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Objective Upon the successful completion of this module, participants will be able to describe the chemical and physical differences between pure gasoline.

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Presentation on theme: "Objective Upon the successful completion of this module, participants will be able to describe the chemical and physical differences between pure gasoline."— Presentation transcript:

1 Module 2: Chemical and Physical Characteristics of Ethanol and Hydrocarbon Fuels

2 Objective Upon the successful completion of this module, participants will be able to describe the chemical and physical differences between pure gasoline and gasoline / ethanol-blended fuels.

3 Introduction Characteristics of polar solvents & hydrocarbons, their differences, & how they interact Conditions under which ethanol-blended fuels will retain certain characteristics of types of fuel Help emergency responders mitigate various incidents according to conditions found

4 Activity 2.1 — Definitions
Purpose: To allow participants to identify the definitions related to ethanol & ethanol-blended fuels.

5 Characteristics of Gasoline (A Hydrocarbon)
Similar characteristics whether flammable / combustible liquids Produced from crude oil by fractional distillation Immiscible Flash point -45°F

6 Characteristics of Gasoline (A Hydrocarbon)
Vapor density between 3 & 4: Gasoline vapors seek low levels / remain close to ground level Specific gravity of 0.70–0.78: Will float on top of water Auto-ignition temperature > 530°F Boiling point between 85°F & 437°F

7 Characteristics of Gasoline (A Hydrocarbon)
Not considered poisonous for placarding purposes: Harmful effects after long-term & high-level exposure Can lead to respiratory failure Smoke from burning gasoline is black & has toxic components Greatest hazard is flammability: Fairly narrow range of flammability

8 Immiscibility — Gasoline / Ethanol
Figure 2 Figure 1 Figure 3 Copyright 2009, IAFC

9 Characteristics of Pure Ethanol (A Polar Solvent)
Ethanol used with motor fuels must be denatured with 2–5% gasoline / similar hydrocarbon before transport to bulk storage facilities Denaturant has minimal effects on characteristics

10 Characteristics of Pure Ethanol (A Polar Solvent)
Renewable fuel source produced by fermentation & distillation process Most common source in U.S. is corn Polar solvent Totally miscible Flash point 54°F Property of Wikimedia® Commons, reprinted with permission

11 Characteristics of Pure Ethanol (A Polar Solvent)
Vapor density of 1.60: Heavier than air Vapors do not rise Specific gravity 0.79: Lighter than water Miscible: thoroughly mix with water Auto-ignition temperature 685°F

12 Characteristics of Pure Ethanol (A Polar Solvent)
Boiling point 173°F Less toxic than gasoline / methanol Carcinogenic compounds not present in pure ethanol Greatest hazard as motor fuel component is flammability: Wider flammable range than gasoline: (3.3–19%)

13 Flash Point Exercise 2.4% denatured (E-98) ethanol 15°F temperature
Property of Steve Hergenreter, reprinted with permission

14 Video Watch the video clip “Flash Point Test:”
Ethanol with an MSDS-listed flash point of 49°F being lit at 15°F Property of Wikimedia® Commons, reprinted with permission

15 Copyright 2009, IAFC

16 Characteristics of Pure Ethanol (A Polar Solvent)
In pure form no visible smoke & visible flame In denatured form little to no smoke & slight orange flame will be visible Ethanol & some ethanol blends can conduct electricity Large amounts of water required to dilute ethanol to no longer support combustion

17 Invisible Flames — Pure Ethanol
Incorporate use of thermal imaging camera into SOPs Taken at a foam comparison exercise Shot taken after non-AR foam dissolved Watch the video clip “Invisible Fire: E-100” Copyright 2009, IAFC

18 Shot of Ethanol Fire Through Thermal Imaging Camera
Property of Steve Hergenreter, reprinted with permission

19 Activity 2.2 — Comparison of Gasoline and Pure Ethanol
Purpose: To allow participants to discuss the differences & similarities in the chemical & physical properties of pure ethanol & gasoline.

20 Characteristics of Ethanol-Blended Fuels
Ethanol increases the ability of gasoline to burn cleaner: Lower emissions from unburned hydrocarbons Minimal amounts of water will draw ethanol out of blend away from gasoline: Ethanol & gasoline more suspension than solution

21 Characteristics of Ethanol-Blended Fuels
Gasoline floating on layer of ethanol / water solution Resulting ethanol / water solution still flammable Property of Wikimedia® Commons, reprinted with permission

22 Characteristics of Ethanol-Blended Fuels
Blending fuels alters physical & chemical characteristics of original fuels: Visual difference of smoke & flame characteristics: Higher content of ethanol, less visible black smoke content & orange flame production

23 Characteristics of Ethanol-Blended Fuels
Blending fuels alters physical & chemical characteristics of original fuels: When foam / water flowed on burning product, gasoline tends to burn off first: May have no visible smoke as the hydrocarbon burns off leaving only the ethanol burning

24 Summary Polar solvent miscible & flammable
When blended with gasoline, produces slightly cleaner burn than gasoline alone Blend of gasoline & ethanol can easily go unnoticed by emergency responders: Ethanol will be last fuel to burn Ethanol can burn without visible smoke


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