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Starter Taboo with a twist! You can: act it, taboo it (describe it without saying the word itself) or draw it (like pictionary!)

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Presentation on theme: "Starter Taboo with a twist! You can: act it, taboo it (describe it without saying the word itself) or draw it (like pictionary!)"— Presentation transcript:

1 Starter Taboo with a twist! You can: act it, taboo it (describe it without saying the word itself) or draw it (like pictionary!)

2 Introduction How do 3 of the approaches we have looked at so far differ on their outlook? Venn diagram

3 1 (a) What do behaviourists mean by the term operant conditioning? Give an example of how operant conditioning might be used to train an animal (3 marks) [AO1 = 1, AO2 = 2] AO1 One mark for correct definition of the term. Possible answer: Operant conditioning refers to behaviours learnt as a result of reinforcement/environmental consequences (AO1, 1) Credit other appropriate alternatives eg, negative reinforcement; punishment, etc. AO2 Up to two marks for an appropriate example of how operant conditioning is used in training an animal. One mark for demonstration of the behaviour being conditioned. One mark for reinforcement of the behaviour. Part (a) was generally well done, with the majority of candidates gaining two or three marks. Most responses used Skinner’s rats for the example although there were some good everyday examples that showed clear understanding. Occasionally, candidates scored no marks because they confused operant and classical conditioning.

4 1 (a) What do behaviourists mean by the term operant conditioning? Give an example of how operant conditioning might be used to train an animal (3 marks) Operant conditioning is based on a voluntary response that will gain them a reward or avoid a punishment, this is known as positive or negative reinforcement. You could use this to train a rat to pull a lever to get food. Eventually he would pull the lever to get food this was known as Skinner’s box. MARKS? 1 mark – why?

5 1 (a) What do behaviourists mean by the term operant conditioning? Give an example of how operant conditioning might be used to train an animal (3 marks) Operant conditioning is whereby somebody learns through the consequence of a behaviour, be it through reinforcement or punishment, e.g. Training an animal. When a rat is put into a box there is a lever of which the rat presses which gives a pellet, as the pellet is a reward the rat pushes the lever more and more frequently, this is an example of positive reinforcement. MARKS? 3 marks – why?

6 1 (a) What do behaviourists mean by the term operant conditioning? Give an example of how operant conditioning might be used to train an animal (3 marks) They ring a bell which produces no response they then present the dog with food (UCS) and it starts salivation (UCR) After repeating this action several times when the bell rings (CS) the dog will automatically salivate.

7 1 (b) (i) What is meant by classical conditioning? (1 mark) [1 mark: AO1 = 1] AO1 One mark for correct definition of the term eg learning by association, stimulus- response learning, brief description of process or key features. (b) (i) Many candidates scored one mark here by providing an appropriate definition of the term.

8 1 (b) (i) What is meant by classical conditioning? (1 mark) Classical conditioning is learning by associating a neutral stimulus to an unconditioned response (learning by association)

9 1 (b) (i) What is meant by classical conditioning? (1 mark) Classical conditioning is when someone over a period of time get an unconditioned stimulus turned into a conditioned response

10 1 (b) (i) What is meant by classical conditioning? (1 mark) Classical conditioning is when you learn through association

11 1b (ii) Briefly outline how researchers, such as Pavlov, have investigated classical conditioning (2 marks) AO3 Candidates may provide a generic response through methods of research eg experimentation or a more specific response eg the process involved within a particular study. Possible answer: Pavlov researched classical conditioning by pairing a CS with an UCS – he rang a bell at the same time he presented food to the dog (AO3, 1). After repeated pairings, Pavlov found that by merely ringing the bell (CS), the dog salivated (CR) (AO3, 1). Credit diagrammatic representation.

12 1b (ii) Briefly outline how researchers, such as Pavlov, have investigated classical conditioning (2 marks) Pavlov rang a bell (NS) which produced no response. Hey then presented the dog with food (UCS) and it started salivating (UCR). After repeating this several times when the bell rings the dog will automatically salivate (CR)

13 1b (ii) Briefly outline how researchers, such as Pavlov, have investigated classical conditioning (2 marks) Pavlov has investigated classical conditioning by using a bell and a dog. When the bell has rung (stimulus) there is no response from the dog but when the dog sees food (UCS) there is salivation. When the bell is run and then the food is shown the dog still shows salivation (UCR). When this is repeated the dog then knows that when the bell is rang it is time for food so immediately salivation is shown from the dog.

14 1b (ii) Briefly outline how researchers, such as Pavlov, have investigated classical conditioning (2 marks) Pavlov has investigated classical conditioning by using a bell and a dog. When the bell has rung (stimulus) there is no response from the dog but when the dog sees food (UCS) there is salivation. When the bell is run and then the food is shown the dog still shows salivation (UCR). When this is repeated the dog then knows that when the bell is rang it is time for food so immediately salivation is shown from the dog.

15 1b (ii) Briefly outline how researchers, such as Pavlov, have investigated classical conditioning (2 marks) As well as Pavlov, Watson and Raynor used little albert to make little albert fear white rats through classical conditioning. They used a neutral stimulus of a white rat and their conditioned stimulus was banging a metal bar which produced a conditioned response of albert fearing the white rat.

16 1b (ii) Briefly outline how researchers, such as Pavlov, have investigated classical conditioning (2 marks) Researchers such as Pavlov investigated classical conditioning by ringing a bell and showing food to a dog to create salivation. The dog would salivate once the bell had been rung.

17 1 (c) Jake has a very stressful job. He is often late home from work and hardly gets any sleep. One night, Jake is so stressed and angry that he punches a door. Jake comes from a violent family. Suggest how a biological psychologist and a behavioural psychologist might explain Jake’s violent behaviour.(4 marks) [4 marks: AO3 = 4] AO3 Candidates should receive credit for knowledge of the approaches and are not expected to demonstrate detailed knowledge of aggression. Biological: One mark for brief or muddled explanation. Two marks for an accurate and detailed explanation. Likely answers: testosterone; aggression as an evolutionary trait, genetics; heritability, etc. Behaviourist: One mark for brief or muddled explanation. Two marks for an accurate and detailed explanation. Likely answers: learning by association; principles of operant conditioning; reinforcement. Credit answers that may refer to the principles of SLT.

18 1 (c) Jake has a very stressful job. He is often late home from work and hardly gets any sleep. One night, Jake is so stressed and angry that he punches a door. Jake comes from a violent family. Suggest how a biological psychologist and a behavioural psychologist might explain Jake’s violent behaviour.(4 marks) A biological psychologist would say that it is in Jake’s biological make-up to be a violent person. They would say that he punches the wall as an innate response. This is because his family have a history of violence, therefore he has inherited the violent gene in his make-up. Whereas a Behaviourist psychologist would say that he has learnt through operant conditioning, using negative reinforcement, the negative aspect is the stress and as he vents the frustration on the door by punching it the negative feeling is taken away. He has learned that by hitting the door he removes the negative.

19 1 (c) Jake has a very stressful job. He is often late home from work and hardly gets any sleep. One night, Jake is so stressed and angry that he punches a door. Jake comes from a violent family. Suggest how a biological psychologist and a behavioural psychologist might explain Jake’s violent behaviour.(4 marks) A biological psychologist would view this from the aspect of his genetics and how from his parents genes being passed down to him, his behaviour and characteristics reflect those of his family. A behavioural psychologist would locate the theory of operant conditioning; if Jake was aggressive when he was younger his father / mother may have praised him, creating positive reinforcement and encouraging Jake to repeat the action for further praise.

20 1 (c) Jake has a very stressful job. He is often late home from work and hardly gets any sleep. One night, Jake is so stressed and angry that he punches a door. Jake comes from a violent family. Suggest how a biological psychologist and a behavioural psychologist might explain Jake’s violent behaviour.(4 marks) Biological psychologists would say that Jakes genes have violence in them due to his family passing them on whereas a behavioural psychologist would say that the lack of sleep adding to stress would create Jake’s violence.

21 1 (c) Jake has a very stressful job. He is often late home from work and hardly gets any sleep. One night, Jake is so stressed and angry that he punches a door. Jake comes from a violent family. Suggest how a biological psychologist and a behavioural psychologist might explain Jake’s violent behaviour.(4 marks) Biological psychologists would put this down to the violence being in his genes. Because Jake comes from a violent family he has inherited this trait from them. Whereas, behavioural psychologists would put Jake’s violence down to watching other people do this. If he saw his family members do it and not get into trouble he will do the same.

22 1 (a) (i) What do social learning theorists mean by mediating cognitive factors? (1 mark) [AO1 = 1] AO1 One mark for a correct answer eg, the thought processes that lie between stimulus and response/internal mental processes. Do not credit specific processes eg thinking, attention, memory, perception, language

23 1 (a) (i) What do social learning theorists mean by mediating cognitive factors? (1 mark) When you do something by observing what someone else has done

24 1 (a) (i) What do social learning theorists mean by mediating cognitive factors? (1 mark) These are the factors that occur between the condition and response, this is how we learn

25 1 (a) (ii) Suggest one methodological problem that might arise when investigating mediating cognitive factors.(1 mark) [AO3 = 1] AO3 One mark for an appropriate suggestion eg lack of objectivity/unobservable/has to be inferred/issue of validity/modern methods require specialist technology, etc.

26 1 (a) (ii) Suggest one methodological problem that might arise when investigating mediating cognitive factors.(1 mark) Mediating cognitive factors relate to thought processes and these are not observable

27 1 (a) (ii) Suggest one methodological problem that might arise when investigating mediating cognitive factors.(1 mark) They don’t know what the children are thinking they can only assume.

28 1 (b) (i) Outline what is meant by evolution.(2 marks) [AO1 = 2] AO1 Up to two marks for each relevant point. Likely answers: gradual change in inherited traits of a species over many generations; adaptation to the environment; natural selection; survival of the fittest, etc. Credit any relevant example as an expansion point. Credit appropriate alternative answers.

29 1 (b) (i) Outline what is meant by evolution.(2 marks) Evolution is a word used to explain adaptation over long periods of time

30 1 (b) (i) Outline what is meant by evolution.(2 marks) Evolution is the process over time of a particular race in order to survive

31 1 (b) (i) Outline what is meant by evolution.(2 marks) Evolution is where species change to suit their environment

32 1 (b) (ii) Explain how one human or non-human behaviour may have resulted from the process of evolution (2 marks) [AO2 = 2] AO2 Up to two marks for an explanation of how an appropriate behaviour may have resulted from the process of evolution. The response may focus on the advantage the behaviour has given e.g. survival, mating, continuation of the genes. Likely behaviours: rooting reflex; sexual selection/mate preferences; parental investment; bonding/attachment behaviours; aggression, animal displays of behaviour; territoriality etc.

33 1 (b) (ii) Explain how one human or non-human behaviour may have resulted from the process of evolution (2 marks) Rooting reflex in new born babies. This reflex helps the baby to survive as they turn towards the direction their cheek has been stroked this could have happened through evolution as it is an advantage that allows the baby to survive and be more likely to pass on its genes

34 1 (b) (ii) Explain how one human or non-human behaviour may have resulted from the process of evolution (2 marks) The rooting reflex. This means a baby will turn its cheek in order to be breastfed.

35 1 (b) (ii) Explain how one human or non-human behaviour may have resulted from the process of evolution (2 marks) One human behaviour that may have resulted from the process of evolution is when a baby’s cheek is touched it has a reflex to turn its head as it is natural behaviour. This is a result of breastfeeding.

36 1 (b) (ii) Explain how one human or non-human behaviour may have resulted from the process of evolution (2 marks) Giraffes used to have a mixture of short or long necks. The ones with longer necks were better suited to their environment so their genes were passed on to the next generation – survival of the fittest.

37 Consolidation Swap your work with a partner, they should identify your two key areas for improvement and give you top tips on how you should do that Spend the last few minutes improving your answers The mark schemes are online – you should improve all of your answers to develop your understanding of the mark scheme (hwk)


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