Presentation on theme: "It’s a recession when your neighbor loses his job, it’s a depression when you lose yours. Harry Truman It’s a recession when your neighbor loses his job,"— Presentation transcript:
It’s a recession when your neighbor loses his job, it’s a depression when you lose yours. Harry Truman It’s a recession when your neighbor loses his job, it’s a depression when you lose yours. Harry Truman
Learn about aggregate demand and the factors that will affect it Analyze aggregate supply and the factors that influence it Study the economy’s equilibrium and how it differs from its potential Examine Canada’s historical record of economic growth.
What determines the connections among inflation, unemployment, and levels of spending and real output in the Canadian economy?
In the economy as a whole, we see the relationship between the general price level and total spending in the economy, which is known as : Aggregate Demand
Aggregate Demand Curve Relationship between the general price level and total spending in the economy expressed on a graph. 0650700750800 40 80 120 160 200 Aggregate Demand Curve Real GDP (1997 $ billions) Price Level (GDP deflator, 1997 = 100) Aggregate Demand Schedule Price Level Real GDP (1997, $ billions) Point on Graph 200 160 120 650 700 750 a b c a b c AD
Two factors cause the aggregate demand curve to be downward sloping: The wealth effect that higher prices decrease the real value of financial assets and decrease consumption, since households feel poorer than normal. The foreign trade effect means that higher prices decrease exports and increase imports.
What causes changes to the aggregate demand??
Disposable Income: Consumer spending is the most significant determinant of disposable income in the entire economy. The economy’s DI changes as a result of population changes, as well as DI/household. Therefore, when DI rises, then there is a rise on consumer spending, adding to total expenditures, and shifting the aggregate demand curve to the right. Wealth: Consists of real (houses and appliances )and financial assets (stocks and bonds). Eg: if the stock prices increase, a person owning some stocks is going to experience a real gain in wealth, resulting in a greater likelihood of spending more of their disposable income. Aggregate demand will increase, and the curve will shift to the right. Consumer Expectations: Consumer expectations influence the demand for products. If there is higher consumer spending then the aggregate demand increases, and aggregate demand curve shifts to the right. Interest Rates: People often buy durable goods, such as cars and furniture, if the real interest rate falls, consumers are more likely to borrow to pay for big items. Consumer spending rises and the Aggregate demand curve shifts to the right.
In the investment demand curve, it’s the relationship between the interest rate and investment and depends on the real rate of return and the real interest rate Business Expectations: If businesses anticipate that profits will increase, the investment demand curve shifts to the right, thereby causing an increase in the aggregate demand. 0 Investment Demand Curve Investment (1997 $ billions) Real Rate of Return and Real Interest Rate (%) 3060 4 8 12 ABCD a b c D1D1 Investment Demand Schedule Real Interest Rate (%) Total Investment (1997 $ billions) Point on Graph Projects Undertaken 12 8 4 0 30 60 abcabc -- A, B A, B, C, D
If a rise occurs in Government purchases Eg: Highway Construction Aggregate Demand increases Foreign Incomes If incomes increase in foreign countries, then its likely that the citizens of that country will purchase more products as a result – their own and those from other countries. Canadian exports increase, thereby increasing Canada’s aggregate demand. Exchange Rates It’s the value of one nation’s currency in terms of another currency. The impact of exchange rates on prices, are if the Canadian dollar increases in value, then the net exports fall causing aggregate demand to decrease. While the reverse occurs, when the Canadian dollar drops in value then the net exports rise increasing aggregate demand.
Economic Fluctuation Part 2 Aggregate Supply
Review -Wealth effect:when the price decrease,household feel richer,then they may buy more,the consumption will increase -Foreign trade effect: lower prices-->increase exports-->decrease imports -Aggregate Demand : the relationship between general price level and total spending in the economy -Aggregate demand factors: C+I+G+Nx = GDP Consumption:Disposable income,Wealth,Consumer expectation,Interest Rent Investment:interest rate,business expectations Government Purchase Net Exports:foreign incomes,exchange rate
Aggregate Supply Aggregate Supply: the relationship between price level and real output in the economy Aggregate Supply Curve : The slope of the total supply curve is upward sloping
Factors that can change in Aggregate Supply Curve In Short run(potential output stays constant) : -Input price 0 750775800900 40 80 120 160 240 Aggregate Supply Curve Real GDP (2007 $ billions) Price Level (GDP deflator, 1997 = 100) 200 850 825 a b c d AS Potential Output
Factors that can change in Aggregate Supply Curve In Long run(potential output is variable): -Resources supplies -Productivity -Government policies 0 650675700800 40 80 120 160 240 Aggregate Supply Curve Real GDP (1993 $ billions) Price Level (GDP deflator, 1997 = 100) 200 750 725 New Potential Output Original Potential Output AS 0 AS 1
Shifting to Rightward In short run: - a fall in wages - a fall in raw material prices In Long run: - more labour supply,capital stock,land,entrepreneurship - an increase in productivity - lower taxes - less government regulation
Shifting to leftward In Short run: -a rise in wages -a rise in raw material prices In Long run: - less labour supply,capital stock,land,entrepreneurship - a decrease in productivity - higher taxes - more government regulation
Part 3 Aggregate Demand and Supply
Aggregate Demand and Supply - Inventory Changes - Results of an inventory increase - Results of an inventory decrease - The role of unplanned investment
Injections and withdrawals - Investment and Saving - Government purchases and taxes - Exports and Imports - Total injections and withdrawals
Recessionary Gaps Inflationary Gaps Equilibrium versus Potential Output
Definitions Expansion: A sustained rise in the real output of an economy Contraction: A sustained fall in the real output of an economy Business cycle: The cycle of expansions and contractions in the economy Peak: The point in the business cycle at which real output is at its highest
Effects of a contraction Recessions and Depressions Recessions: A decline in real output that lasts for six months or more Depression: A particularly long and harsh period of reduced real output Trough: The point in the business cycle at which real output is at its lowest
The highest output occurs at a peak in the business cycle. From this point, the economy contracts, so aggregate demand decreases. Consumer and business expectations magnify the downward trend. The lowest output occurs in a trough in a business cycle. From this point, the economy expands, so aggregate demand increases. Expectations magnify the upward trend.