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Operational Steps for Building a Teaching Unit in Certain Subject by Using the Systemic Approach A. F. M. Fahmy Faculty of Science, Department of Chemistry and Science Education Center, Ain Shams University, Abbassia, Cairo, EGYPT E-mail:fahmy@online.com.eg J. J. Lagowski ** Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry The University of Texas at Austin Austin, TX 78712 E-mail:jjl@mail.cm.utexas.edu

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For rebuilding a teaching unit by making use the systemic approach we should follow a unified methodology of numerous steps that can be summarized in the following: - First: The general systemic aims and the operational objectives for the unit should be defined.

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- Third: The content analysis of the unite into facts, concepts, laws, relations, skills and affective issues should be carried out. - Fourth: Draw a diagram illustrating linear relations among the concepts mentioned above. - Second: The Prerequisites needed for teaching the unit from previous studies (facts, concepts and skills) should be tabulated into a list.

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H X E Z Y F G Fig 1: Showing linear relations between concepts

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Where X, Y, Z, E, F, G, H represent the concepts contained in the teaching unit with its relevant facts and skills etc. Notice that all the above relationships are linear and separated from each other.

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- Fifth: We put the sign ( ) on the already known relationships from previous studies, assuming the linear relations (X-E), (X-Z), (X-Y), then the remaining linear relations (X-F), (X-G) and (X-H) are unknown. So, the diagram will be modified as shown in Fig. 2:

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H X E Z Y F G 1 2 3 4 5 6 ? ? ? Fig 2: Showing linear relations between concepts after defining the known From the unknown ones.

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Notice from the above diagram that linear relations from (1-3) are known and notified by the sign ( ), and the heads of arrows are defined ( ), while the relations (4-6) are undefined and notified by the sign (?) and the heads of arrows are not defined ( ).

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- Sixth: The above diagram is modified to a systemic diagram by adding relations between the concepts (H-Y), (Y-Z), (Z-E), (E-F), (F-G), (G-H) which are the relations from 7-12 as shown from the following systemic diagram (SD0).

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1 2 3 4 5 6 ? ? ? H X E Z Y F G 12 7 8 9 11 10 ? ? ? ?? ? (SD0)

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From the systemic diagram (SD0) notice the following: a) The relations (1-3) are known, so the heads of arrows are defined ( ) and take the sign ( ). b) The known relation between two concepts may be reversible i.e. in both directions and indicated by reversible arrows, but for simplicity we will consider the relations between concepts have one direction ( ).

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c) The relations from (4-12) are not defined yet and will be determined during the study of the unit and so take the sign (?) and the double headed arrows ( ). d) The systemic diagram (SD0) can be called as the starting systemic of teaching the unit.

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- Seventh: We define a scenario for teaching the unit where the relations (7,8,9) in the primary stage of the unit teaching are defined, and then added to the SD0 diagram to obtain SD1 diagram.

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(SD-1) 1 2 3 4 5 6 ? ? ? H E Z Y F G 12 7 8 9 11 10 ? ? ? X

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From the above SD1 diagram the following points can be noticed: a) The relations (7,8,9) became defined and the arrows directions determined ( ) but the remaining relations (4,5,6,10,11,12) are still unknown and will be defined later during the study of the remaining parts of the unit.

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b) The student in the first stage of the unit study has identified the relations (7,8,9) and connecting them with the formerly studied relations (1,2,3) and those he will study in the remaining parts, of the unit. c) In this stage of the unit study we can ask the students to build systemics showing the relations between the concepts (X, Y, Z, E) during the systemic assessment [Cf. the systemic Assessment (1)]

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- Eighth: In the next stage of the unit study, the student can study the relations (4,5,10,11) and then he will be able to add them to SD1 to obtain SD2.

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(SD-2) 1 2 3 4 5 6 ? H E Z Y F G 12 7 8 9 11 10 ? X

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From the above diagram, we notice the following: a) All the relations became known except the two relations (6,12) that will be identified in the later stage of the unit study. b) At this stage of the unit study, the student could study the relations (4,5,10,11) in view of the Previous studied relations and those that will be studied (6, 12).

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c) The student can build several systemics showing the relations he studied during the systemic assessment [Cf. the systemic assessment (2)]. - Ninth: In the last stage of the unit study, the student studies the two relations (6,12) in view of the previous studied relations, then he adds them to SD2 to obtain SD3 where the systemic teaching and learning the unit becomes completed.

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(SD-3) 1 2 3 4 5 6 H E Z Y F G 12 7 8 9 11 10 X

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From the systemic (SD3) diagram, the following points can be observed: a) All the relations between concepts (1- 12) became known. b) The SD3 can be then called as the terminal systemic of teaching the unit. - Tenth: From the scenario of teaching the unite we can observe the following:

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a) We started the unit teaching by the systemic diagram (SD0), that has determined the starting point of the unit and we ended with the systemic diagram (SD3) that defined the terminal point of the unit and between both diagrams we cross over the diagrams (SD1) and (SD2).

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b) We started the unit teaching and continued by the systemics from (SD0) to (SD3) and all are similar except a number of known relations ( ) and the unknown ones (?). As we proceed in the unit teaching, the unknown relations become dimini- shed while the known ones increase until we reach the unit end where all the relations became known as indicated in Fig (3).

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SD0 SD3 SD1SD2 Second Stage First Stage Third Stage (end) Ten known relations and 2 unknown one Six known relations and six unknown ones Termination of the unit Teaching (with 12 known relations) Starting the unit teaching with 3 known relations and 9 unknown ones Fig 3: Showing how to proceed in the unit teaching by the systemic approach

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Therefore the systemics can be used as a method for teaching and learning but not as summaries for memorization. It helps the teacher to teach and the student to learn and can be utilized from the beginning of teaching the unit till its end.

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- Eleventh: The students are aware a bent the pathway of teaching the unit from its beginning to its end. This can raise their learning motivation and helps them to interconnect the knowledge they study at any of the teaching stages with the past and the next concepts in the unit, that could help students to build a correct cognitive structure.

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- Twelfth: At the end of the unit study, student could be asked to build numerous systemics that show relations between 3,4,5 or 6 concepts etc. This can indicate the extent of student achievement of the unit teaching objectives through the final systemic assessment [Cf. Assessment (3)].

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Systemic Assessment (SA) Systemic Assessment (SA) It is already known that the curriculum systemic is composed of objectives, content, teaching methods, media and assessment. In order to have a systemic curriculum the following should be done:

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1- The objectives should form a systemic. 2- The content should be arranged by a systemic method as shown in SD0. 3- The teaching method should be systemic that starts by starting systemic (SD0) and ends by terminal systemic (SD3), passing by intermediate systemics (SD1 and SD2), (Fig. 3).

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4- The multimedia should be systemic, helping for teaching the unit systemically. 5- All the above curriculum components should interact and be in harmony, affecting one another into one systemic unit, then the assessment comes stepwise from the beginning of the unit teaching till its end.

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Systemic Objectives Systemic Assessment Systemic methodology Systemic Content Systemic media Fig. (4) Showing systemic curriculum

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Advantage of (SA): The systemic assessment (SA) has the following advantages: 1- It measures the cognitive structure from the cumulative (quantitative) to the interactive and tuned (qualitative).

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3- It helps the student to compose his knowledge into a solid cognitive structure from the beginning of the course to its end. 2- It measures the higher levels of learning (Analysis, Synthesis and Evaluation).

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4- It helps the student to corporate the concepts he learns at any educational level with what he has been taught in the past, helping his cognitive development. 5- Being comprehensive, covering all unit parts. 6- Being objective, realistic and valid.

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Types of Systemic Assessment: Systemic Assessment (SA)has various types as: 1- Multiple choice questions (MCQs), in which one correct systemic diagram to be selected from among others. 2- Constructing Systemic diagrams from their components.

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3- Analysis of a systemic diagram into subsystemics. 4- Completion of systemic diagrams with the missing elements.

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Geometric Forms of Systemic Questions (SQs): In the systemic assessment questions take different geometric forms as triangular, quadrilateral, pentagonal, Hexagonal, ….etc. We must take into consideration the following points when we put these types of questions.

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1- Concepts or facts are placed at the corners of these diagrams. Represents concept or fact.

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2- We must use the sides of these diagrams as arrows point to the relationships between concepts or facts.

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Represents relation

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3- The head of arrows could directed clockwise or anticlockwise. (Clockwise)(Anticlockwise) (Clockwise)(Anticlockwise)

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4- The relation may be reflected on all or some sides of the diagrams. Reflected on all sides Reflected on one side Reflected on two side

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Assessment (1, and 2) came after teaching some parts of the unite, so they are formative, However, assessment (3) comes at the end of teaching the unite so it is summative.

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Assessment (1) On systemic Diagram (SD1) Assessment (1) On systemic Diagram (SD1) Put ( ) infront of the correct systemic diagram: (Learning Level: Analysis) Before answering the (SMCQs) you must examine the directions of the arrows which represent the relations between concepts in each systemic before you choose the correct one. Note

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1- The systemic diagram represents the correct relations between concepts (X, Y, Z) is one of the following: (1)(2) (8) YZ X (1) (2) (8) YZ X (A)(B) (……..)

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(1)(2) (8) YZ X (1) (2) (8) YZ X (C)(D) (……..) Answer: C ( )

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2- The systemic diagram represents the correct relations between concepts (X, Y, Z, E) is one of the following: (A)

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(B)

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(C)

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(D) Answer: A ( )

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Assessment (2) On systemic Diagram (SD2) Assessment (2) On systemic Diagram (SD2) Put ( ) in front of the correct systemic diagram: (Learning Level: Analysis) (A)(B) (3)(4) (10) EF X (……..) EF X (3) (4) (10)

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(3) (4) (10) EF X (C)(D) (……..) Answer: B ( ) EF X (3) (4) (10)

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2- The systemic diagram represents the correct relations between concepts (X, Z, E, F) is one of the following: (A)

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(B)

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(C)

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(D) Answer: C ( )

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3- The systemic diagram represents the correct relations between (X, Y, Z, E, F) concepts is one of the following: (A)

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(B)

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(C)

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(D) Answer: B ( )

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Q2: Construct systemic diagrams illustrating the maximum possible relations between concepts of each of the following sets: 1- (X, Y, Z, E). 2- (X, E, F, G). 3- (X, Z, E, F, G). (Learning Level: Synthesis)

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Q3: Analyze the following systemic diagrams into subsystemics: (A) (Learning Level: Analysis)

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(B)

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Q4: From your study of the unite complete the following systemics: (1) (Learning Level: Synthesis)

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(2)

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(3)

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(4)

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(5)

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Final Assessment On systemic Diagram (SD3) Put ( ) in front of the correct systemic diagram: (Learning Level: Analysis) (A)(B) (5)6) (12) GH X (……..) GH X (5) (6) (12) 1- The systemic diagram represents the correct relations between concepts (X, G, H) is one of the following:

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(5) (6) (12) GH X (C)(D) (……..) Answer: D ( ) GH X (5) (6) (12)

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2- The systemic diagram that represents the correct relations between concepts (X, G, F) is one of the following: (5)(4) (11) GF X (A)(B) (……..) (5)(4) (11) GF X

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(C)(D) (……..) Answer: C ( ) (5)(4) (11) GF X (5)(4) (11) GF X

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3) The systemic diagram that represents the correct relations between concepts (X, Y, H, G) is one of the following: (A)

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(B)

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(C)

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(D) Answer: B ( )

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4) The systemic diagram that represents the correct relations between concepts (F, G, H, Y, Z, E) is one of the following: (A)

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(B)

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(C)

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(D) Answer: C ( )

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Q2) Draw systemic diagrams illustrating the maximum possible number of relations between concepts in each of the following sets: 1- (G, H, Y, X). 2- (G, Z, F, E, X). 3- (X, H, Z, Y, E). (Learning Level: Synthesis)

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Q3) Analyze the following systemic diagram into subsystemics: (1) (Learning Level: Analysis)

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(2)

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Answer: systemic (1) Analyzed into two subsystemics: (6) (5) (12) HG X (7)(6) (1) YX H

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Q4: From your study of the unite complete the following systemics: (1) (Learning Level: Synthesis)

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(2)

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(3)

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(4)

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(5)

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