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Lloyds Register Rail (Asia) Human Factors in the Development of Safety-Critical Railway Systems Simon Zhang, Technical Director, Lloyds Register Rail (Asia)

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Presentation on theme: "Lloyds Register Rail (Asia) Human Factors in the Development of Safety-Critical Railway Systems Simon Zhang, Technical Director, Lloyds Register Rail (Asia)"— Presentation transcript:

1 Lloyds Register Rail (Asia) Human Factors in the Development of Safety-Critical Railway Systems Simon Zhang, Technical Director, Lloyds Register Rail (Asia) Ltd

2 Lloyds Register Rail (Asia) 2. Capable and competent people and culture to deliver safety objectives 3. Design of safe and high performing equipment 1. Management systems and processes to safely guide and control business activities The System The People The Equipment Factors affecting Safety Critical System Development IRSC 2012 Conference

3 Lloyds Register Rail (Asia) Human Errors in the Railway World Human errors can be costly and/or fatal IRSC 2012 Conference

4 Lloyds Register Rail (Asia) System Lifecycle IRSC 2012 Conference Where do human errors occur in the development lifecycle? What type of errors occur & why? How can they be addressed?

5 Lloyds Register Rail (Asia) Strategies for addressing Human Error in System Development EN50126 Guidelines Human competency Human independence during design Human involvement in verification and validation (V&V) Interface between human and automated tools Systematic failure prevention processes Application of EN50126 Competency is a prerequisite Education and training are assumptions IRSC 2012 Conference

6 Lloyds Register Rail (Asia) EN50126 Process Framework IRSC 2012 Conference

7 Lloyds Register Rail (Asia) EN50129 View (1) Safety Organisation IRSC 2012 Conference

8 Lloyds Register Rail (Asia) EN50129 View (2) Systematic failure prevention processes IRSC 2012 Conference

9 Lloyds Register Rail (Asia) EN50129 View (3) Human Involvement in V&V IRSC 2012 Conference

10 Lloyds Register Rail (Asia) Limitations of Process-Based Standards Incompleteness of processes Inadequate guidance on human factors in system development Questionable rationale for SIL and Processes The processes for higher SIL may not produce safer products or systems Applicability of standards Well understood problem domain Risk totally covered Mature project and safety organisation IRSC 2012 Conference

11 Lloyds Register Rail (Asia) Yellow Books View Compliance based approach Using existing standards as the driver to develop and evaluate a system Risk based approach Using risk assessment as the driver to develop and evaluate a system IRSC 2012 Conference

12 Lloyds Register Rail (Asia) Assessors View (from LR Rail experience) IRSC 2012 Conference

13 Lloyds Register Rail (Asia) Emerging Themes from Assessments Mainly from the Chinese railway signalling industry in recent 3 years 20+ Chinese companies 30+ RPC projects 10+ ISA projects Aim to explicitly identify and evaluate the underlying risk associated with known human factors in system development Using EN50126/9 standards as a starting point Several themes emerged from the studies relating to human errors & human factors IRSC 2012 Conference

14 Lloyds Register Rail (Asia) Chinese Railway Signalling Industry China has experienced a large number of railway construction projects in both high speed mainline and metro systems Lessons from last years 7.23 railway accident Due to serious design flaws in control equipment and improper handling of the lightning strike Personnel competency is questionable Re-examine existing safety management systems and development processes IRSC 2012 Conference

15 Lloyds Register Rail (Asia) Initial Findings – Theme 1 Human competency Undefined competence requirements on many roles such as verifier, validator and safety engineer Training and qualification records may not be trusted Certified or qualified training and education institutes are required Domain knowledge and experience are more important and can be easily verified via interviewing Organisational culture and HR policy can also influence Difficult to keep capable safety engineers IRSC 2012 Conference

16 Lloyds Register Rail (Asia) Initial Findings – Theme 2 Human Independence during Design Organisational structures E.g. rigidly hierarchical structures Leadership patterns Two extremes Responsibilities and roles Incorrect understanding of allocated responsibilities and authority control IRSC 2012 Conference

17 Lloyds Register Rail (Asia) Initial Findings – Theme 3 Human Involvement in V&V Undefined competence requirements on many roles such as verifier, validator and safety engineer Lacking domain knowledge from the verifier or auditor Misunderstanding the role of V&V Lack sufficient project resources for V&V activities Tight project schedule IRSC 2012 Conference

18 Lloyds Register Rail (Asia) Initial Findings – Theme 4 Interface between Human and Automated Tools Undefined competence requirements on the tool users Lacking of guidance on safety analysis over the tools Difficult to have a systems approach Viewing the tool and tool user as a complete system in a context of a project IRSC 2012 Conference

19 Lloyds Register Rail (Asia) Initial Findings – Theme 5 Systematic failure prevention processes Inadequate guidance on techniques/measures recommended from standards linking techniques/measures with a level of recommendations does not help Tactic knowledge is required Undefined competence requirements on many roles such as verifier, validator Safety management system may also help But there is lack of guidance from the standards IRSC 2012 Conference

20 Lloyds Register Rail (Asia) Enhancing assessments to evaluate human factors IRSC 2012 Conference Organisational arrangements Procedures/ tasks demands Working environment Workstation/ workplace Machine interface Person Is the machine/tool easy to use? Is the behavior of the tool understood by user? What happens if the tool fails (e.g. during V&V)? Is it available where it is needed? Does the interface meet expectations? Can people reach everything? Is there enough space to work? Are there obstructions? Can a good working posture be achieved? Is the lighting OK? Is noise a distraction or does it prevent good communication? Does the temperature make people tired? What attributes does a person need: good vision/hearing, strength, particular skills, personality traits motivation? Qualifications & experience Domain knowledge Can procedures be followed? Is there time pressure? What working hours or breaks? What training is given? What level of supervision is there? What competence is required – are these well defined? Processes for using tools well developed? Is there understanding of safety standards? Is there good: working culture?, leadership? motivation? Are roles, responsibilities & authorities defined? How can we bring these into the assessments?

21 Lloyds Register Rail (Asia) Evolution of the Standards Introduction of EN50128:2011 Standard Definition of 10 roles including verifier and validator Guidance on support tool for software development Focus on tool validation and tool specification New development on EN50126/9 standards in the near future Merging the EN50126/8/9 standards together The role and competence requirements of safety engineer need to be defined More guidance on using the HR/R techniques/measures Develop guidelines on the SMS (safety management system) Interface between human and tools needs to be elaborated IRSC 2012 Conference

22 Lloyds Register Rail (Asia) Future Work Get feedback on the viability and effectiveness of the approach Conduct more empirical studies from other geographical areas such as Hong Kong, Taiwan, Korea and India Define robust human factors evaluation framework Consider ranking or quantitative assessment Provide input to the development of new EN5016/8/9 standards Industry research into root causes of Human Errors during system design IRSC 2012 Conference

23 Lloyds Register Rail (Asia) Conclusions Do not take human competency for granted; Company/project management styles can always influence human independence; Human judgement determines the V&V success criteria; Interface between human and automated tools can be unexpectedly complex; Understanding the rationale behind techniques/measures is more important than choosing which in the systematic failure prevention processes. IRSC 2012 Conference

24 Lloyds Register Rail (Asia) Finally Human error plays a part in most, if not all, accidents. If you have not considered human error when specifying your work, it will be difficult to show that you have controlled risk to an acceptable level. Human error has causes. We understand some of these and know how to prevent them. When designing railway systems you should look for opportunities to prevent human error leading to an accident. IRSC 2012 Conference

25 Services are provided by members of the Lloyd's Register Group. For further information visit For more information, please contact: Simon Zhang, Weihang Wu Lloyds Register Rail (Asia) Ltd Room 709, CCS Mansion 9 Dongzhimen South Street Beijing T +86 (10) E w


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