Presentation on theme: "Objective Upon the successful completion of this module, participants will be able to describe the chemical and physical differences between pure gasoline."— Presentation transcript:
1 Module 2: Chemical and Physical Characteristics of Ethanol and Hydrocarbon Fuels
2 ObjectiveUpon the successful completion of this module, participants will be able to describe the chemical and physical differences between pure gasoline and gasoline / ethanol-blended fuels.
3 IntroductionCharacteristics of polar solvents & hydrocarbons, their differences, & how they interactConditions under which ethanol-blended fuels will retain certain characteristics of types of fuelHelp emergency responders mitigate various incidents according to conditions found
4 Activity 2.1 — Definitions Purpose:To allow participants to identify the definitions related to ethanol & ethanol-blended fuels.
5 Characteristics of Gasoline (A Hydrocarbon) Similar characteristics whether flammable / combustible liquidsProduced from crude oil by fractional distillationImmiscibleFlash point -45°F
6 Characteristics of Gasoline (A Hydrocarbon) Vapor density between 3 & 4:Gasoline vapors seek low levels / remain close to ground levelSpecific gravity of 0.70–0.78:Will float on top of waterAuto-ignition temperature > 530°FBoiling point between 85°F & 437°F
7 Characteristics of Gasoline (A Hydrocarbon) Not considered poisonous for placarding purposes:Harmful effects after long-term & high-level exposureCan lead to respiratory failureSmoke from burning gasoline is black & has toxic componentsGreatest hazard is flammability:Fairly narrow range of flammability
9 Characteristics of Pure Ethanol (A Polar Solvent) Ethanol used with motor fuels must be denatured with 2–5% gasoline / similar hydrocarbon before transport to bulk storage facilitiesDenaturant has minimal effects on characteristics
10 Characteristics of Pure Ethanol (A Polar Solvent) Renewable fuel source produced by fermentation & distillation processMost common source in U.S. is cornPolar solventTotally miscibleFlash point 54°FProperty of Wikimedia® Commons, reprinted with permission
11 Characteristics of Pure Ethanol (A Polar Solvent) Vapor density of 1.60:Heavier than airVapors do not riseSpecific gravity 0.79:Lighter than waterMiscible: thoroughly mix with waterAuto-ignition temperature 685°F
12 Characteristics of Pure Ethanol (A Polar Solvent) Boiling point 173°FLess toxic than gasoline / methanolCarcinogenic compounds not present in pure ethanolGreatest hazard as motor fuel component is flammability:Wider flammable range than gasoline:(3.3–19%)
13 Flash Point Exercise 2.4% denatured (E-98) ethanol 15°F temperature Property of Steve Hergenreter, reprinted with permission
14 Video Watch the video clip “Flash Point Test:” Ethanol with an MSDS-listed flash point of 49°F being lit at 15°FProperty of Wikimedia® Commons, reprinted with permission
16 Characteristics of Pure Ethanol (A Polar Solvent) In pure form no visible smoke & visible flameIn denatured form little to no smoke & slight orange flame will be visibleEthanol & some ethanol blends can conduct electricityLarge amounts of water required to dilute ethanol to no longer support combustion
17 Invisible Flames — Pure Ethanol Incorporate use of thermal imaging camera into SOPsTaken at a foam comparison exerciseShot taken after non-AR foam dissolvedWatch the video clip “Invisible Fire: E-100”Copyright 2009, IAFC
18 Shot of Ethanol Fire Through Thermal Imaging Camera Property of Steve Hergenreter, reprinted with permission
19 Activity 2.2 — Comparison of Gasoline and Pure Ethanol Purpose:To allow participants to discuss the differences & similarities in the chemical & physical properties of pure ethanol & gasoline.
20 Characteristics of Ethanol-Blended Fuels Ethanol increases the ability of gasoline to burn cleaner:Lower emissions from unburned hydrocarbonsMinimal amounts of water will draw ethanol out of blend away from gasoline:Ethanol & gasoline more suspension than solution
21 Characteristics of Ethanol-Blended Fuels Gasoline floating on layer of ethanol / water solutionResulting ethanol / water solution still flammableProperty of Wikimedia® Commons, reprinted with permission
22 Characteristics of Ethanol-Blended Fuels Blending fuels alters physical & chemical characteristics of original fuels:Visual difference of smoke & flame characteristics:Higher content of ethanol, less visible black smoke content & orange flame production
23 Characteristics of Ethanol-Blended Fuels Blending fuels alters physical & chemical characteristics of original fuels:When foam / water flowed on burning product, gasoline tends to burn off first:May have no visible smoke as the hydrocarbon burns off leaving only the ethanol burning
24 Summary Polar solvent miscible & flammable When blended with gasoline, produces slightly cleaner burn than gasoline aloneBlend of gasoline & ethanol can easily go unnoticed by emergency responders:Ethanol will be last fuel to burnEthanol can burn without visible smoke