Presentation Outline Applications of WIM WIM classification WIM detector technologies Bending Plate WIM Piezo-Electric WIM Sources of error in WIM data Summary
WIM Definition The process of measuring the dynamic tire forces of a moving vehicle and estimating the corresponding tire loads of the static vehicle American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Standard Specifications E
Provides reliable and accurate data on the weight and types of vehicle using roads WIM data can be used for: Weight enforcement Data collection Industrial / military WIM Applications
Data Collection Understanding "why" some pavements perform better than others is key to building and maintaining a cost-effective highway system. Long Term Pavement Performance (LTPP) programLong Term Pavement Performance (LTPP) program a comprehensive 20-year study of in-service pavements.
Low speed systems (<15 km/h) Provide the high level of accuracy needed for enforcement or toll collection High speed systems (>15 km/h) Minimize or eliminate vehicle disruption while permitting data of sufficient accuracy for planning and screening Broad Classification of WIM
Permanent Sensors and the data acquisition systems collect data at the same location Semi-permanent Sensors are built into pavement while the data collection system is moved from site to site Portable Sensors and equipment are moved from site to site Classification of WIM (According to Installation Type)
WIM Components Accurate weighing device - weighpads or axlepads Very high speed A/D converter to change the voltage signal into required data Software package for data collection and analysis
Bending Plate WIM Steel rubber plates w/ strain gauges Generated signal proportional to the deflection of the plate under a vehicle axle Signal is amplified and processed to produce the vehicle axle mass
Bending Plate WIM Typically consists of two in-road weigh platforms in a travel lane Inductive loop vehicle detectors before and after bending plate scales
Bending Plate WIM Installation
Bending Plate WIM How Does It Work?
Bending Plate WIM Computer Screen View
Bending Plate WIM Other Information Cost In-ground: $15K to $85K Portable: $18K to $22K Expected Lifetime: 8 to 12 years Accuracy (individual axles and GVW) In-ground: 0 to12% ±1SD Portable: 0 to 6% ±1SD Vendors In-ground: International Road Dynamics, International Traffic Corp., Pat America, Inc. International Road DynamicsInternational Traffic Corp.Pat America, Inc. Portable: Pat America, Inc.Pat America, Inc.
Piezo-Electric WIM Piezoelectric materials convert mechanical stress or strain into proportionate electrical energy these materials mechanically expand or contract when voltages of opposite polarities are applied Piezoelectric polymer films are also piezoelectric, converting heat into electrical charge
Piezo-Electric WIM Permanent or temporary installation into or onto the road surface Can be installed directly into the road in a flexible format Can conform to the profile of the road Flat construction, small cut
Piezo-Electric WIM How Does It Work?
Piezo-Electric WIM Other Information Cost $3K to $60K Accuracy In-ground: 3 to 30% ±1 SD Portable: 3 to 30% ±1 SD Vendors In-ground: Cardinal Scale Manufacturing Co., ECM, Inc., International Road Dynamics, International Traffic Corp., Kistler Instrument Corp, Pat America, Inc., Peek Traffic, TDC Systems Cardinal Scale Manufacturing Co.ECM, Inc.International Road DynamicsInternational Traffic Corp.Kistler Instrument CorpPat America, Inc.Peek TrafficTDC Systems Portable: ECM, Inc., International Road Dynamics, International Traffic Corp., Peek Traffic ECM, Inc.International Road DynamicsInternational Traffic Corp.Peek Traffic
Sources of Error in WIM Data Vehicle dependent Tire characteristics, suspension systems, lift, acceleration Environment dependent Temp. gradients, wind, ice, snow, rain System dependent Vertical height, non-uniformity, spring-back delay, compression-repeatability Roadway dependent Pavement design, obstructions (potholes, etc.), road contour
Summary WIM detectors are becoming increasingly popular for collecting traffic data at highway speeds Several technologies of WIM detectors exist to collect accurate and quick traffic data Selection of WIM depends on application Good installation and calibration of WIM required for accurate and reliable data