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What Research Tells Us about Reading Instruction Georgia’s Reading First February 2005.

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Presentation on theme: "What Research Tells Us about Reading Instruction Georgia’s Reading First February 2005."— Presentation transcript:

1 What Research Tells Us about Reading Instruction Georgia’s Reading First February 2005

2 What is SBRR (and how can I get some?) Dr. Michael C. McKenna Georgia Southern University

3 prevents the use of unreliable and untested methods that can actually impede academic progress makes teaching more effective, productive, and efficient can be better generalized and replicated across many sites Scientifically-Based Research

4 applies rigorous, systematic, and objective procedures to obtain valid knowledge relevant to reading development, reading instruction, and reading difficulties

5 Scientifically-Based Research employs systematic empirical methods that draw on observation or experiment;

6 Scientifically-Based Research involves rigorous data analyses that are adequate to test the stated hypotheses and justify the general conclusions drawn;

7 relies on measurements or observational methods that provide valid data across evaluators and observers and across multiple measurements and observations; and... Scientifically-Based Research

8 has been accepted by a peer- reviewed journal or approved by a panel of independent experts through a comparably rigorous, objective and scientific review Scientifically-Based Research

9 SBRR in a Nutshell Scientific method Begins with hypothesis Controls are used Outcome proves or disproves the hypothesis Replicated – Repeat studies find the same results

10 SBRR in a Nutshell Generalized – Study findings represent truth for the general population. Meets Rigorous Standards – Methods and conclusions must be confirmed by peer review. Convergent findings – Conclusions are in line with findings from other studies.

11 Horse Race Studies

12 Important Documents

13 Let’s look at the 5 Areas  Phonemic Awareness  Phonics  Fluency  Vocabulary  Comprehension

14 NRP Findings on PA PA training improves phonemic awareness PA training improves decoding PA training improves spelling PA training improves comprehension

15 NRP Findings on PA PA training works for preK, K, 1 and older disabled readers PA training works with high- and low-SES children PA training does not improve spelling for reading-disabled students

16 NRP Findings on PA PA training works in English and in other languages. Many different activities can be used in the trainings; a focus on one or two skills appears more effective than more. Blending and segmenting are most powerful.

17 NRP Findings on PA Overlearning letter names, shapes, and sounds should be emphasized along with PA training. Between 5 and 18 hours yielded the strongest effects. Longer programs were less effective. (But the panel cautioned against making “rules” about time.)

18 NRP Findings on PA Regular classroom teachers can effectively implement the training Small groups were more effective than whole class or tutoring

19  Oddity Tasks  Adding Sounds  Deletion Tasks  Sound Blending  Stretch Sounding Some Effective Techniques

20 Elkonin Boxes

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24 man

25 Sound Sorting

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29 Picture Blending

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33 Task #1 LEA RepsPrincipalsLiteracy Coaches What steps have you taken to ensure that SBRR phonemic awareness instruction is occurring? How have you supported your LC’s efforts to foster SBRR instruction in phonemic awareness? To what extent are your teachers using SBRR strategies for teaching phonemic awareness?

34 NRP Findings on Phonics Systematic phonics instruction had a significant effect on children’s reading achievement compared to controls Synthetic, larger-unit (onset-rime), and other phonics programs all were more effective than controls, but no one type of instruction or instructional program was significantly more effective than any other

35 Synthetic Phonics Teach individual letter-sound correspondences in isolation. Have children sound out unfamiliar words by blending phonemes.

36 cat = /k/ + /a/ + /t/

37 Analogy-Based Decoding Teach children to recognize patterns (chunks) (e.g., -at, -ake). Teach key sight words containing these chunks (e.g., cat, make). Teach them to decode unfamilar words by recognizing chunks, recalling the key word, and substituting the onset they’ve just encountered.

38 vat T:Let’s start with the vowel. Do you see a part you know? S:Yes, at. T:Can you think of a word that has at? S:Yes, cat. T:So take off the c and put a v there. S:/v/ - /at/, /vat/!

39 Stages of Decoding Prephonemic (just guessing, using the first letter at most)

40 bird might be read as ball

41 Stages of Decoding Prephonemic (just guessing, using the first letter at most) Partial Alphabetic (some letter-sound knowledge is used.

42 gem is read as gum

43 Stages of Decoding Prephonemic (just guessing, using the first letter at most) Partial Alphabetic (some letter-sound knowledge is used) Full Alphabetic (left-to-right sequential decoding)

44 cat = /k/ + /a/ + /t/

45 Stages of Decoding Prephonemic (just guessing, using the first letter at most) Partial Alphabetic (some letter-sound knowledge is used) Full Alphabetic (left-to-right sequential decoding) Consolidated Alphabetic (orthographic) (onset and rime approach)

46 band bandiferous different

47 band bandiferous different

48 band bandiferous different

49 NRP Findings on Phonics Tutoring, small groups, and whole classes are all effective delivery systems for phonics instruction Phonics instruction is more effective when it occurs in kindergarten and first grade than later

50 NRP Findings on Phonics Phonics instruction is effective for at-risk kindergarteners, at-risk first graders, and disabled students. The findings for older weak readers are confusing. Phonics instruction improves students’ ability to read real words, pseudowords, and (to a lesser extent) irregular words.

51 NRP Findings on Phonics Phonics instruction improves reading comprehension in kindergarteners, first graders, and disabled readers, but not necessarily in older readers Phonics instruction improves spelling in kindergarten and first grade, but not for older readers

52 NRP Findings on Phonics Phonics instruction is effective for children at different levels of SES Phonics instruction was more effective than all forms of control groups (basal, whole language, whole word, regular curriculum).

53 And here’s what the NRP said we don’t know about teaching phonics How long should phonics instruction be Years? Minutes? How many letter-sound relationships should be taught? How can we maintain consistency in instruction and interest and motivation of teachers? What is the role of teacher knowledge? How should teachers be trained to teach phonics?

54 Task #2 LEA RepsPrincipalsLiteracy Coaches What steps have you taken to ensure that SBRR phonics instruction is occurring? How have you supported your LC’s efforts to foster SBRR instruction in phonics? To what extent are your teachers using SBRR strategies for teaching phonics?

55 Oral reading fluency  requires automatic recognition of most words  includes meaningful phrasing and emphasis (prosody).

56 NRP Findings on Fluency Fluency can be improved through instruction. Guided oral reading activities and guided repeated oral reading activities improve fluency, at least through grade 5. Repeated oral reading activities improve fluency for non-impaired students.

57 And here’s what the NRP said we don’t know about teaching fluency What kinds of guided oral reading improve fluency the most? Are instructional techniques more effective at certain ages and abilities? What is the impact of independent reading on fluency development?

58 Let’s listen to some GARF students

59 Reading First Cases WCPM Child 1 24 Child 2 60 Child I am so happy! I just found out I can be on the soccer team. We have our first practice on Saturday....

60 Guiding Principles of Teaching Fluency

61 Do not assume that fluency instruction can be leapfrogged.

62 Practice, practice, practice!

63 Maximize the time spent reading.

64 Model fluent reading.

65  Repeated Readings  Partner Reading  Partner Repeated Reading  Readers’ Theater  Echo Reading  Choral Reading Effective Fluency Methods

66 Task #3 LEA RepsPrincipalsLiteracy Coaches What steps have you taken to ensure that SBRR fluency instruction is occurring? How have you supported your LC’s efforts to foster SBRR instruction in fluency? To what extent are your teachers using SBRR strategies for teaching fluency?

67 NRP Findings on Vocabulary Teaching vocabulary improves general comprehension ability. Preteaching vocabulary helps both word learning and comprehension of a selection. Much vocabulary is acquired through incidental exposure. Repeated exposures in a variety of contexts are important.

68 NRP Findings on Vocabulary A combination of definitions and contextual examples works better than either one alone. Many instructional methods can be effective in teaching vocabulary. Instructional methods should result in active engagement. Both direct and indirect methods should be used.

69 NRP Findings on Vocabulary The more connections that are made to a word, the better the word tends to be learned. Computer applications can be effective. The effectiveness of some instructional methods depends on the age or ability of the children.

70 What the NRP said they didn’t know about vocabulary instruction What are the best ways to assess vocabulary? Which methods work best with students of different ages and abilities? How can technology best be used to teach vocabulary? How is vocabulary best integrated with comprehension instruction? What combinations of instructional methods tend to work best?

71 Preteach key words to improve comprehension.

72 Introduce new words in related clusters.

73 Stress the connections among related terms.

74 Provide more than definitions.

75 Tie new words to old knowledge.

76 Provide brief, periodic review.

77 Some SBRR Techniques  Teacher Read-Alouds  Graphic Organizers  Semantic Maps (webs)  Semantic Feature Analysis  Other Charting Approaches  List-Group-Label  Possible Sentences  Word Sorts

78 Task #4 LEA RepsPrincipalsLiteracy Coaches What steps have you taken to ensure that SBRR vocabulary instruction is occurring? How have you supported your LC’s efforts to foster SBRR instruction in vocabulary? To what extent are your teachers using SBRR strategies for teaching vocabulary?

79 NRP Findings on Comprehension Many approaches have some level of research evidence. For example, stressing mental images and mnemonics can be effective. But seven instructional approaches have a clear scientific basis.

80 And here’s what the NRP said we don’t know about teaching comprehension What are the best ways of teaching teachers? Does comprehension strategy instruction transfer to content learning? Which strategies work best at which ages and abilities? Do effective strategies work with all genres?

81 1.Comprehension monitoring 2.Cooperative learning 3.Graphic and semantic organizers (esp. those stressing text structure) 4.Question answering 5.Question generation 6.Summarization 7.Combinations of 1-6 Key Instructional Approaches

82 Task #5 LEA RepsPrincipalsLiteracy Coaches What steps have you taken to ensure that SBRR comprehension instruction is occurring? How have you supported your LC’s efforts to foster SBRR instruction in comprehension? To what extent are your teachers using SBRR strategies for teaching comprehension?

83 Afternoon Agenda 12:45 - 1:05Chapter 1 1:05 - 1:25Chapter 2 1:25 - 1:45Chapter 3 1:45 - 2:05Chapter 4 2:05 - 2:15Break 2:15 - 2:35Chapter 5 2:35 - 3:00Q&A


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