2 WJEC Objectives Medical Databases Expert systems Scanning, life support, computer controlled equipment• sensors (analogue and digital), data measured and its use• scanning devices; MRI (magnetic resonance image); CAT (computerised axial tomography)• advantages and disadvantages of scanning devices• backup and recovery procedures• new and future developments and limitations.Medical Databases• electronic patient record keeping (EPR)• blood bar coding and tracking systems ISBT 128• use of the Internet, intranets and extranets• distributed medical databases• backup and recovery procedures• new and future developments and limitations.Expert systems• Artificial Intelligence• neural networks and how parallel processors work• software languages (PROLOG, ASPRIN)• expert system shells (knowledge base, inference engine, user interface)• how expert systems work• medical uses of expert systems e.g. MYCIN,NEOMYCIN etc.• advantages and disadvantages of expert systems.
3 Medical Expert Systems Key word is: Artificial IntelligenceA system based on Rules to reproduce the Role of a Human ExpertWorks by using Questions and Answers(IF-Then rules)
4 Medical Expert Systems Go on NHS Direct websiteUse system to find out what is wrong with youOther ExamplesNEOMYCIN – Used to train doctorsMYCIN – Helps doctors with obscure casesand patients can be put on correct medication
5 3 Parts to Expert System LEARN THIS Knowledge Base A database of all of the facts and knowledge on a subjectInference EngineA set of rules to base the decisions on (IF-Then)Brings the parts of the database together to answer the questions being askedUser InterfaceHow the questions and answers are presented to the user
6 Exam Question Extensive use is made of Expert Systems. State the three main components of every expert system and then describe with examples the advantages and disadvantages of using an expert system in medicine. 
8 Medical Databases (ERP) Pre-Electronic DatabaseStorage problems:Huge number of filesneededOnly one person can access data at the same timeProblems with storing patients records manually (paper based)Records go missingHandwritten notes messyAnd hard to understand
9 Medical Databases (ERP) Patients records now stored electronicallyData can be accessed by more than one medical professional at the same timeNo need to transport files (speed of data access)SecurityLatest information can be accessed from patients bedside (example: results from blood tests)
10 Blood Bar Coding and Tracking Tracking of blood across is an essential service the NHS provideIt is also essential that it is accurateIdentify what data is held on the blood and why it is important that it is tracked correctly
11 Intranets and Extranets GPConsultantSupplierSurgeonNurse
12 Distributed Databases RadiologyIntensive CareLaptopon thewardA+EPlasticsThe user uses one database software application to access the information and is likely to be unaware that the data is not stored in one placePharmacySurgeryPatient data is stored on lots of separate databases
16 Sensors – Analogue to Digital Analogue SignalsDigital Signal
17 Sensors Used In Hospitals What is measured using sensors in hospitals?TemperatureBlood PressurePulseBlood SugarECG (Heart Rate)Respiratory RateAdvantagesNo “Human Error” – no missed readingsMore AccurateReal Time MonitoringAutomatically Measure Trends
18 Scanning Devices MRI CAT Use Radio Waves to build up a picture of the inside of a patientUsed for checking function of organs such as liver, kidney, spleen, blood vessels and heart damageCATSimilar x-ray, but multiple x-ray beams are sent out at different angles to produce a more detailed scanUsed to pinpoint tumours
19 Scanning Devices Advantages Disadvantages Can look at internal organs in 3DMRI scans are safer than X-RaysHigher cure rate due to early detectionReduces the need for exploratory surgeryFaster DiagonosisDisadvantagesscanning equipment very expensiveExposure to radiation is dangerous for staff operating scannersPatients have to be still for about 1 hour in an MRI machine
20 Future Technologies Home Healthcare Diabetes management Video conference using sensors so that consultation with doctor can be done from homeDiabetes managementAutomatic blood glucose measurements are taken and if blood glucose is too low a sensor automatically releases glucose from a reservoir implanted into patientJapanese ToiletsA Japanese company is developing a toilet that analyses urine and sends a report automatically to the GP if necessary
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