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Module 1: Chemical and Physical Characteristics of Biodiesel Fuels.

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Presentation on theme: "Module 1: Chemical and Physical Characteristics of Biodiesel Fuels."— Presentation transcript:

1 Module 1: Chemical and Physical Characteristics of Biodiesel Fuels

2 2 Objective Upon the successful completion of this module, participants will be able to describe the chemical and physical differences between pure gasoline, petrodiesel, and biodiesel.

3 Introduction Can be: –Domestically produced –Renewable –Made from new & used plant oils, animal fats, & recycled restaurant grease 3

4 4 Introduction Physical properties of biodiesel similar to petrodiesel Reduces greenhouse gas emissions & release of toxic pollutants Biodegradable Adaptable

5 Commercial Biodiesel Production Plants 5 Copyright National Biodiesel Board, reprinted with permission

6 Biodiesel Production Plants Under Construction or Expansion 6 Copyright National Biodiesel Board, reprinted with permission

7 Uses of Biodiesel and Biodiesel Blends Fuel for vehicles most common use Heating fuel in commercial & domestic boilers: –Bioheat 7 Property of DOE, reprinted with permission

8 Ethanol Versus Biodiesel Ethanol: –Made by combining alcohol with food sugars –Used in gasoline engines –Miscible with water 8

9 Ethanol Versus Biodiesel Biodiesel: –Made by using alcohol to remove glycerin from plant oils –Only used in diesel engines –Immiscible 9 Property of DOE, reprinted with permission

10 The Nature of Biodiesel Under some conditions: –Biodiesel-blended fuels will retain petroleum-based fuel characteristics Under other conditions: –May exhibit polar solvent-type characteristics 10 Property of DOE, reprinted with permission

11 Activity 1.1 Definitions Purpose: –To allow participants to identify the definitions related to biodiesel. 11

12 Characteristics of Gasoline (Hydrocarbon) Similar characteristics whether flammable / combustible liquids Produced from crude oil by fractional distillation Immiscible / Insoluble Flash point -45°F (-43°C) (depending on octane rating) 12

13 13 Characteristics of Gasoline (Hydrocarbon) Vapor density between 3 & 4: –Gasoline vapors seek low levels / remain close to ground level Specific gravity of 0.72–0.76: –Will float on top of water Auto-ignition temperature between 536°F & 853°F (280°C & 456°C) Boiling point between 100°F & 400°F (38°C & 204°C)

14 14 Characteristics of Gasoline (Hydrocarbon) Not considered poisonous: –Harmful effects after long-term & high-level exposure –Can lead to respiratory failure Smoke from burning gasoline is black & has toxic components Greatest hazard is flammability: –Fairly narrow range of flammability

15 Characteristics of Petroleum Diesel Produced from petroleum Product of distillation of crude oil Amber in color Immiscible High boiling point of > 300°F (> 149°C) 15 Property of DOE, reprinted with permission

16 Characteristics of Petroleum Diesel Low vapor pressure: 0.40 mmHg Flash point between 100°F & 160°F (38°C & 71°C) Specific gravity between 0.82 & 0.95 Vapor density > 1 16

17 Characteristics of Petroleum Diesel Exposure: –Irritation to eyes –Damage to respiratory system Class B fires 17 Copyright 2008, TEEX/ESTI

18 Characteristics of Biodiesel Liquid varying in color Immiscible High boiling point of 360–640°F (182–338°C) Low vapor pressure: < 2 mmHg Flash point 199°F (93°C) 18

19 Characteristics of Biodiesel Specific gravity between 0.86 & 0.90 Vapor density > 1 Less hazardous in terms of flammability 19

20 Activity 1.2 Comparison of Gasoline, Petrodiesel, and Biodiesel Purpose: –To allow participants to discuss the differences & similarities in the chemical & physical properties of biodiesel, petrodiesel, & gasoline. 20

21 Biodiesel-Blended Fuels Can be used alone / blended B20: 20% biodiesel B99: 99% biodiesel B100: pure biodiesel 21 Property of DOE, reprinted with permission

22 Biodiesel-Blended Fuels Mixing biodiesel fuels: –At the plant –Splash mixed in tanker trucks –Line-mixed 22

23 Summary Biodiesel plentiful & nonflammable in natural state Important to know percentage of biodiesel in biodiesel-blended product: –Converse relationship between biodiesel level & flammability 23


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