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1 Welcome to this Session
Chapter-3 Values, Attitudes and Job Satisfaction Organizational Behavior By Stephen P. Robbins

2 What are Values? Values is a confusing word that often gets confused with 'value' as in the value you get from buying a cheap, but well-built house. Values are, in fact powerful drivers of how we think and behave. Actually values are “how things ought to be in the society”

3 What are Values? According to Stephen p. Robbins “Values are basic convictions that a specific mode of conduct or end-state of existence is personally or socially preferable to an opposite or converse mode of conduct or end-state of existence.”

4 What are Values? Values are ideals that guide or qualify your personal conduct, interaction with others, and involvement in your career. Like morals, they help you to distinguish what is right from what is wrong and inform you on how you can conduct your life in a meaningful way.

5 Types of Values Personal Values Cultural Values Social Values
Work Values

6 Personal Values Personal values are principles that define you as an individual. Personal values, such as honesty, reliability, and trust, determine how you will face the world and relate with people.

7 Cultural Values Cultural values, like the practice of your faith and customs, are principles that sustain connections with your cultural roots. They help you feel connected to a larger community of people with similar backgrounds.

8 Social Values Social values are principles that indicate how you relate meaningfully to others in social situations, including those involving family, friends, and co-workers.

9 Work Values Work values are principles that guide your behavior in professional contexts. They define how you work and how you relate to your co-workers, bosses, and clients. They also reveal your potential for advancement.

10 Values Across Cultures
Power distance Individualism versus Collectivism Achievement versus nurturing Uncertainty avoidance Long-term versus short-term orientation

11 Power distance A national culture attribute describing the extent to which a society accepts that power in institutions and organizations is distributed.

12 Individualism Vs Collectivism
Individualism - A national culture attribute describing the degree to which people prefer to act as individuals rather than as members of groups Collectivism - A national culture attribute describing a tight social framework in which people expect others in groups that they are a part to look after them and protect them.

13 Achievement Vs nurturing
Achievement - A national culture attribute describing the extent to which societal values are characterized by assertiveness and materialism. Nurturing - A national culture attribute that emphasizes relationships and concern for others.

14 Uncertainty avoidance
A national culture attribute describing the extent to which a society feels threatened by uncertain and ambiguous situations and to tries to avoid them.

15 Long-term Vs short-term orientation
Long-term orientation - A national culture attribute that emphasizes the future, thrift, and persistence. Short-term orientation - A national culture attribute that emphasis the past and present, respect for trading, and fulfilling social obligations.

16 What are Attitudes? Attitudes are favorable and unfavorable feeling about anything. According to Stephen p. Robbins “ Attitudes are evaluative statements either favorable or unfavorable concerning objects, people, or events.

17 What are Attitudes? According to Oxford Dictionary “the way that you think and feel about anything.” For example – When I say “ I like my mobile, I am expressing my attitude about something.”

18 Components of Attitude
There are three components of Attitude Cognition – An opinion or belief segment Affect – The emotional or feeling segment Behavior – An intention to behave in a certain way toward something or someone.

19 Types of Attitudes Job satisfaction Job involvement
Organizational commitment

20 Job satisfaction Job satisfaction refers to a collection of feelings that an individual holds toward his or her job.

21 Job involvement Job involvement define as a state in which a person identifies with his her job, activity participates in it, and considers his or her performance important to self-worth.

22 Organizational commitment
Organizational commitment define as a state in which an employee identifies with a particular organization and its goals, and wishes to maintain membership in the organization.

23 Cognitive Dissonance Theory
Cognitive dissonance – Any incompatibility between two or more attitudes or between behavior and attitudes.

24 Job satisfaction Job satisfaction has been defined as a pleasurable emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one’s job According to Stephen p. Robbins “Job satisfaction refers to a collection of feelings that an individual holds toward his or her job”.

25 Job Satisfaction One of the primary job attitudes measured.
Broad term involving a complex individual summation of a number of discrete job elements. How to measure? Single global rating (one question/one answer) - Best Summation score (many questions/one average) - OK Are people satisfied in their jobs? In the U. S., yes, but the level appears to be dropping. Results depend on how job satisfaction is measured. Pay and promotion are the most problematic elements.

26 Causes of Job Satisfaction
Pay influences job satisfaction only to a point. After about $40,000 a year (in the U. S.), there is no relationship between amount of pay and job satisfaction. Money may bring happiness, but not necessarily job satisfaction. Personality can influence job satisfaction. Negative people are usually not satisfied with their jobs. Those with positive core self-evaluation are more satisfied with their jobs.

27 Measuring job satisfaction
There are many methods for measuring job satisfaction. By far, the most common method for collecting data regarding job satisfaction is the (Likert scale). Other less common methods of for gauging job satisfaction include: Yes/No questions, True/False questions, point systems, checklists, and forced choice answers.

28 Likert scale Likert Scale is the sum of responses on several Likert items A Likert item is simply a statement which the respondent is asked to evaluate according to any kind of subjective or objective criteria; generally the level of agreement or disagreement is measured. The format of a typical five-level Likert item is: Strongly disagree Disagree Neither agree nor disagree Agree Strongly agree

29 Outcomes of Job Satisfaction
Job Performance Satisfied workers are more productive AND more productive workers are more satisfied! The causality may run both ways. Organizational Citizenship Behaviors Satisfaction influences OCB through perceptions of fairness. Customer Satisfaction Satisfied frontline employees increase customer satisfaction and loyalty. Absenteeism Satisfied employees are moderately less likely to miss work.

30 More Outcomes of Job Satisfaction
Turnover Satisfied employees are less likely to quit. Many moderating variables in this relationship. Economic environment and tenure. Organizational actions taken to retain high performers and to weed out lower performers. Workplace Deviance Dissatisfied workers are more likely to unionize, abuse substances, steal, be tardy, and withdraw. Despite the overwhelming evidence of the impact of job satisfaction on the bottom line, most managers are either unconcerned about or overestimate worker satisfaction.

31 Employee Dissatisfaction?
Exit – Dissatisfaction express through behavior directed toward leaving the organization. Voice - Dissatisfaction express through active and constructive attempts to improve conditions.

32 Loyalty - Dissatisfaction expressed by passively waiting for conditions to improve.
Neglect - Dissatisfaction expressed through allowing conditions to worsen

33 Response to job satisfaction
Active VOICE EXIT Destructive Constrictive NEGLECT LOYALTY Passive

34 Thanks

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