Presentation on theme: "Ji-Yeon O. Jo, Ph.D. University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill CLAC 2008."— Presentation transcript:
Ji-Yeon O. Jo, Ph.D. University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill CLAC 2008
Status of Korean language programs in U.S. and at UNC-Chapel Hill Contemporary Contexts of foreign language/culture education Approaches of foreign language/culture education Integrating culture and language in Korean language classes Challenges and potentials of creating CLAC in Korean
Spoken by about 70 million people in the Korean peninsula and also by a sizable population outside of Korea (Song, 2005; Lee & Ramsey, 2000) Korean writing system is invented in 1443 and considered as one of the most scientific writing system in the world Economic power of Korea is 11 th in the world Over 4000 years of rich history Dynamic contemporary life
147+ colleges and universities offer Korean language program (CARLA) In 2006, 6908 undergraduate students and 237 graduate students were enrolled in Korean programs in 125 U.S. colleges and universities (MLA Enrollment Data, 2006) 88 colleges are members of AATK, but only 30 of these schools offer Korean culture courses (www.aatk.org)
First Korean language class: Fall, 2006 Currently offering KOR 101, 102, 203, 204, & 305 Enrollment: 49(2006-2007), 87 (2007-2008), 63 (Fall, 2008) Foreign Language Requirement Interdisciplinary major in Asian Studies (four courses in Korean and eight interdisciplinary courses)
Geopolitical context FL Learners Goals and meanings of FL education FL Educators Understanding Cultures
Geographical and political divisions Global Economic globalization International politics and conflicts National boundaries National National solidarity & unity Intra-national politics and economy Local
Immigration, transnational migration, and sojourning experiences “transnational migrants must learn to inhabit and maintain at least two identities and speak at least two cultural languages in order to navigate between the contexts they are living” (Hall, 1991) Multiplicity and hybridity of learner identities Identity is socially constructed and always in the process of becoming (Hall, 1990) Negotiate between the universal and the particular, create transitional cultural ‘borderlands’, and combine a sense of belonging with a sense of detachment (Giroux, 1992) Critical intercultural speaker “Someone who is committed to turn intercultural encounters into intercultural relationships whereby s/he deliberately exposes herself/himself to networks of meanings and forces and reflects critically upon them” (Guilherme, 2002)
May 2007 MLA report on FL and Higher Education To produce “educated speakers who have deep translingual and transcultural competence.” FL learners role : “informed and capable interlocutors with educated native speakers in the target language.”
FL educators have to be aware of that personhood, identity, culture, language, and power are intertwined (Hinkel ed. 2005, p. 891) and the relationship between these are complex, dynamic and constantly evolving. Language teachers as teachers of culture (Byram & Risager, 1999) Teachers as cultural workers (Freire, 2005) : Teachers need to critically reflect on the meaning of teaching and learning, continuously examining their positionality, their own beliefs and value and make these explicit to the learners, and create dialogic space between the learner and teacher.
Manuela Guilherme (2002) Teachers as 1) reflective practitioner Understanding of other culture may start from reflection of themselves (their identities and culture) 2) dialogic facilitator Language and culture teaching is dialogic process that emphasizes a teacher-student relationship of mutual respect, freedom of expression, and dialogic sharing (Byram & Feng, 2005, p. 916)
3)transformative intellectuals Learner and teacher agencies (Toohey, 2007, p.232) Transmissive vs. Transformative Teaching is never an ‘apolitical’ practice.
Common fallacies in integrating culture and language Facts-oriented culture teaching can be damaging to students understanding of the particular culture since it ignores the fact that culture is “a socially constructed product.” (Kramsch, 1993, p.205 in Byram & Feng, 2005). The facts-oriented cultural representation and integration easily essentialize a culture, reproduce cultural stereotypes, and creating “others”. Thus it hinders sincere appreciation and understanding of a culture.
Multiplicity and intersectionality of culture Present diversity and differences within a culture: Investigate different perspectives that can be found in the culture and compare them with diversity within the students own culture. Furthermore students and teachers need to recognize intersectionality of culture
Developing translingual and transcultural competence with critical cultural awareness Manuela Guilherme (2002) A Multiple-Perspective Approach An Interdisciplinary Approach A Critical Approach
Students Korean heritage students Non-heritage students Mixed-heritage students Adopted students
Reasons for learning Korean To communicate with family members and relatives To communicate with Korean friends To use Korean in career To appreciate and understand Korean pop culture better: Korean Wave ‘Hallyu’
Intermediate Korean Storytelling: Korean (and other) folktales Interview project: Interview a person who is currently working in the area where you would like to pursue your future career Individual/Group Project: Culture Project
Elementary Korean Everyday approach: Cultural implications that are embedded in words and expressions (i.e. language and gender, age, social status, educational level, relationship, etc).
Final Skit Project Students work in a group of 4-5 Group discussions: 20 -40 mins/wk in class and outside of class meetings Write a proposal: title, theme, content, supplementary materials and resources Develop skit: create contexts and dialogues for the skit Practice Present Reflect
Advanced Korean One-Day reporter: Current issues and news Critical examinations of news articles: the way lexical items, grammatical status of words, and syntactical choices construct meanings help students read the newspaper critically and unravel the ideological interests that motivate language in these news (Canagarajah, 2005, p.934)
Short Project (Music): Present their favorite singer and song Short Project (Advertisement): Critically examine advertisements and TV commercials to understand socio-cultural contexts of Korea Final Project
Over-stretched faculty time and workload Resource: Funding, Support Network, Materials, Community Lack of faculty who specializes in Korea-related issues to create a separate CLAC course Lack of professional development Structural Huddle Lecture/recitation division Limited contact hours Lower/Upper class power structure: Instructor/Class assignment
Small program size New program Flexibility in designing and implementing new approaches in language teaching
Byram, M. & Feng, A. (2005). Teaching and researching intercultural competence. In E. Hinkel (ed.) Handbook of Research in Second Language Teaching and Learning. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers: Mahwah, NJ Canagarajah, S. (2005). Critical pedagogy in L2 learning and teaching. In E. Hinkel (ed.) Handbook of Research in Second Language Teaching and Learning. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers: Mahwah, NJ Guilherme, M. (2002). Critical Citizens for an Intercultural World: Foreign Language Education as Cultural Politics Hinkel, E. (ed.) (2005). Handbook of Research in Second Language Teaching and Learning. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers: Mahwah, NJ Modern Language Association Enrollment Data (2006) retrieved from http://www.mla.org/pdf/enrollment/korean_2006.pdf http://www.mla.org/pdf/enrollment/korean_2006.pdf CARLA : http://www.carla.umn.edu/http://www.carla.umn.edu/ AATK: http://www.aatk.orghttp://www.aatk.org