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What is history? What types of writing have you done in your history classes? What does it mean to write history as a historian?

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Presentation on theme: "What is history? What types of writing have you done in your history classes? What does it mean to write history as a historian?"— Presentation transcript:


2 What is history? What types of writing have you done in your history classes? What does it mean to write history as a historian?


4 1. What do you notice about this document? 2. What type of document is this? 3. Why was this document produced? 4. What went into producing this document?

5 Consider a historical question or problem Research and sift through the available sources Draw inferences and conclusions to create a thesis Organize information and evidence Writing, feedback, revision, and editing Complete and submit the work Question: Which step is the most critical?

6 What is a prompt? The importance of addressing the prompt TAP: Topic, Audience, Purpose Prompt AnalysisPractice Common terms found in prompts:

7 Read as a historical detective to gather evidence in response to a question or prompt (putting the pieces of the puzzle together) Sourcing Contextualizing Corroborating

8 SOAPS: Speaker, Occasion, Audience, Purpose, Significance 5Ws plus S: –Who? (the source, including point of view and bias) –What? (the type of document and its key ideas) –Where? (context) –When? (context) –Why? (purpose of the documents creation) –So what? (significance)

9 Organize information and sources into categories: –SPRITE: Social, Political, Religious, Intellectual, Technological, Economic –Subcategories such as causes, effects, women, military, etc. Categories should relate directly to the thesis Categories provide the focus for body paragraphs A single document may fall into multiple categories

10 Why are maps created? Create a plan or road map for writing Make sure you have enough information to begin writing Various formats of organization: –Outlining –Categorizing and classifying charts (a column for each body paragraph, with info under each column) –Two-column charts (pro vs. con, or interpretation and evidence)

11 The main idea or argument that you will support and defend with evidence Sets up the plan for the whole paper and directly relates to the prompt or historical question Supported by key points, categories, or topics in your introduction as a preview of the body paragraphs Sample thesis statements: –The social, political, and economic ideals stated by the Declaration of Independence have not been satisfactorily realized in contemporary America. –The Protestant Reformation was surely sparked by the abuses of the Catholic Church, but it was fueled by the passion of reformers like Luther, Zwingli, and Calvin.

12 Set-up and packaging for a thesis statement Historical background/context: –The Civil War between the United States and the Confederate States of America took place between 1861 and 1865 across thousands of battlefields. –The late 19th and early 20th centuries saw unparalleled political changes throughout the world. Catch a readers attention so they want to read further –Those who oppose immigration to America are un- American, unless of course they are Native Americans. –At many times and in many places, the stomach has prevailed over the mind when it comes to political choices.

13 Topic sentence: The first sentence of a paragraph, which sets out the main idea The topic sentence should directly link to the thesis Subsequent sentences should directly link to the topic sentences main idea The language used should reflect the type of thinking required by the prompt Example: What were the causes of World War I? –One of the causes of World War I was militarism. –World War I was the result of years of military buildup.

14 Like a lawyer, you must prove your case with evidence: Your evidence should link to your topic sentence, as well as to the thesis Use clear, convincing quotes and facts from multiple primary or statistical sourcesat least two per paragraph Avoid saying, Document A says x; weave in quotes instead Example 1: John Browns naiveté is brought out by statements such as I never did intend murder… Example 2: The right of the people to keep and bear arms meant something completely different in 1787, due to the socio-political context in which it was written

15 The explanation (also called commentary or analysis) helps the reader understand exactly why and how your evidence supports your thesis and topic sentence –Should interpret the evidence and also answer the question, So what? –May require multiple sentences Basic example: Bob was seen at a soccer game by four different individuals at 2 pm (evidence). Therefore, he could not have robbed the store at 2 pm (explanation). Historical example: In saying that a house divided against itself cannot stand, Lincoln argued that slavery and the divisions it produced could not go on indefinitely.

16 The concluding sentence should reconnect the reader to the idea expressed in the topic sentence and thesis The concluding sentence should not merely restate the topic sentence

17 The conclusion provides the final opportunity to make your point to your audience Do not merely repeat your introduction and thesis, but instead think about what lessons should be learned from this event, or its relevance to today Write something which will stand out to your audience a memorable quote, or a restatement of the thesis that brings out the So what? of your main argument

18 Reflect and read Rubric: How well does the writing meet the criteria? Word choice: Avoid I, in my opinion, obviously, you, clichés, and slang Citation: Has proper attribution been given? Has proper formatting been used? Clarity: Would someone who does not know about history understand what is being said?

19 What are your stronger points? How do you know? What do you need to work on? How do you know? How do you plan to improve?

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