Presentation on theme: "Objective Upon the successful completion of this module, participants will be able to describe the chemical and physical differences between pure gasoline."— Presentation transcript:
1Module 2: Chemical and Physical Characteristics of Ethanol and Hydrocarbon Fuels
2ObjectiveUpon the successful completion of this module, participants will be able to describe the chemical and physical differences between pure gasoline and gasoline / ethanol-blended fuels.
3IntroductionCharacteristics of polar solvents & hydrocarbons, their differences, & how they interactConditions under which ethanol-blended fuels will retain certain characteristics of types of fuelHelp emergency responders mitigate various incidents according to conditions found
4Activity 2.1 — Definitions Purpose:To allow participants to identify the definitions related to ethanol & ethanol-blended fuels.
5Characteristics of Gasoline (A Hydrocarbon) Similar characteristics whether flammable / combustible liquidsProduced from crude oil by fractional distillationImmiscibleFlash point -45°F
6Characteristics of Gasoline (A Hydrocarbon) Vapor density between 3 & 4:Gasoline vapors seek low levels / remain close to ground levelSpecific gravity of 0.70–0.78:Will float on top of waterAuto-ignition temperature > 530°FBoiling point between 85°F & 437°F
7Characteristics of Gasoline (A Hydrocarbon) Not considered poisonous for placarding purposes:Harmful effects after long-term & high-level exposureCan lead to respiratory failureSmoke from burning gasoline is black & has toxic componentsGreatest hazard is flammability:Fairly narrow range of flammability
9Characteristics of Pure Ethanol (A Polar Solvent) Ethanol used with motor fuels must be denatured with 2–5% gasoline / similar hydrocarbon before transport to bulk storage facilitiesDenaturant has minimal effects on characteristics
10Characteristics of Pure Ethanol (A Polar Solvent) Renewable fuel source produced by fermentation & distillation processMost common source in U.S. is cornPolar solventTotally miscibleFlash point 54°FProperty of Wikimedia® Commons, reprinted with permission
11Characteristics of Pure Ethanol (A Polar Solvent) Vapor density of 1.60:Heavier than airVapors do not riseSpecific gravity 0.79:Lighter than waterMiscible: thoroughly mix with waterAuto-ignition temperature 685°F
12Characteristics of Pure Ethanol (A Polar Solvent) Boiling point 173°FLess toxic than gasoline / methanolCarcinogenic compounds not present in pure ethanolGreatest hazard as motor fuel component is flammability:Wider flammable range than gasoline:(3.3–19%)
13Flash Point Exercise 2.4% denatured (E-98) ethanol 15°F temperature Property of Steve Hergenreter, reprinted with permission
14Video Watch the video clip “Flash Point Test:” Ethanol with an MSDS-listed flash point of 49°F being lit at 15°FProperty of Wikimedia® Commons, reprinted with permission
16Characteristics of Pure Ethanol (A Polar Solvent) In pure form no visible smoke & visible flameIn denatured form little to no smoke & slight orange flame will be visibleEthanol & some ethanol blends can conduct electricityLarge amounts of water required to dilute ethanol to no longer support combustion
17Invisible Flames — Pure Ethanol Incorporate use of thermal imaging camera into SOPsTaken at a foam comparison exerciseShot taken after non-AR foam dissolvedWatch the video clip “Invisible Fire: E-100”Copyright 2009, IAFC
18Shot of Ethanol Fire Through Thermal Imaging Camera Property of Steve Hergenreter, reprinted with permission
19Activity 2.2 — Comparison of Gasoline and Pure Ethanol Purpose:To allow participants to discuss the differences & similarities in the chemical & physical properties of pure ethanol & gasoline.
20Characteristics of Ethanol-Blended Fuels Ethanol increases the ability of gasoline to burn cleaner:Lower emissions from unburned hydrocarbonsMinimal amounts of water will draw ethanol out of blend away from gasoline:Ethanol & gasoline more suspension than solution
21Characteristics of Ethanol-Blended Fuels Gasoline floating on layer of ethanol / water solutionResulting ethanol / water solution still flammableProperty of Wikimedia® Commons, reprinted with permission
22Characteristics of Ethanol-Blended Fuels Blending fuels alters physical & chemical characteristics of original fuels:Visual difference of smoke & flame characteristics:Higher content of ethanol, less visible black smoke content & orange flame production
23Characteristics of Ethanol-Blended Fuels Blending fuels alters physical & chemical characteristics of original fuels:When foam / water flowed on burning product, gasoline tends to burn off first:May have no visible smoke as the hydrocarbon burns off leaving only the ethanol burning
24Summary Polar solvent miscible & flammable When blended with gasoline, produces slightly cleaner burn than gasoline aloneBlend of gasoline & ethanol can easily go unnoticed by emergency responders:Ethanol will be last fuel to burnEthanol can burn without visible smoke