Presentation on theme: "Infection Prevention: A- and Antiseptic Techniques in Surgical Setting"— Presentation transcript:
1Infection Prevention: A- and Antiseptic Techniques in Surgical Setting Interactive Training CD for Medical StudentsReproductive SystemModule :Infection Prevention: A- and Antiseptic Techniquesin Surgical SettingReproductive System, Medical School of Universitas Padjadjaran, Bandung MIR-C Corporate
6DescriptionInfection Prevention in Surgical Setting is one of important preventive methods in order to achieve infection control in clinical and surgical practices.
7Objectives The aims of this method are : To minimize surgical site infectionTo protect health personnelTo improve wound healingTo minimize disability, morbidity, & mortalityTo reduce the cost of hospital care
8Specific Learning Objectives : To describe the definition and history of sterilization, disinfection, decontamination, anti and a - septic techniques.To describe six methods of sterilization.To describe three categories of surgical instrumentsTo describe 6 rules of aseptic techniques
9Specific Learning Objectives : To perform aseptic techniques correctly, including (P5):Applying surgical attireHand washingSurgical scrubbingGlovingSurgical Gowning
10Definition:Sterilization : Processes by which all pathogenic & non pathogenic microorganisms, including spores, are killed.Disinfection: Chemical or physical process of destroying all pathogenic microorganisms, except spore bearing ones; used for inanimate objects, but not on tissues.
11Definition:Decontamination : Process or method by which all contaminated materials that can cause diseases are removed.Aseptic techniques : Methods by which contamination with microorganisms is prevented.Antiseptic techniques: Prevention of sepsis by the exclusion, destruction, or inhibition of growth and multiplication of microorganisms from body tissues and fluids.
13Why should we apply a and antiseptic techniques ?
14Historical backgrounds : Ignas Sammelweis ( )Puerperal fever increased maternal mortalityHand scrub with chlorinated-lime solution prior to examination.Father of nosocomial infection.Louis Pasteur (1860)Discover the process of fermentation by microorganismsGerm theory: against spontaneous generation theory.
15Historical backgrounds : Joseph Lister (1865)Use carbolic acid solution on surgical dressing in the operating room mortality (Listerization)Father of modern surgery (Antiseptic technique)Ernst Von Bergmann (1886)Introduced “steam sterilizer”Basic of sterilization aseptic techniqueLater: “pressure & vacuum steam sterilizer” was developed
16Methods of Infection control Anti septic techniquesDesign and traffic patterns of the operating theatreAseptic techniques
18Sterilization The objective of modern surgery For inanimate objects Problem :Some items are not heat resistance
19Techniques of Sterilization Physical:HeatRadiation/ ultraviolet rayBoiling waterUltrasoundChemical:LiquidGas
20Heat Sterilization Dry : Moist : Commonly cause damage For powder, oils, and jellyMoist :SteamHigh pressure spores Vacuum constant temperatureAutoclave
21Chemical Sterilization Generally as disinfectionMechanism of action :Protein coagulationEnzyme denaturation in cellsLysisDepend on : number of microorganisms, soiling, concentration, and temperature.
22Solutions Jodium and Jodophor Good bactericide, but irritant Mixture : povidone-jodine 10%Alcohol Solution of 70% or 90%Glutaraldehyde (Formaldehyde Sol. in Alcohol 2%)Spores are killed within 3 hours
25Boiling Water Mild boiling Vigorous boiling More active, if 2% sodium-carbonate or 0,1 % sodium-hydroxide being added
26The Operating Theater Sterile core Clean Zone Transitional Zone UBITTransitionalZoneSterilecoreRestricted areaSemi –RestrictedArea
27Traffic patterns of Operating Theatre The use of aseptic principles requires regulation of traffic and flow patterns of the personnel, patient, equipment, and supplies in operating theatreAims : to protect the safety and privacy of patients and the cleanliness and integrity of the environment.
28unrestricted areaElevatorsCorridors outside surgical suite
29unrestricted areaEntranceReception deskPatient suite
30Transitional Zone (Video) Locker roomDressing room
31Clean Zone (Video)Surgical suite and corridorsSterile core
37Surgical Instruments in the Operating Theatre Critical items :Sterile, because of being used for penetrating skin or mucosaSemi critical items :In contact with skin or mucous membraneNon critical items :
41Hand washing Indications: Between patient contacts Before performing or assisting with invasive proceduresBefore taking care of particularly susceptible patientsBefore and after touching woundsImmediately after gloves are removed
42Hand washing Before and after performing sterile procedures After contact with blood or body substances, mucous membranes, soiled linen, waste, or contaminated equipment.Between tasks at different body sites on the same patient to prevent cross contaminationAfter taking care of infected patientAfter touching contaminated inanimate sources
45Purposes:To remove debris and transient organisms from the nails, hands, and forearms.To reduce the resident microbial count to a minimum.To inhibit rapid rebound growth of microorganisms.
46Purposes:To minimize the re-growth of microorganisms for the length of the procedure.To reduce the numbers of microorganisms on handsTo reduce contamination of the operative site by recognized or unrecognized breaks in surgical gloves.
57Skin preparation The goals: to cleanse the skin and bring both the resident and transient bacterial counts to an irreducible minimum, therefore reducing the risk of wound contamination and subsequent surgical site infection.performed just before the surgical incision has been performed.