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Evidence of Harm 1 EVIDENCE OF HARM – Presentation: SPRING 2006 David Kirby.

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1 Evidence of Harm 1 EVIDENCE OF HARM – Presentation: SPRING 2006 David Kirby

2 Evidence of Harm 2 Much of the following information may be found at:

3 Evidence of Harm 3 AUTISM BY THE NUMBERS: US & EUROPE USA s: 1-2 per 10,000 children USA s: 1-2 per 10,000 children USA – Late 1990s: 1 in 500 (2 per 1000) USA – Late 1990s: 1 in 500 (2 per 1000) USA – 2000: 1 in 250 (4 per 1000) USA – 2000: 1 in 250 (4 per 1000) USA – 2004: 1 in 166 (6 per 1000) Full blown: (4 per 1000) ASD: (2 per 1000) USA – 2004: 1 in 166 (6 per 1000) Full blown: (4 per 1000) ASD: (2 per 1000) UK – 2004: 1 in 166 (6 per 1000) Full blown: (2 per 1000) ASD: (4 per 1000) UK – 2004: 1 in 166 (6 per 1000) Full blown: (2 per 1000) ASD: (4 per 1000) Denmark – 2004: 1 in 1,300(0.8 per 1000) Denmark – 2004: 1 in 1,300(0.8 per 1000)

4 Evidence of Harm 4 OTHER POSSIBLE ENVIRONMENTAL TRIGGERS?? Mercury in fish/air/amalgams Mercury in fish/air/amalgams Pesticides Pesticides PCBs PCBs Flame retardants Flame retardants Jet fuel Jet fuel Live virus in vaccines (MMR) Live virus in vaccines (MMR) As-yet unidentified virus As-yet unidentified virus Rampant cell phone use Rampant cell phone use

5 Evidence of Harm 5 KNOW YOUR MERCURY (Hg) TYPE SOURCEEXPOSURE Elemental HgThermometersVapor AmalgamsLights/batteries Inorganic HgCoal power plantsAir pollutants (hydrophilic)Volcanoes Wildfires Organic Methyl HgFishIngestion (lypophilic) Organic Ethyl HgThimerosalVaccines (lypophilic)Fish(?)OTC Topicals

6 6 Maximum Hg exposure in 1 st year of life - US Childhood Schedule ? AGESHOTSHG CONTENT BIRTHHep B12.5mcg 8lb infant (3.6kg)– EPA Hg limit: 0.36mcg = 35 times over 4lb infant (1.8kg) – EPA Hg limit: 0.18mcg = 70 times over 2 MONTHSHep B12.5mcg HIb25.0mcg DTaP25.0mcg (subtotal for visit): 62.5mcg Avg. weight: 10lbs/4.5kg EPA limit: 0.45mcg = 138 times over 4 MONTHSHIb25.0mcg DTaP25.0 mcg (subtotal for visit):50.0 mcg Avg weight: 14lbs/6.5kg EPA limit: 0.65mcg = 72 times over

7 7 Maximum Hg exposure in 1 st year of life - US Childhood Schedule ? AGESHOTSHG CONTENT 6 MONTHSHiB25.0mcg DTaP25.0mcg (subtotal for visit):50.0mcg Avg. weight: 16lbs/7.3kg EPA limit: 0.73mcg = 68 times over 12 MONTHS HiB25.0mcg DTaP25.0mcg (subtotal for visit):50.0mcg Avg. weight: 20lbs/9kg EPA Hg limit: 0.9mcg = 55 times over TOTAL Hg EXPOSURE IN FIRST YEAR: 212.5mcg

8 8 ACRODYNIA (PINK DISEASE) Cause: Inorganic Hg used in teething powders Afflicted tens of thousands of children in s. Afflicted tens of thousands of children in s. Symptoms: weepy rash & peeling skin -AND- withdrawal, poor eye contact, poor coordination and muscle control, lethargy, repetitive behaviors, rocking, spastic movements, emotional outbursts, self-injury, sensitivity to light, visual impairments, drooling, insomnia, general ill health. Symptoms: weepy rash & peeling skin -AND- withdrawal, poor eye contact, poor coordination and muscle control, lethargy, repetitive behaviors, rocking, spastic movements, emotional outbursts, self-injury, sensitivity to light, visual impairments, drooling, insomnia, general ill health. 1-in-500 exposed children developed the disease. 1-in-500 exposed children developed the disease. Years passed before mercury poisoning was gradually accepted as the cause, despite stiff resistance by industry. Years passed before mercury poisoning was gradually accepted as the cause, despite stiff resistance by industry. By 1954, most mercury was eliminated from teething powders. Cases fell sharply and then disappeared entirely. By 1954, most mercury was eliminated from teething powders. Cases fell sharply and then disappeared entirely. Today, Pink disease is virtually unheard of. Today, Pink disease is virtually unheard of.

9 Evidence of Harm 9 CHILD WITH ACRODYNIACHILD WITH AUTISM (Mercury poisoning) (Will Redwood)

10 Evidence of Harm 10 INJECTING POISON?

11 Evidence of Harm MSDS – Ely Lilly: Use of chelating agents may be needed to treat ingestion of mercury

12 Evidence of Harm 12 TOTAL Hg BURDEN AND AUTISM RATES IN CALIFORNIA

13 Evidence of Harm 13 BOYD HALEY – NEUROTOXICITY Survival rates of neurons after 24 hour exposure to thimerosal, aluminum, antibiotics and testosterone--

14 Evidence of Harm 14 BRADSTREET ET. AL. – Autistic kids excrete 6 times more Hg

15 Evidence of Harm 15 Chelation results from autistic child

16 Evidence of Harm 16 Holmes, Haley and Blaxill Baby Haircut Study 2003 Autistic vs. Controls

17 17 Mady Hornig – Columbia University Hornig used one mouse strain with genetic Hg sensitivity and autoimmunity and two strains without them, then replicated the immunization schedule using thimerosal-containing vaccines. Sensitive mice showed significant delay in weight gain. Sensitive mice showed significant delay in weight gain. Sensitive mice had enlarged brains, noted in autistic children. Sensitive mice had enlarged brains, noted in autistic children. Behavioral impoverishment was highly significant the sensitive strain. Behavioral impoverishment was highly significant the sensitive strain. 40 percent of sensitive mice were self-mutilatory at six months, ie, frantically grooming or biting tails. 40 percent of sensitive mice were self-mutilatory at six months, ie, frantically grooming or biting tails. One mouse groomed through partners skull. One mouse groomed through partners skull.

18 Evidence of Harm 18 Jill James – Glutathione Depletion in Autistic Children Discovered that ASD kids have low or depleted levels of thiols, including glutathione – a powerful antioxidant. Discovered that ASD kids have low or depleted levels of thiols, including glutathione – a powerful antioxidant. Thiols, or mercaptans (mercury capturers) are the bodys natural defenses again heavy metals. Thiols, or mercaptans (mercury capturers) are the bodys natural defenses again heavy metals. Thiols are sulfur based – sulfur binds with metals and eliminates them from system. Thiols are sulfur based – sulfur binds with metals and eliminates them from system. Low thiols levels are thought to be based on genes and possible mercury exposure (See: R. Deth). Low thiols levels are thought to be based on genes and possible mercury exposure (See: R. Deth).

19 Evidence of Harm 19 THE BURBACHER STUDY Compared ethylmercury from thimerosal and methylmercury from fish. Compared ethylmercury from thimerosal and methylmercury from fish. Methylmercury remained in blood longer and crossed blood-brain barrier more. Methylmercury remained in blood longer and crossed blood-brain barrier more. Highlighted in govt press release, reported in media. Take home message: Ethylmercury less hazardous. Highlighted in govt press release, reported in media. Take home message: Ethylmercury less hazardous.HOWEVER… Ethyl degrades into inorganic mercury much faster than methyl. Ethyl degrades into inorganic mercury much faster than methyl. Twice as much inorganic Hg deposited in brains of the ethyl over methyl group. Twice as much inorganic Hg deposited in brains of the ethyl over methyl group. Half the methyl-exposed brains had no undetectable inorganic Hg Half the methyl-exposed brains had no undetectable inorganic Hg

20 Evidence of Harm 20 Round Up of Recent Published Biological Evidence UC Davis M.I.N.D. Institute – Miniscule amounts of thimerosal can kill immune (dendritic) cells, cause cytokine imbalances and inflammation. UC Davis M.I.N.D. Institute – Miniscule amounts of thimerosal can kill immune (dendritic) cells, cause cytokine imbalances and inflammation. University of Washington – Thimerosal converts rapidly to inorganic Hg in primate brains. Inorganic Hg can get trapped and spark brain inflammation. University of Washington – Thimerosal converts rapidly to inorganic Hg in primate brains. Inorganic Hg can get trapped and spark brain inflammation. Harvard University – Autistic brains show signs of neuro- inflammation caused by autoimmune reaction, possibly due to heavy metals. Harvard University – Autistic brains show signs of neuro- inflammation caused by autoimmune reaction, possibly due to heavy metals. Northeastern University – Thimerosal interferes with methylation – needed for nerve development, etc. Northeastern University – Thimerosal interferes with methylation – needed for nerve development, etc. Columbia University – Thimerosal affects auto-immune strain of mice, but not typical strain. Columbia University – Thimerosal affects auto-immune strain of mice, but not typical strain. University of Arkansas – Autistic kids have depleted levels of mercaptans. University of Arkansas – Autistic kids have depleted levels of mercaptans. University of Washington – Home videos prove regression. University of Washington – Home videos prove regression. University of Texas – Children living nearer to coal plants have significantly increased risk of autism. University of Texas – Children living nearer to coal plants have significantly increased risk of autism.

21 21 AGAINST THE THIMEROSAL THEORY: MAJOR PLAYERS ELI LILLY & CO – Invented product, has license agreements until 2010; defendant in lawsuits. ELI LILLY & CO – Invented product, has license agreements until 2010; defendant in lawsuits. MERCK, GLAXO, ETC – Vaccine makers, lawsuit defendants. MERCK, GLAXO, ETC – Vaccine makers, lawsuit defendants. FDA – Asleep at the switch - Failed to add Hg totals; no safety studies; poor lit review (missed articles in own library); refusal to recall. FDA – Asleep at the switch - Failed to add Hg totals; no safety studies; poor lit review (missed articles in own library); refusal to recall. CDC – Conflict in promoting and monitoring vaccines; aggressive use of immunization schedule; secret analyses of embargoed government data; funding of questionable studies; refusal to recommend Hg-free vaccines. CDC – Conflict in promoting and monitoring vaccines; aggressive use of immunization schedule; secret analyses of embargoed government data; funding of questionable studies; refusal to recommend Hg-free vaccines.

22 22 AGAINST THE THIMEROSAL THEORY: MAJOR POINTS No epidemic of autism (the Hidden Horde?). No epidemic of autism (the Hidden Horde?). Hg levels in vaccines very low. Hg levels in vaccines very low. Ethyl Hg less toxic than Methyl Hg (Pichichero, NIAID, Offit). Ethyl Hg less toxic than Methyl Hg (Pichichero, NIAID, Offit). Autism not same as Hg poisoning (Nelson & Bauman). Autism not same as Hg poisoning (Nelson & Bauman). Theory is motivated by greed, emotion, & revenge. Theory is motivated by greed, emotion, & revenge. 4-year CDC study of federal database shows little to no neurological damage from Hg in childhood vaccines. 4-year CDC study of federal database shows little to no neurological damage from Hg in childhood vaccines. No consistent evidence of harm found in five major epidemiological studies: IOM. No consistent evidence of harm found in five major epidemiological studies: IOM.

23 Evidence of Harm 23 THIMEROSAL EXPOSURE & AUTISM RATES IN DENMARK

24 Evidence of Harm 24 VSD 5 GENERATIONS

25 25 Generation Zero Nov-Dec 1999 Recently rediscovered. First run of the numbers. Very high relative risks for outcomes. Autism RR = 7.6 UNPUBLISHED STUDY OBTAINED THROUGH FOIA UNPUBLISHED STUDY OBTAINED THROUGH FOIA

26 Evidence of Harm 26 VSD: Generation Zero

27 Evidence of Harm 27 Generation 1 Verstraeten 2/2000 Verstraeten reruns numbers, risks are lower. Still, significant outcomes just wont go away. Autism RR = 2.48 UNPUBLISHED STUDY OBTAINED THROUGH FOIA

28 Evidence of Harm 28 IT JUST WONT GO AWAY

29 Evidence of Harm 29 VSD Generation 1: Autism (Verstraeten – 2/2000)

30 Evidence of Harm 30 VSD Generation 2: Autism (Simpsonwood & ACIP 6/2000)

31 Evidence of Harm 31 Generation 2: NDDs (Simpsonwood & ACIP 6/2000)

32 Evidence of Harm 32 Generation 2: Language Disorder (Simpsonwood & ACIP 6/2000)

33 Evidence of Harm 33 VSD Generation 3: Autism (IOM Presentation 7/2001)

34 Evidence of Harm 34 Generation 4: Autism (Pediatrics Article, 11/2003) Vol. 112 No. 5 November 2003, pp

35 Evidence of Harm Autism Risks Across 5 Generations GEN 0GEN 1GEN 2GEN 3 GEN

36 Evidence of Harm 36

37 37 Young Cohort Reduces Signal Over one quarter of the children were under the age of ascertainment for autism - 44 months - causing the signal to disappear. – Mark Blaxill Over one quarter of the children were under the age of ascertainment for autism - 44 months - causing the signal to disappear. – Mark Blaxill There is certainly an under-ascertainment of cases. Some children are just not old enough to be diagnosed. Crude incidence rates are much lower because the cohort is still very young. – Thomas Verstraeten There is certainly an under-ascertainment of cases. Some children are just not old enough to be diagnosed. Crude incidence rates are much lower because the cohort is still very young. – Thomas Verstraeten A CDC official accepted the critics charge that it contained many children too young to be diagnosed as autistic. This is true, said scientist Frank DeStefano, - Neil Munro, National Journal A CDC official accepted the critics charge that it contained many children too young to be diagnosed as autistic. This is true, said scientist Frank DeStefano, - Neil Munro, National Journal

38 Evidence of Harm 38 SIMPSONWOOD CONFERENCE JUNE Atlanta You can play with this all you want, but the relationships are linear and statistically significant… Weve got a serious problem. To think there isnt some possible problem here is unreal. Dr. William Weil, Pediatrician - AAP

39 Evidence of Harm 39 My gut feeling? It worries me enough. My daughter-in-law (just) delivered a son, and I do not want that grandson to get a thimerosal containing vaccine until we know better what is going on. Dr. David Johnson, ACIP

40 Evidence of Harm 40 AVENUES OF INVESTIGATION?

41 41 Federal Investigations Office of Special Council (OIC) seeking Federal whistleblowers Office of Special Council (OIC) seeking Federal whistleblowers HHS Office of Inspector General (OIG) and CDC Office of Investigation (OI): Special Agent seeing if officials deliberately manipulated taxpayer funded data (VSD) to eliminate an association. HHS Office of Inspector General (OIG) and CDC Office of Investigation (OI): Special Agent seeing if officials deliberately manipulated taxpayer funded data (VSD) to eliminate an association. HHS/OIG & CDC/OI: Special Agents investigating allegations that CDC officials blocked VSD access and lost, destroyed or did not properly maintain previously analyzed datasets (Verstraeten). A violation of Data Access Law and the Data Quality Act. HHS/OIG & CDC/OI: Special Agents investigating allegations that CDC officials blocked VSD access and lost, destroyed or did not properly maintain previously analyzed datasets (Verstraeten). A violation of Data Access Law and the Data Quality Act. FDA Office of Criminal Investigations – Criminal inspectors investigating withholding and/or misrepresentations made to the FDA by Eli Lilly and the vaccine makers on thimerosal safety data. FDA Office of Criminal Investigations – Criminal inspectors investigating withholding and/or misrepresentations made to the FDA by Eli Lilly and the vaccine makers on thimerosal safety data. FDA Division of Internal Affairs – Special Agent: Did FDA personnel know that vaccines marketed without accurate package insert? Was grievous injury inflicted on kids from negligence and/or conflicts of interest on the part of FDA? FDA Division of Internal Affairs – Special Agent: Did FDA personnel know that vaccines marketed without accurate package insert? Was grievous injury inflicted on kids from negligence and/or conflicts of interest on the part of FDA?

42 Evidence of Harm 42 US SENATE ACTION 2005 Mike Enzi (R-WY) and the H.E.L.P Committee investigators Mike Enzi (R-WY) and the H.E.L.P Committee investigators Joe Lieberman (D-CT) – Bill to open up access to VSD – RECENT LETTER TO NIEHS Joe Lieberman (D-CT) – Bill to open up access to VSD – RECENT LETTER TO NIEHS Dodd (D-CT) and Santorum (R-PA) on record (Imus) in favor of inquest Dodd (D-CT) and Santorum (R-PA) on record (Imus) in favor of inquest Chuck Hagel (R-NE) Bill to ban mercury in Vaccines Chuck Hagel (R-NE) Bill to ban mercury in Vaccines Bill Frist (R-TN) Agrees to meet with parents Bill Frist (R-TN) Agrees to meet with parents Richard Burr (R-NC) intros bill that could restrict legal rights of plaintiffs Richard Burr (R-NC) intros bill that could restrict legal rights of plaintiffs

43 Evidence of Harm 43 Letter from Sen. Lieberman et al to the NIEHS, RE: VSD Access

44 Evidence of Harm 44 DATA SETS GO MISSING Federal law requires all publicly funded data and datasets be properly maintained. A felony to deliberately lose or destroy records. CDC official testified that some datasets hadnt been archived in a standard manner, and, may not allow all the re-analyses that one might want to do, or in fact may not be available at all. IOM committee, citing federal Information Quality Act, recommended that vaccine officials seek legal advice.

45 Evidence of Harm 45 BURBACHER PRESS RELEASE Nothing about inorganic Hg reported in the press release or media. Nothing about inorganic Hg reported in the press release or media. Lead author Thomas Burbacher requested revision, but damage was done. Lead author Thomas Burbacher requested revision, but damage was done. Corrected release issued - still omitted crucial details. Corrected release issued - still omitted crucial details. Said: inorganic Hg affects white matter in primates and similar trends seen in autism Said: inorganic Hg affects white matter in primates and similar trends seen in autism BUT omitted: Thimerosal deposited significantly higher amounts of inorganic mercury in brain. Essentially made the revision senseless. BUT omitted: Thimerosal deposited significantly higher amounts of inorganic mercury in brain. Essentially made the revision senseless. Press release issued by PR firm with clients such as Eli Lilly and Pfizer. Press release issued by PR firm with clients such as Eli Lilly and Pfizer.

46 Evidence of Harm 46 WHY DID IOM BASE DECISION ON EPI STUDIES? Epidemiology not acceptable to disprove causation: Federal Court System. Epidemiology not acceptable to disprove causation: Federal Court System. Epidemiological studies were questioned by lead investigators themselves, ie-- Epidemiological studies were questioned by lead investigators themselves, ie-- Danish authors: exponential expansion of patients (inpatient-outpatient) may have spuriously increased the apparent number of autism cases. Danish authors: exponential expansion of patients (inpatient-outpatient) may have spuriously increased the apparent number of autism cases. Verstraeten: We found no evidence against an association, as a negative study would. On the contrary, additional study is recommended, which is the conclusion to which a neutral study must come. Verstraeten: We found no evidence against an association, as a negative study would. On the contrary, additional study is recommended, which is the conclusion to which a neutral study must come. IOM final report: Cannot rule out, based on the epidemiology, possibility that vaccines contribute to autism in some small subset. IOM final report: Cannot rule out, based on the epidemiology, possibility that vaccines contribute to autism in some small subset.

47 Evidence of Harm 47 DID CDC EXERT UNDUE PRESSURE ON IOM? 2 transcripts and handwritten notes leaked. 2 transcripts and handwritten notes leaked. Marie McCormick: [CDC] wants us to declare vaccines safe on a population basis. Marie McCormick: [CDC] wants us to declare vaccines safe on a population basis. Fineberg complained, taken out of context. McCormick wanted to address individual risks due to parental concerns. Fineberg complained, taken out of context. McCormick wanted to address individual risks due to parental concerns. Why is a scientist fixated on parents? Who overruled her and why? Why is a scientist fixated on parents? Who overruled her and why? What context CDC wants us to declare ok? What context CDC wants us to declare ok?

48 Evidence of Harm 48 MORE IOM QUOTES Kathleen Stratton: The line we will not cross in public policy is to pull the vaccine, change the schedule. Kathleen Stratton: The line we will not cross in public policy is to pull the vaccine, change the schedule. Gerald Medoff: You just want us to say the evidence favors rejection of the hypothesis? Gerald Medoff: You just want us to say the evidence favors rejection of the hypothesis? McCormick: Yes, thats what they want to say. McCormick: Yes, thats what they want to say.

49 Evidence of Harm 49 STILL MORE IOM QUOTES Stratton: There are pros and cons of letting them determine the topic– to be expedient, it is better that they determine it. Stratton: There are pros and cons of letting them determine the topic– to be expedient, it is better that they determine it. Alfred Berg: They are paying for it. Alfred Berg: They are paying for it. Stratton: We can shape it a little. We have-- you know, what are the boundaries. Does that make you feel any better? Stratton: We can shape it a little. We have-- you know, what are the boundaries. Does that make you feel any better? Berg: Now I am curious what other parts of the methods CDC has figured out for us. Berg: Now I am curious what other parts of the methods CDC has figured out for us. Berg: CDC is one of the malefactors on this issue, because they are always pushing to go beyond the data and say yes, vaccines are safe. Berg: CDC is one of the malefactors on this issue, because they are always pushing to go beyond the data and say yes, vaccines are safe.

50 Evidence of Harm 50 IOM CHANGES RULES OF ENGAGEMENT HALFWAY THROUGH Went from looking at biological plausibility to biological mechanisms Went from looking at biological plausibility to biological mechanisms IOM said plausibility was confusing IOM said plausibility was confusing

51 Evidence of Harm 51

52 Evidence of Harm 52

53 Evidence of Harm 53 California: Quarterly Increases in %

54 Evidence of Harm year olds Quarterly numbers are mixed QUARTERTotal # children Net gain Change in 3-5 years old net gain 1Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q

55 Evidence of Harm 55 But yearly trends for 3-5 year olds are down… YearNet Gain % Change ages n/a % %

56 Evidence of Harm 56 THE SCIENCE: SEARCH FOR A CURE

57 Evidence of Harm 57 KNOW YOUR THIOLS Thiol – A class of sulfur-based proteins that bind with heavy metals and eliminate them from the system. Thiol – A class of sulfur-based proteins that bind with heavy metals and eliminate them from the system. Thiols include – Glutathione, cysteine and metallothioneine. Thiols include – Glutathione, cysteine and metallothioneine. Synonym for thiol = mercaptan from the Latin mercurium captans: literally mercury capturer. Synonym for thiol = mercaptan from the Latin mercurium captans: literally mercury capturer.

58 Evidence of Harm 58 MERCAPTANS AT WORK MERCAPTANS AT WORK Two main chelating agents: DMSA: Di-Mercapto-Succinic Acid IV, or more typically in children, orally. Most commonly used. Safest? DMPS: Di-Mercapto-Propane-Sulfonate Transdermal patch. Controversial and untested. Anecdotal evidence shows great potency. Miraculous recoveries reported by parents and doctors.

59 59 JAMES: Rebuild Metabolic Profile? Methionine metabolites (methionine, cysteine, glutathione) in 20 children with autism compared vs. controls revealed severely abnormal profiles. Methionine metabolites (methionine, cysteine, glutathione) in 20 children with autism compared vs. controls revealed severely abnormal profiles. Targeted nutritional intervention for three weeks with Folinic acid, and Betaine (1000 mg. BID) resulted in significant improvement in methylation capacity in children with autism. Targeted nutritional intervention for three weeks with Folinic acid, and Betaine (1000 mg. BID) resulted in significant improvement in methylation capacity in children with autism. Addition of methyl B-12 to cocktail brought all autistic children within normal levels of methionine, cysteine and glutathione Addition of methyl B-12 to cocktail brought all autistic children within normal levels of methionine, cysteine and glutathione

60 Evidence of Harm 60 METHYLATION Occurs billions of times a day within cells Occurs billions of times a day within cells Transfer of a methyl group (1 carbon & 3 hydrogen atoms) from one molecule to another. Transfer of a methyl group (1 carbon & 3 hydrogen atoms) from one molecule to another. Why important? Every cell contains the same DNA and can do same things. Why important? Every cell contains the same DNA and can do same things. Methyl groups shut down genes that arent supposed to be active. Methyl groups shut down genes that arent supposed to be active. Methylation critical to normal DNA function and gene expression. Methylation critical to normal DNA function and gene expression. Also needed for fatty acids for nerve development & myelin sheath. Also needed for fatty acids for nerve development & myelin sheath. Essential for glutathione and thiol production Essential for glutathione and thiol production Greatly impaired by thimerosal in test tube through inhibition of methionine synthase Greatly impaired by thimerosal in test tube through inhibition of methionine synthase

61 Evidence of Harm 61 METHYLATION: NEEDED FOR METHIONINE CYCLE AND TRANSULFURATION PATHWAY

62 Evidence of Harm 62 Thimerosals Legacy? Autism rarely reported outside industrialized countries until recently. Autism rarely reported outside industrialized countries until recently. China: Merck and Glaxo-SmithKline have aggressive pediatric marketing campaigns. China: Merck and Glaxo-SmithKline have aggressive pediatric marketing campaigns. Xinhua: Autism suddenly skyrocketed from nearly nothing to 1.8 million in BETTER DIAGNOSIS? Xinhua: Autism suddenly skyrocketed from nearly nothing to 1.8 million in BETTER DIAGNOSIS? 20% growth rate, higher than world average of 14%. 20% growth rate, higher than world average of 14%. Other increases in Indonesia, Argentina, India and Nigeria. Other increases in Indonesia, Argentina, India and Nigeria. What if the profitable export of our much vaunted medical technology has led to the poisoning of tens of thousands of children? What if the profitable export of our much vaunted medical technology has led to the poisoning of tens of thousands of children?


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