Presentation on theme: "Module 1: Chemical and Physical Characteristics of Biodiesel Fuels"— Presentation transcript:
1Module 1: Chemical and Physical Characteristics of Biodiesel Fuels
2ObjectiveUpon the successful completion of this module, participants will be able to describe the chemical and physical differences between pure gasoline, petrodiesel, and biodiesel.
3Introduction Can be: Domestically produced Renewable Made from new & used plant oils, animal fats, & recycled restaurant grease
4Introduction Physical properties of biodiesel similar to petrodiesel Reduces greenhouse gas emissions & release of toxic pollutantsBiodegradableAdaptable
5Commercial Biodiesel Production Plants Copyright National Biodiesel Board, reprinted with permission
6Biodiesel Production Plants Under Construction or Expansion Copyright National Biodiesel Board, reprinted with permission
7Uses of Biodiesel and Biodiesel Blends Fuel for vehicles most common useHeating fuel in commercial & domestic boilers:BioheatProperty of DOE, reprinted with permission
8Ethanol Versus Biodiesel Made by combining alcohol with food sugarsUsed in gasoline enginesMiscible with water
9Ethanol Versus Biodiesel Made by using alcohol to remove glycerin from plant oilsOnly used in diesel enginesImmiscibleProperty of DOE, reprinted with permission
10The Nature of Biodiesel Under some conditions:Biodiesel-blended fuels will retain petroleum-based fuel characteristicsUnder other conditions:May exhibit polar solvent-type characteristicsProperty of DOE, reprinted with permission
11Activity 1.1 — Definitions Purpose:To allow participants to identify the definitions related to biodiesel.
12Characteristics of Gasoline (Hydrocarbon) Similar characteristics whether flammable / combustible liquidsProduced from crude oil by fractional distillationImmiscible / InsolubleFlash point -45°F (-43°C) (depending on octane rating)
13Characteristics of Gasoline (Hydrocarbon) Vapor density between 3 & 4:Gasoline vapors seek low levels / remain close to ground levelSpecific gravity of 0.72–0.76:Will float on top of waterAuto-ignition temperature between 536°F & 853°F (280°C & 456°C)Boiling point between 100°F & 400°F (38°C & 204°C)
14Characteristics of Gasoline (Hydrocarbon) Not considered poisonous:Harmful effects after long-term & high-level exposureCan lead to respiratory failureSmoke from burning gasoline is black & has toxic componentsGreatest hazard is flammability:Fairly narrow range of flammability
15Characteristics of Petroleum Diesel Produced from petroleumProduct of distillation of crude oilAmber in colorImmiscibleHigh boiling point of > 300°F (> 149°C)Property of DOE, reprinted with permission
16Characteristics of Petroleum Diesel Low vapor pressure: 0.40 mmHgFlash point between 100°F & 160°F (38°C & 71°C)Specific gravity between 0.82 & 0.95Vapor density > 1
17Characteristics of Petroleum Diesel Exposure:Irritation to eyesDamage to respiratory systemClass B firesCopyright 2008, TEEX/ESTI
18Characteristics of Biodiesel Liquid varying in colorImmiscibleHigh boiling point of 360–640°F (182–338°C)Low vapor pressure: < 2 mmHgFlash point 199°F (93°C)
19Characteristics of Biodiesel Specific gravity between 0.86 & 0.90Vapor density > 1Less hazardous in terms of flammability
20Activity 1.2 — Comparison of Gasoline, Petrodiesel, and Biodiesel Purpose:To allow participants to discuss the differences & similarities in the chemical & physical properties of biodiesel, petrodiesel, & gasoline.
21Biodiesel-Blended Fuels Can be used alone / blendedB20: 20% biodieselB99: 99% biodieselB100: pure biodieselProperty of DOE, reprinted with permission
22Biodiesel-Blended Fuels Mixing biodiesel fuels:At the plantSplash mixed in tanker trucksLine-mixed
23Summary Biodiesel plentiful & nonflammable in natural state Important to know percentage of biodiesel in biodiesel-blended product:Converse relationship between biodiesel level & flammability