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Nothings Changed Culture South Africa: Once ruled by the law of apartheid, which meant black people had fewer rights, less wealth and were prevented from.

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Presentation on theme: "Nothings Changed Culture South Africa: Once ruled by the law of apartheid, which meant black people had fewer rights, less wealth and were prevented from."— Presentation transcript:

1 Nothings Changed Culture South Africa: Once ruled by the law of apartheid, which meant black people had fewer rights, less wealth and were prevented from going to certain places compared to white people Surface Meaning The poet / voice writes about a walk / journey to a restaurant and working mens café explaining how each are very different Ideas, Attitudes, Feelings Ideas / Attitudes: Apartheid is / was wrong Things were supposed to changed In reality, although the political situation is resolved, some attitudes to racism remain the same Feelings: Anger Frustration Feeling of being an outsider Discriminated against Language Imagery Simile = flaring like a flag Metaphor = Hands burn … to shiver down the glass Personification: amiable weeds it squats = the restaurant Brash with glass = the restaurant bearded seeds Sound Patterns Assonance: Brash … glass … flag heels … seeds … weeds Alliteration: click … cuff … can … crunch = harsh k sounds Onomatopoeia: click … crunch Pun: whites only inn = could read whites only in O Inn = welcoming, hostel / hotel O In = included, allowed to enter Neither is true for black citizens glass: O glass ceiling (transparent barrier that prevents someone from going further or higher in life) O glass shatter easily just like broken promises and the power of lies I press my nose / to the clear panes = could read to the clear pains Semantic fields: Exclusion = guard, gatepost, whites only inn Luxury = glass, linen, rose, ice white, haute cuisine, up-market Squalid = plastic tables, bunny chows, wipe your fingers on your jeans, pit a little on the floor Anger = burning, bomb, stone, flaring like a flag Structure 6 stanzas of 8 lines each 1st stanza = Familiar, friendly – like someone returning to their childhood town for the first time in many years 2nd stanza (lines 11-16) = Sense of anger travels from the outside of his body to the inside – from his feet, to his hands, to his skin, to his bones, to his lungs, to his inward turning eyes Stanza 2 onwards = Hostility builds up – Everything he sees reminds him of when apartheid was enforced when he was a boy Line 45 to end = Hostility turns to fury Stanza 4 is broken up into 2: 2 lines then 6 lines The 2 line part of the stanza (lines 25 & 26) highlights the line No sign says it is: / but we know where we belong. This message comes in the middle of the poem and is highlighted as it breaks up the stanza pattern Contrasts: Restaurant (whites) vs. working mens café (blacks) Crushed ice white glass, linen, single rose vs. plastic tables, wipe your fingers on your jeans, spit a little on the floor Haute cuisine vs. bunny chows anger of eyes vs. amiable weeds locally grown (from that land, like the black people) vs. Port Jackson trees (imported, like the white people) Nothings Changed – title and last line = Circular, no end to the problems (futility, exasperation, anger)

2 Two Scavengers Culture America: Rich, powerful Western nation Many rich people but also growing underclass of poverty stricken people Surface Meaning While waiting at the traffic lights, two bin men on the back of a bin wagon look across at the two passengers of an expensive car. Ideas, Attitudes, Feelings Ideas: Great disparity of wealth and opportunity in the USA People in the same city are separated by social circumstances Strangers brought together in one brief moment Always look up to wealthy powerful people, but scavengers physically look down at them Attitudes: Garbagemen are real, beautiful people are distant and fake Is such a democratic society fair if there is such disparity? We become our jobs Feelings: Curiosity Envy Snobbery Social division Know your place Hope Possibility Beauty of human society in one brief moment Language Imagery - Simile: like some / gargoyle Quasimodo as if they were watching some / odorless TV ad Metaphor: And both scavengers gazing down / as from a great distance – bin men = vultures across the small gulf / in the high seas / of this / democracy – space between them is like a sea Personification: And the very red light for an instant holding all four close together Sound Patterns Alliteration = cool couple Rhyme = seas … democracy Pun: scavengers = bin men vultures feed off rich peoples waste and taxes small gulf = space between the cars space between their lives or the Sea Repetition: elegant x 2 light x 3 in which everything is always possible and as if anything at all were possible Semantic fields: Rich = elegant open Mercedes elegant couple in it hip three-piece linen suit sunglasses casually coifed architects office odorless TV ad Cheap = hanging on plastic blazers scavengers grungy iron hair Hair = shoulder length blond hair casually coifed grey iron hair long hair Watching = looking down x 2 gazing down Pronouns = they – the bin men Structure 4 stanzas (15 lines, 10 lines, 5 lines, 7 lines) 1st stanza = Sets the scene and describes beautiful people 2nd stanza = Garbagemen 3rd stanza = Garbagemen watching 4th stanza = Power of democratic red light to bring people together Free verse (no structured rhyme or rhythm) No punctuation except hyphens, apostrophes of possession and acronym full stops (e.g. a.m.) Instead of, or ; or : poet writes on another line and offsets it Capital at start indicates new sentence / line No punctuation = Free flowing like stream of consciousness Free approach to reading and performing & not and Contrasts: Title = Two Scavengers vs. Two Beautiful People bright yellow garbage truck vs. elegant open Mercedes two garbagemen vs. elegant couple red plastic blazers vs. hip three-piece linen suit shoulder-length blond hair vs. grey iron hair grungy from their route vs. odorless TV ad

3 Blessing Culture India: importance of religion (a kindly god, the blessing) Drought Surface Meaning In a village during a drought, a water pipe bursts and the people rush to collect it, play in it and celebrate the value of water in such times Ideas, Attitudes, Feelings Ideas: In a society where water is sometimes scarce it becomes the most precious commodity (water = silver) During a drought a sudden supply of water is cause for major celebration Attitudes: There is no sense of recrimination about the lack of water, only joy when it finally arrives Self-preservation (every man woman child … butts in) Feelings: Hope / desperation (Imagine the drip of it) Joy / excitement (roar of tongues, naked children / screaming in the liquid sun) Relief (as the blessing sings / over their small bones) Language Alliteration: small splash (s sound like the splash of water) polished to perfection Semantic fields: Water = water drip splash rush of fortune silver flow liquid sun (until the pipe bursts, the liquid sun is the closest thing to water but now everything, even the sun, has the joy of water about it) the blessing Pronouns = it (line 3) = water Structure 4 stanzas of unequal length: 1st stanza = The effect of no water 2nd stanza = The excitement and hope of possibility 3rd stanza = The effect of a burst pipe (flowing water) on the people of the village 4th stanza = The joy and aftermath of abundant water Regular use of punctuation No regular pattern of syllables per line Third person omniscient narrator – allows reader to appreciate the wider effect of a drought Contrasts: The skin cracks like a pod vs. their highlights polished to perfection small splash vs. silver crashes to the ground

4 Night of the Scorpion Culture India: A densely populated country with a large proportion living in relative poverty Religion stills forms an essential aspect of society Surface Meaning A child watches as their mother, having been stung by a scorpion, struggles against the poison as the rest of the village try to save her Ideas, Attitudes, Feelings Ideas: A strong belief in the battle between good and evil Attitudes: Faith in the power of religion and fate Feelings: The I voice of the child mentions no fear or concern for the mother but remains emotionally detached as if recounting a distant memory with a known ending Language Imagery Simile = The peasants came like swarms of flies Metaphor = buzzed the name of God (the peasants sound like flies as well) Personification: lanterns / throwing giant scorpion shadows may he sit still, they said (the scorpion poisoning maliciously) it lost its sting (the poison and the scorpion) Sound Patterns Alliteration: parting with his poison he risked the rain again movement … made … moved … Mothers (lines 16-17) poison purify poured … paraffin Repetition: May …, they said x 5 (like an incantation) More x 4 in lines I watched x 2 in lines God x 2 Semantic fields: Religion = name of God sins of your previous birth misfortunes of your next birth (reincarnation) Thank God Evil = diabolic tail the Evil One his poison the sum of evil / balanced in this unreal world Ritual = candles … lanterns purify your flesh they sat around / on the floor with my mother in the centre every curse and blessing I watched the holy man perform his rites Pronouns = I – voice of the poem, the child He – scorpion and father your – 2nd person reference to the mother they – the peasants / villagers Structure 6 stanzas of 8 lines each 1st stanza = Familiar, friendly – like someone returning to their childhood town for the first time in many years 2nd stanza (lines 11-16) = Sense of anger travels from the outside of his body to the inside – from his feet, to his hands, to his skin, to his bones, to his lungs, to his inward turning eyes Stanza 2 onwards = Hostility builds up – Everything he sees reminds him of when apartheid was enforced when he was a boy Line 45 to end = Hostility turns to fury Stanza 4 is broken up into 2: 2 lines then 6 lines The 2 line part of the stanza (lines 25 & 26) highlights the line No sign says it is: / but we know where we belong. This message comes in the middle of the poem and is highlighted as it breaks up the stanza pattern Contrasts: Restaurant (whites) vs. working mens café (blacks) Crushed ice white glass, linen, single rose vs. plastic tables, wipe your fingers on your jeans, spit a little on the floor Haute cuisine vs. bunny chows anger of eyes vs. amiable weeds locally grown (from that land, like the black people) vs. Port Jackson trees (imported, like the white people) Nothings Changed – title and last line = Circular, no end to the problems (futility, exasperation, anger)

5 Vultures Culture Nigeria: African country rich with wildlife Has suffered many civil wars and conflicts Surface Meaning The love between two vultures that feed on the dead together is compared to the love a World War 2 concentration camp Commandant has for his child after a day of murdering people Ideas, Attitudes, Feelings Ideas: Strange mix / link between love & death Hypocrisy / enigma of creature capable of evil still being capable of love Hypocrisy of those who kill as a job and go home like a normal family person Whether it is good that love comes even to the evil or it is bad because it perpetuates the evil Attitudes: Disbelief and mystery at this hypocrisy Anger and resentment at hypocrisy Fickle / untrue reality of love Feelings: Anger Resentment Disbelief Mystery Wonder Language Imagery Metaphor: a pebble / on a stem rooted in / a dump of gross / feathers = the vulture charnel-house – graveyard = the world (full of death) where the vultures live ogre = evil man, Commandant glow-worm tenderness icy caverns of a cruel heart Personification: despondent dawn broken bone of a dead tree love in other ways so particular Sound Patterns Assonance = swollen corpse in a water-logged trench Alliteration: drizzle of one despondent dawn broken bone Semantic fields: Love = his mate inclined affectionately love coil up there tender offspring Daddys return tiny glow-worm tenderness kindred love Structure 4 stanzas – irregular length (last 2 are similar in structure suggesting link and importance) 1st stanza = Vultures – love and togetherness in the midst of death around them 2nd stanza = Enigma of love in face of death and destruction 3rd stanza = Hypocrisy of murdering concentration camp leader who can go home to his loving family as if it was a normal job 4th stanza = Dichotomy of love even for evil people = either good that it is still possible or bad as it perpetuates the evil as they are not punished by having love taken away from them Limited punctuation allows poem to flow unhindered so that it sounds like a rant or something needing to be expressed passionately No regular syllable count / rhyme Third person omniscient narrator Contrasts: vultures & Commandant fumes of human roast vs. tender offspring grants even an ogre a tiny glow-worm tenderness vs. the perpetuity of evil

6 Limbo Culture West Indies: Colonised by European countries in the 18th century Slaves brought from Africa by these European countries to work in the sugar cane fields and other crops Surface Meaning During a customary limbo dance the dancer is reminded of the history of Afro- Caribbeans as slaves Ideas, Attitudes, Feelings Ideas: Although the limbo dance is now thought of as a spectacle for tourists, its history comes from the exercises slaves used to do to keep themselves fit on the slave ships Attitudes: If the limbo stick represents the shackles of slavery or life, then the dance is an act of liberation and a way to be free of these ties (figuratively and literally) (up up up / and the music is saving me) Feelings: Oppression Suffocation and being overwhelmed (the water surrounding me) There is no real sense of anger at slavery as you might expect but rather the sense of it, like the limbo stick, is an obstacle that can be overcome Release / Joy (and the drummers are praising me, and the dumb gods are raising me, and the music is saving me) Language Imagery Simile = limbo like me – either join me in this dance or I am in limbo Metaphor: And limbo stick is the silence in front of me long dark deck is the silence in front of me stick is the whip / and the dark deck is slavery Personification: and the dark still steady long dark deck and the silence is over me and the water is hiding and the music is saving me Sound Patterns Assonance: stick hit (harsh i sound like something being struck) stick is the whip (as above) stick knock (ck sound again like something being struck) Alliteration: limbo limbo like me (musical) dark deck Rhyme: Loose rhyme pattern where most lines end with me or: Lines = ready and steady Lines = slavery and slavery Onomatopoeia = knock Many other sound related words that are almost like onomatopoeia but not precisely such as stick, hit and whip Pun: Limbo = A dance from the Caribbean Place between heaven and hell The place outside of heaven and hell where babies who have not been christened go if they die Stick = The limbo beam which the dancer has to go beneath as well as The pole the slaves were chained to as they rowed the slave ships The stick that the slaves were beaten with Repetition: Limbo x 19 (including title) stick x 6 me x 18 dark x 8 Structure 24 stanzas of varying length No punctuation except final full stop at the end Loose structure and rhythm involving single lines or couplets followed by chorus of limbo limbo like me except from lines 32 to the end where the chorus is replaced three times by the actions of the dancer (down down down) Heavy beat to first line of some the couplets by using monosyllabic words without conjunctions (stick hit sound) followed by the more flowing next line that does use conjunctions (and the ship like it ready) The final four lines break from the loose rhythm of the poem by using words that do not have a forceful end to the syllable (hot / slow / step) with the final line breaking the pattern altogether by not ending in me

7 Island Man Culture Guyana: Country on the north coast of South America One of the poorest nations in the world Gained independence from Britain in 1966 Surface Meaning A man who used to live on a Caribbean island still dreams of this place even now when he lives in London Ideas, Attitudes, Feelings Ideas: Comparing the simple beautiful way of life on a Caribbean island to the noise and rush of a modern city When far away from home some people will over idealise it Never forget where you come from Attitudes: Island man does not seem to feel at home in London therefore there is a sense of being out of place and not belonging The opportunities of London are far removed from the beauties of the Caribbean Feelings: Homesick Idealising the past / previous home Regret Dull repetitive nature of present working life Language Imagery Metaphor = sands / of a grey metallic soar (London as an unpleasant beach) Personification: the sun surfacing defiantly to dull North Circular roar Sound Patterns Alliteration: sun surfacing Stanza 3 = Sands, soar, surge (like the sounds of the sea) Rhyme = Stanza 3 – soar and roar Pun = his crumpled pillow waves: the crumples on his pillow are in wave shapes the waves of the sea he still hears Repetition: groggily groggily muffling muffling Semantic fields: Island = blue surf wild seabirds fishermen small emerald island London = grey metallic soar surge of wheels dull North Circular roar Dreaming =wakes up in his head groggily crumpled pillow Pronouns = his - Island Man Structure 5 stanzas (last stanza is just one line for emphasis) not including the dedication at the beginning, which adds a sense of reality to the island man character No punctuation (except for brackets around the dedication) First 2 stanzas of the poem deal with the dreams or memories that the island man has of his home in the Caribbean and the idealised way he views it Final 3 stanzas deal with his new reality of London, which appears inferior in contrast No regular rhythm or syllable count – suggests disorientation or being out of place (in his subconscious mind, island man doesnt feel at home in London) Staggered placing of key lines (groggily groggily and to surge of wheels) emphasises them as well as suggesting displacement for the island man as well Capitals used only for: Morning – start of poem Comes back to sands – start of 3rd stanza and description of London (therefore a return to reality / present) North Circular – name of a road in London Another London day – capitalising Another suggests the start of (of the day / of a new sentence) as well as emphasising the importance of this word in terms of the repetitive nature of his current life Poem begins with Morning and ends with day – hope and possibility at the start of each morning, which is reduced to dull reality when he gets out of bed each day Contrasts: sound of blue surf vs. dull North Circular roar steady breaking and wombing (of the sea) vs. surge of wheels

8 What Were They Like? Culture Vietnam: South East Asian country ravaged by war in the 1960s and 70s with America Poor, predominately agriculture based economy America: Rich, powerful Western nation Thought of as peace-keepers in world politics by intervening where they feel it is appropriate Surface Meaning A question and answer session about the impact of the Vietnam War on the people of Vietnam Ideas, Attitudes, Feelings Ideas: Everything has changed for the Vietnamese people after the war (beauty and peace turned to sadness, grief and destruction) Attitudes: The peaceful simple lives of the Vietnamese people was shattered by the horror of war that the Americans brought with them Anti-war, pro peace Anti-American (despite poet being American) and pro- Vietnamese Feelings: No direct anger or recrimination towards Americans, but sense of sorrow and loss due to the horror of war and its impact Sadness Loss Matter of fact style Contempt for war Language Imagery Simile: their speech which was like a song their singing resembled the flight of moths in moonlight Metaphor: their light hearts turned to stone Semantic fields: Sadness = their light hearts turned to stone after the children were killed / there were no more buds) laughter is bitter to the burned mouth When bombs smashed those mirrors there was time only to scream It is silent now Horror = after the children were killed burned mouth All the bones were charred When bombs smashed those mirrors there was time only to scream Pronouns = they – the people of Vietnam Structure 2 stanzas 1st stanza = questions 2nd stanza = answers Can be read normally from line 1 to the end or by following the numbers to link each questions with its relevant answer Regular use of punctuation except line 15 which ends with a bracket ()) No regular syllable count per line or rhyme Rhythm is that of regular speech Sounds like conversation between everyday person (American) and a polite anti-war protestor (Sir …) Contrasts: Question & answer Before & after the war


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