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© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.3–0 COURSE CONTENT ATTITUDE AND VALUE
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.3–1 Reinforcement: Positive; negative; contingencies of reinforcement; schedules of reinforcement Behavior and its modification Transfer of learning through training INDIVIDUAL PROCESSES – ATTITUDES AND VALUES Meaning and scope; attitude and behaviour Work attitude Belief & trust Attitudes and values
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.3–2 Attitudes Evaluative statements or judgments concerning objects, people, or events. Affective Component The emotional or feeling segment of an attitude. Cognitive component The opinion or belief segment of an attitude. Behavioral Component An intention to behave in a certain way toward someone or something.
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.3–3 What is Attitude PREDISPOSITIONS TO RESPOND CONSISTENTLY TO CERTAIN PEOPLE, IDEAS, OR SITUATIONS. WE HAVE ATTITUDES ABOUT SPECIFIC THINGS ATTITUDES ARE A RELFECTION OF AN INDIVIDUALS VALUES AND BELIEF SYSTEM THE WORLDS WINDOW INTO THAT INDIVIDUAL
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.3–4 ATTITUDES THREE COMPONENTS –Cognitive component (opinion or belief) –Affective component (emotional feelings) –Behavioral component (intention to behave) Example: studying negative attitudes towards group –Negative beliefs (cognitive) –Prejudice, negative feelings (affective) –Discrimination, negative actions (behavioral)
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.3–5 Cognitive Dissonance 1950s Leon Festinger proposed the theory of Cognitive Dissonance Any incompatibility between two ro more attitudes or between behavior and attitude. Complete dissonance is unavoidable. Dissonance influenced by: –Unimportant elements –Choice/ Control over elements –Rewards The greater the pressure to reduce it
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.3–6 The Theory of Cognitive Dissonance Desire to reduce dissonance Importance of elements creating dissonance Degree of individual influence over elements Rewards involved in dissonance Desire to reduce dissonance Importance of elements creating dissonance Degree of individual influence over elements Rewards involved in dissonance Cognitive Dissonance Any incompatibility between two or more attitudes or between behavior and attitudes.
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.3–7 COGNITIVE CONSISTENCY vs DISSONANCE FESTINGER (57) EXPLAINS THE LINKAGE BETWEEN ATTITUDES AND BEHAVIOR CONSISTENCYDISSONANCE When the 3 elements…Are in HarmonyConflict We feel…At Peace and ContentUncomfortable Attitude change is…Not LikelyPossible ATTITUDE CHANGE IS MOST LIKELY WHEN THE ELEMENTS ARE IMPORTANT TO YOU, THEY APPEAR TO CONFLICT, YOU HAVE SOME CONTROL OVER THEM, AND THERE ARENT LARGE REWARDS TO YOU FOR HOLDING THIS ATTITUDE/BEHAVIOR. YOU CAN: Change your behavior (stop polluting the river) Conclude the dissonant behavior isnt so important after all (I have to make decisions in the best interest of the company, besides its within legal limits) Change your attitude (there isnt anything wrong with this pollution) Seek out more consonant elements (the benefits to society of our products outweigh the cost of this minor pollution)
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.3–8 Measuring the A-B Relationship Recent research indicates that attitudes (A) significantly predict behaviors (B) when moderating variables are taken into account. Moderating Variables Importance of the attitude Specificity of the attitude Accessibility of the attitude Social pressures on the individual Direct experience with the attitude Moderating Variables Importance of the attitude Specificity of the attitude Accessibility of the attitude Social pressures on the individual Direct experience with the attitude
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.3–9 THE ATTITUDE-BEHAVIOR RELATIONSHIP DOES ATTITUDE BEHAVIOR? (Sometimes attitudes dont seem to predict behavior very well). DOES THE ATTITUDE REFLECT AN IMPORTANT (FUNDAMENTAL) VALUE? SPECIFIC ATTITUDES AND SPECIFIC BEHAVIORS ARE STRONGLY LINKED. Do you intend to stay/quit in the next six months is clearly more specific than …are you satisfied with your work? FREQUENTLY REMEMBERED (AND EXPRESSED) ATTITUDES ARE MOST LIKELY TO PREDICT BEHAVIOR. If you talk about it enough, youll act on it. IF YOUVE HAD DIRECT PERSONAL EXPERIENCE WITH THE SITUATION, YOUR ATTITUDE WILL BE STRONGLY LINKED TO YOUR SUBSEQUENT BEHAVIOR DISCREPANCIES IN THE ATTITUDE BEHAVIOR LINK ARE MOST LIKELY WHEN: THERE ARE STRONG SOCIAL PRESSURES APPLIED EXTERNALLY, AND/OR THERE ARE LARGE REWARDS FOR GOING ALONG WITH THE CROWD.
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.3–10 Self-Perception Theory Attitudes are used after the fact to make sense out of an action that has already occurred.
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.3–11 Self-Perception Theory Daryl Bern (1972) – we make judgments about ourselves as we make judgments about other people. Attitudes are used after the fact to make sense out of an action that has already occurred. Contrary to cognitive dissonance. People tend to create attitudes after they have behaved in a particular manner. When attitudes are vague and ambiguous Self-perception theory works.
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.3–12 HOFSTEDE - VALUES ACROSS CULTURES Power distance Acceptance of hierarchical differences Tolerance of autocratic leadership Individualism / collectivism PERSONAL ACCOUNTABILITY vs GROUP COOPERATION AND COLLABORATION To what extent is individual freedom & independence valued? Uncertainty avoidance Feeling threatened by ambiguous situations? Do people want structure, stability, rules & clear performance measures? Achievement / nurturing (masculinity / femininity) Assertiveness, competition, the acquisition of money and material goods Or are relationships, sensitivity and concern for others more important Long-term / short-term orientation (cofucian dynamism) Do you look to the future: is persistence, thrift and hard work important? Or is the past, respect for tradition, & fulfilling obligations important?
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.3–13 Types of Attitudes Job Involvement Identifying with the job, actively participating in it, and considering performance important to self-worth. Organizational Commitment Identifying with a particular organization and its goals, and wishing to maintain membership in the organization. Job Satisfaction A collection of positive and/or negative feelings that an individual holds toward his or her job.
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.3–14 Types of Attitudes Employee Engagement An individuals involvement with, satisfaction with, and enthusiasm for the organization. Perceived Organizational Support (POS) Degree to which employees feel the organization cares about their well-being.
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.3–15 An Application: Attitude Surveys Attitude Surveys Eliciting responses from employees through questionnaires about how they feel about their jobs, work groups, supervisors, and the organization.
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.3–16 Sample Attitude Survey
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.3–17 Attitudes and Workforce Diversity Training activities that can reshape employee attitudes concerning diversity: –Participating in diversity training that provides for self- evaluation and group discussions. –Volunteer work in community and social serve centers with individuals of diverse backgrounds. –Exploring print and visual media that recount and portray diversity issues.
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.3–18 Job Satisfaction Measuring Job Satisfaction –Single global rating –Summation score How Satisfied Are People in Their Jobs? –Job satisfaction declined to 50.4% in 2002 –Decline attributed to: Pressures to increase productivity and meet tighter deadlines Less control over work
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.3–19 How Employees Can Express Dissatisfaction Exit Behavior directed toward leaving the organization. Voice Active and constructive attempts to improve conditions. Neglect Allowing conditions to worsen. Loyalty Passively waiting for conditions to improve.
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.3–20 Responses to Job Dissatisfaction E X H I B I T 3–5 Source: C. Rusbult and D. Lowery, When Bureaucrats Get the Blues, Journal of Applied Social Psychology. 15, no. 1, 1985:83. Reprinted with permission.
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.3–21 The Effect of Job Satisfaction on Employee Performance Satisfaction and Productivity –Satisfied workers arent necessarily more productive. –Worker productivity is higher in organizations with more satisfied workers. Satisfaction and Absenteeism –Satisfied employees have fewer avoidable absences. Satisfaction and Turnover –Satisfied employees are less likely to quit. –Organizations take actions to retain high performers and to weed out lower performers.
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.3–22 Job Satisfaction and OCB Satisfaction and Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) –Satisfied employees who feel fairly treated by and are trusting of the organization are more willing to engage in behaviors that go beyond the normal expectations of their job.
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.3–23 Job Satisfaction and Customer Satisfaction Satisfied employees increase customer satisfaction because: –They are more friendly, upbeat, and responsive. –They are less likely to turnover which helps build long- term customer relationships. –They are experienced. Dissatisfied customers increase employee job dissatisfaction.
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.3–24 VALUE SYSTEM Given below is a list of values, you are required to rank them on a scale of 1-5 where 1 is the most important and 5 is the lowest important value as appear to you. Punctuality Self respect Honesty Cleanliness Love Assertiveness Freedom Happiness Equality _____________________
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.3–25 VALUES - PREFERENCES THAT ENDURE Judgmental element Content (important or not) and intensity attribute (how important it is) BASIC CONVICTIONS ABOUT WHAT CONDUCT OR END-STATE IS GOOD OR RIGHT FOR YOU. (JUDGMENTAL) VALUES ARE RELATIVELY STABLE AND ENDURING WE CREATE A HIERARCHY OF VALUES, BASED ON THEIR IMPORTANCE TO US. HIGHLY INTENSE VALUES MAKE UP THE CORE OF OUR VALUE SUSTEM VALUES GENERALLY INFLUENCE ATTITUDES AND BEHAVIOR CONTENT What exactly is the mode of conduct or end-state being judged? INTENSITY How important is this value? Values can be ranked in importance to create a value hierarchy.
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.3–26 ALLPORTS SIX VALUE CATEGORIES THEORETICAL –INTEREST IN THE DISCOVERY OF TRUTH THROUGH REASONING & SYSTEMATIC THINKING ECONOMIC –INTEREST IN THE ACCUMULATION AND USE OF WEALTH AESTHETIC –INTEREST IN BEAUTY, FORM, AND ARTISTIC HARMONY SOCIAL –INTEREST IN PEOPLE, LOVE AND HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS POLITICAL –INTEREST IN POWER AND INFLUENCING OTHER PEOPLE RELIGIOUS –INTEREST IN UNITY, SPIRITUALITY, AND IN UNDERSTANDING THE COSMOS AS A WHOLE
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.3–27 Basic conviction that a specific mode of conduct or end-state of existence is personally or socially preferable to an opposite or converse mode of conduct or end-state of existence VALUE SYSTEM A HIERARCHY BASED ON A RANKING OF AN INDIVIDUALS VALUE IN TERMS OF THEIR INTENSITY VALUE
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.3–28 VALUES INFLUENCE OUR ATTITUDES AND BEHAVIORS DO VALUES CHANGE??? NO…They are relatively permanent They are formed in our earlier years of life Black n white…… what about grey???? DIFFERENCE IN VALUE SYSTEM DETERMINES DIFFERENCES IN ATTITUDES AND BEHAVIOR
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.3–29 Types of values Milton Rokeach Value Survey –Terminal values: desirable states of existence; the goals which a person would like to achieve in his life. –Instrumental values: preferable modes of behavior or means of achieving ones terminal values.
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.3–30 Rokeach Value Survey Terminal –A comfortable life –An exciting life –A sense of accomplishment –A world at peace –A world of beauty –Equality –Family security –Freedom –Happiness –Inner harmony –Love Instrumental –Ambitious –Broad minded –Capable –Cheerful –Clean –Courageous –Forgiving –Helpful –Honest –Imaginative –Independent
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.3–31 VALUE CONFLICT THREE TYPES Intrapersonal – Experienced when highly ranked instrumental or terminal value pull the individual in different direction. Honesty can be pushed aside by ambitious an obedient in hard driving mgr Interpersonal – When a person encounters difficulties in interpersonal relation ie. Parent, boss, employee Individual – org conflict – Conflict that arises when individual employees find themselves at odds with their employing org value system.
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.3–32 Case study Suppose you work in an advertising agency as a client service manager. You are young, energetic, willing to learn and have a success story of 2 years working with the agency. You are handling major clients and enjoy good reputation within and outside the organization. One of your clients has even offered you a job. But you have declined and are really happy and satisfied. You report directly to the CEO. One day you found out that the agency hired a new experienced marketer now you will be reporting to him. This has caused you a substantial mental and emotional set back. Questions: What would be your immediate reaction to this situation? Keeping the dissatisfaction model in view, what would be your strategy?
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© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.3–1 Chapter 3 Values, Attitudes and Job Satisfaction, and its effects at workplace.
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