you think. If you need to contact me here’s my mobile phone number: Can you send me yours? Thanks and all the best Luisanna
37 CLARIFICATIONS (p. 14-15) CLARIFICATIONS (p. 14-15) Dear Jo, I’m not sure what your ‘yes’ was referring to; could you clarify? Just a couple of other things I want to clear up: - In your email you say that the meeting will be postponed to Thursday. Do you mean Thursday next week? What about the time and the place (Same time and place)? - As for the estimated cost. The figure you mention, is it in pounds, dollars, or euros (which currency are you referring to)? - Lastly, Andrea Cavalieri, the senior contractor, is it a he or a she? Please answer asap (Please confirm asap) Carrie
38 CLARIFICATIONS Dear Ms Tau Pei Lin, Thank you for your email concerning my travel arrangements. I can confirm that I will be arriving on Monday at 05.00 at Beijng airport. Will you/ somebody meet me at the airport? As for the meeting with your lawyers, I would like to know the exact time and place. You say that a Mr. Chang will attend the meeting. Can you remind me about his position in the company? What is his first name? Also, you mention a dinner on Sunday. I am sure there must be a mistake or misunderstanding. As you know, I am leaving on Sunday morning. I would be very pleased to come. Can I bring my wife? (Is my wife invited?). I look forward to hearing from you soon, Sincerely J. Peters
39 REQUESTS AND REPLIES p. 16; pp. 60-61 Skills Dear Don, IT TRAINING COURSES Thank you for your interest in our IT training courses. Our company is an established training firm with 30 years’ experience in the field. Our goal is to always train IT professionals in the latest technology. As you requested, I am enclosing our course programme for the current year. We will be pleased to offer our advice and help in selecting the right course for you. In case you need any further information, do not hesitate to contact me on my direct phone: 339-2765421. I look forward to welcoming you soon to our courses. Best regards, Laura Diaz, Manager IT TECHNOLOGY inc.
41 Dear José Feliciano, Thank you very much for your email. I apologize for the delay of this email (replying so late to your email), but I have been very busy recently. Of course I remember our meeting in Geneva and I am glad you liked my presentation, thank you very much. Our company is still very interested in the Spanish market and in establishing contacts with experienced companies in the field, therefore it would be great to meet you. Unfortunately, I will not be available next month, but I could come to Spain next December instead. Would it be possible to meet there? However, before we arrange this meeting and before making any decisions, I need to see a proposal in writing to show to my colleagues. Please find attached a copy of the paper I mentioned in Geneva. I look forward to hearing from you soon. Thank you very much for your interest in our company. Regards, Heinrich Schmidt
42 REQUEST EMAILS (p.17) Dear Sirs (Dear Mr. Atwood, Dear John), Just a short message to request immediate payment of our invoice n. 372b, which is now six months overdue. (I am writing once again to request immediate payment…) We have tried to contact you for several weeks now, always unsuccessfully. We regret to inform you that until the overdue balance on your account is fully and immediately settled, no new orders will be accepted from your part/firm. We hope this unfortunate occurrence will be resolved as soon as possible so that we can continue to do business with you as successfully as we have in the last few years. Yours sincerely, Phil Collins General Manager RESS & SONS, Ltd
Faxes (23-25) -Well-established means of communication. -Fast, convenient, flexible FORMAT: senders’ and receivers’ INFORMATION STYLE: similar to letters (FORMULAIC EXPRESSIONS) less formal sometimes 1.Address not written in full; 2.Each page must be numbered; 3.Signatures in full; 4.Hand-written faxes sometimes acceptable; 5.Care for details important
Letters (Snail mail) Still used in formal written communication (SPECIALLY IF PRINTED IN GOOD PAPER) for: FORMAL INTRODUCTIONS TO COMPANIES; CONFIRMATION OF CONTRACTS; THANK-YOU MESSAGES -They can be a useful back-up to important e-mails or faxes; -They can be used to send bulky material (brochures, samples); -They can be used when there are technological problems
Letters LAYOUT (pp. 27- 30) -Blocked or Indented layout. No commas for addresses; -Initials to be included: Mr K Jennings; -Letters beginning with name in salutation (Dear Mr Jennings) should end Yours sincerely (Yours truly, Sincerely Yours in the US); -Letters beginning with Dear Sir, Dear Sirs, should end Yours faithfully; Gentlemen (very American and very sexist, not recommended internationally)