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© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.3–1 Chapter 3 Values, Attitudes and Job Satisfaction, and its effects at workplace.

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Presentation on theme: "© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.3–1 Chapter 3 Values, Attitudes and Job Satisfaction, and its effects at workplace."— Presentation transcript:

1 © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.3–1 Chapter 3 Values, Attitudes and Job Satisfaction, and its effects at workplace

2 © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.3–2 Values, Attitudes, and Their Effects in the Workplace What are values? Identify Hofstedes five value dimensions of national culture. Contrast terminal and instrumental values. Why are differences in values important? What are attitudes and how are they formed? Contrast the three components of an attitude. What is job satisfaction? Summarize the relationship between attitudes and behavior Questions for Consideration

3 © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.3–3 Values Basic convictions that a specific mode of conduct or end-state of existence is personally or socially preferable to an opposite or converse mode of conduct or end-state of existence. Value System A hierarchy based on a ranking of an individuals values in terms of their intensity.

4 © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.3–4 Values –Basic convictions about what is important to the individual –They contain a judgmental element of what is right, good, or desirable.

5 © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.3–5 Values vs. Ethics Ethics –The science of morals in human conduct –Moral principles; rules of conduct Ethical Values are related to moral judgments about right and wrong

6 © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.3–6 Types of Values –- Rokeach Value Survey Terminal Values Desirable end-states of existence; the goals that a person would like to achieve during his or her lifetime. Instrumental Values Preferable modes of behavior or means of achieving ones terminal values.

7 © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.3–7 Values –Types of values Terminal: Goals that individuals would like to achieve during their lifetime Instrumental: Preferable ways of behaving –Importance of values Values generally influence attitudes and behavior.

8 © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.3–8 Importance of Values Provide understanding of the attitudes, motivation, and behaviors of individuals and cultures. Influence our perception of the world around us. Represent interpretations of right and wrong. Imply that some behaviors or outcomes are preferred over others.

9 A Framework for Assessing Cultural Values Hofstedes Dimensions –Power Distance –Individualism Versus Collectivism –Quantity of Life Versus Quality of Life –Uncertainty Avoidance –Long-term versus Short-term Orientation

10 © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.3–10 Hofstedes Framework for Assessing Cultures Power Distance The extent to which a society accepts that power in institutions and organizations is distributed unequally. low distance: relatively equal distribution high distance: extremely unequal distribution

11 © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.3–11 Hofstedes Framework (contd) Collectivism A tight social framework in which people expect others in groups of which they are a part to look after them and protect them. Individualism The degree to which people prefer to act as individuals rather than a member of groups.

12 © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.3–12 Hofstedes Framework (contd) Achievement The extent to which societal values are characterized by assertiveness, materialism and competition. Nurturing The extent to which societal values emphasize relationships and concern for others.

13 © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.3–13 Hofstedes Framework (contd) Uncertainty Avoidance The extent to which a society feels threatened by uncertain and ambiguous situations and tries to avoid them.

14 © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.3–14 Hofstedes Framework (contd) Long-term Orientation A national culture attribute that emphasizes the future, thrift, and persistence. Short-term Orientation A national culture attribute that emphasizes the past and present, respect for tradition, and fulfilling social obligations.

15 Examples of National Cultural Values

16 East and Southeast Asian Values North America –Networked relations: based on self-interest –Relationships viewed with immediate gains –Enforcement relies on institutional law –Governed by guilt (internal pressures on performance) East and Southeast Asia Relations based on reciprocation –Relationships meant to be long-term and enduring –Enforcement relies on personal power and authority –Governed by shame (external pressures on performance)

17 Attitudes Positive or negative feelings concerning objects, people, or events. Less stable than values

18 © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.3–18 Attitudes Evaluative statements or judgments concerning objects, people, or events. Affective Component The emotional or feeling segment of an attitude. Cognitive component The opinion or belief segment of an attitude. Behavioral Component An intention to behave in a certain way toward someone or something.

19 © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.3–19 5

20 © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.3–20 Advice to Managers Do not assume that most workers have strong intrinsic work values just because you do. Realize that any attempt you make to improve attitudes, motivation, or performance will be most effective when the change you implement is consistent with workers values. Make the work environment pleasant and attractive to help promote positive moods. 8

21 Job Satisfaction and Employee Performance Satisfaction Affects –Individual Productivity –Organizational Productivity –Absenteeism –Turnover –Organizational Citizenship Behaviour

22 © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.3–22 The Effect of Job Satisfaction on Employee Performance Satisfaction and Productivity –Satisfied workers arent necessarily more productive. –Worker productivity is higher in organizations with more satisfied workers. Satisfaction and Absenteeism –Satisfied employees have fewer avoidable absences. Satisfaction and Turnover –Satisfied employees are less likely to quit. –Organizations take actions to retain high performers and to weed out lower performers.

23 © 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. Job Satisfaction and OCB Satisfaction and OCBs –Satisfied employees who feel fairly treated by and are trusting of the organization are more willing to engage in behaviors that go beyond the normal expectations of their job.

24 Expressing Dissatisfaction Exit Voice Loyalty Neglect

25 © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.3–25 How Employees Can Express Dissatisfaction Exit Behavior directed toward leaving the organization. Voice Active and constructive attempts to improve conditions. Neglect Allowing conditions to worsen. Loyalty Passively waiting for conditions to improve.

26 © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.3–26 Potential Consequences of Job Satisfaction Performance Performance: Satisfied workers are only slightly more likely to perform at a higher level than dissatisfied workers. –Satisfaction is most likely to affect work behaviors when workers are free to vary their behaviors and when a workers attitude is relevant to the behavior in question. – Absenteeism Absenteeism: Satisfied workers are only slightly less likely to be absent than dissatisfied workers. Turnover Turnover: Satisfied workers are less likely to leave the organization than dissatisfied workers. 19

27 © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.3–27 Potential Consequences of Job Satisfaction Organizational citizenship behavior Organizational citizenship behavior (OCB): Satisfied workers are more likely to engage in this behavior than dissatisfied workers. –OCB: Behavior that is above and beyond the call of duty but is nonetheless necessary for organizational survival and effectiveness Helping coworkers, spreading goodwill Worker well-being Worker well-being: Satisfied workers are more likely to have strong well-being than dissatisfied workers. –Worker well-being: How happy, healthy, and prosperous workers are 22

28 © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.3–28 Determinants of Absence from Work (Table 3.3) Motivation to Attend Work is Affected by Job satisfaction Organizations absence policy Other factors Ability to Attend Work is Affected by Illness and accidents Transportation problems Family responsibilities 20

29 © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.3–29 Advice to Managers Realize that some workers are going to be more satisfied than others with the same job simply because they have different personalities and work values. Also realize that you can take steps to increase levels of job satisfaction because it is determined not only by personality but also by the work situation. Try to place newcomers in work groups whose members are satisfied with their jobs. Ask workers what facets of their jobs are important to them, and do what you can to ensure that they are satisfied with these facets. Because job satisfaction has the potential to impact workers behaviors in organizations and their well-being, use existing measurement scales to periodically survey your subordinates levels of job satisfaction. When levels of job satisfaction are low, follow the advice in the preceding step. Recognize that workers evaluations of job facets, not what you think about them, determine how satisfied workers are and that changing some facets may have longer-lasting effects on job satisfaction than changing others. 18

30 © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.3–30 Advice to Managers Do not assume that poor performers are dissatisfied with their jobs or that good performers are satisfied with their jobs. Do not assume that workers who are absent are dissatisfied or that they were not motivated to come to work. Absence is also a function of ability to attend. Manage absenteeism. Dont try to eliminate it, and keep in mind that a certain level of absence is often functional for workers and organizations. Realize that turnover has both costs and benefits for an organization and that you need to evaluate both. In particular, before becoming concerned about worker turnover, examine the performance levels of those who quit. If workers do only what they are told and rarely, if ever, exhibit organizational citizenship behavior, measure their levels of job satisfaction, identify the job facets they are dissatisfied with, and make changes where possible. Even if job satisfaction does not seem to have an effect on important behaviors in your organization, keep in mind that it is an important factor in worker well- being. 23

31 © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.3–31 The Theory of Cognitive Dissonance Desire to reduce dissonance Importance of elements creating dissonance Degree of individual influence over elements Rewards involved in dissonance Desire to reduce dissonance Importance of elements creating dissonance Degree of individual influence over elements Rewards involved in dissonance Cognitive Dissonance Any incompatibility between two or more attitudes or between behavior and attitudes.

32 © 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. Measuring the A-B Relationship Recent research indicates that attitudes (A) significantly predict behaviors (B) when moderating variables are taken into account. Moderating Variables Importance of the attitude Specificity of the attitude Accessibility of the attitude Social pressures on the individual Direct experience with the attitude Moderating Variables Importance of the attitude Specificity of the attitude Accessibility of the attitude Social pressures on the individual Direct experience with the attitude AB

33 © 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. Self-Perception Theory Attitudes are used after the fact to make sense out of an action that has already occurred. BA ! And,

34 © 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. An Application: Attitude Surveys Attitude Surveys Eliciting responses from employees through questionnaires about how they feel about their jobs, work groups, supervisors, and the organization.

35 © 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. Attitudes and Workforce Diversity Training activities that can reshape employee attitudes concerning diversity: –Participating in diversity training that provides for self- evaluation and group discussions. –Volunteer work in community and social serve centers with individuals of diverse backgrounds.

36 © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.3–36 Attitudes and Workforce Diversity Training activities that can reshape employee attitudes concerning diversity: –Participating in diversity training that provides for self- evaluation and group discussions. –Volunteer work in community and social serve centers with individuals of diverse backgrounds. –Exploring print and visual media that recount and portray diversity issues.

37 © 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. Job Satisfaction Measuring Job Satisfaction –Single global rating –Summation score How Satisfied Are People in Their Jobs? –In general, people are satisfied with their jobs. –Depends on facets of satisfactiontend to be less satisfied with pay and promotion opportunities.

38 © 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. Causes of Job Satisfaction Pay only influences Job Satisfaction to a point –After about $40,000 a year, there is no relationship between amount of pay and job satisfaction. Personality can influence job satisfaction –Negative people are usually not satisfied with their jobs

39 © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.3–39 Job Satisfaction Measuring Job Satisfaction –Single global rating –Summation score How Satisfied Are People in Their Jobs? –If job satisfaction declines Decline can be attributed to: Pressures to increase productivity and meet tighter deadlines Less control over work

40 © 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. Job Satisfaction and Customer Satisfaction Satisfaction and Customer Satisfaction –Satisfied workers provide better customer service Satisfied employees increase customer satisfaction because: –They are more friendly, upbeat, and responsive. –They are less likely to turnover, which helps build long- term customer relationships. –They are experienced. Dissatisfied customers increase employee job dissatisfaction.

41 © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.3–41 Summary and Implications Values strongly influence a persons attitudes. An employees performance and satisfaction are likely to be higher if his or her values fit well with the organization. Managers should be interested in their employees attitudes because attitudes give warning signs of potential problems and because they influence behavior.


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