2Unit Goals: The student will be able to . . . Understand three keys facts about economic fluctuationsIdentify the determinants of aggregate demand and aggregate supply.Use the aggregate expenditure and the AD/AS models to analyze the economy and determine real output and price level.Use the concept of the multiplier effect.Explain the shortcomings of the AD/AS model including sticky wages and prices.
3Unit Three: National Income + Price Determination Aggregate demandDeterminants of aggregate demandMultiplier and crowding-out effectsAggregate supplyShort-run and long-run analysesSticky versus flexible wages and pricesDeterminants of aggregate supplyMacroeconomic equilibriumReal output and price levelShort and long runActual versus full-employment outputBusiness cycle and economic fluctuations
4Three Keys Facts about Economic Fluctuations 1ECONOMIC FLUCTUATIONS ARE IRREGULAR AND UNPREDICTABLEFluctuations often called business cycle (periods of expansions and contractions)
5Three Keys Facts about Economic Fluctuations 2 MOST MACROECONOMIC QUANTITIES FLUCTUATE TOGETHERReal GDP monitors short-run changes in the economyWhen real GDP falls in a recession, so doPersonal incomeCorporate profitsConsumer spendingInvestment spendingIndustrial productionRetail salesHome salesAuto sales
6Three Keys Facts about Economic Fluctuations 3 AS OUTPUT FALLS, UNEMPLOYMENT RISESChanges in an economy’s output of goods and services are correlated with changes in the economy’s utilization of its labor forceDecrease in production = decrease in workers needed
7The Basic Model of Economic Fluctuations Focuses on the behavior of TWO variables 1. Economy’s output of goods and services as measured by real GDP 2. The overall price level as measured by the CPI Model of aggregate demand and aggregate supply: Used to explain short-run fluctuations in economic activity around its long-run trend Vertical axis – overall price level in the economy Horizontal axis – overall quantity of goods and services
8Aggregate Demand (AD) Curve Shows us the quantity of all goods and services that households, firms, and the government want to buy at any given price level
9Aggregate Demand Curve Downward slopingInverse relationship between the quantity of real output demanded and the price levelLower price level = greater amount of output demandedHigher price level = decreased amount of output demanded
10Measures GDP Aggregate Demand GDP is the sum of C + I + G + (X-M) 1. Consumption – spending by domestic households on goods and services2. Investment – spending by firms on capital equipment and by households on real estate or homes3. Government spending – spending by governments on goods and services4. Net Exports – exports minus importsMeasures GDP
11The Aggregate Demand Curve Downward sloping curve inversely related to the average price levelP = Average price levelY = Real National Output Levels (rGDP)
12ASSUME that government spending is fixed by policy The other three components of spending (consumption, investment, and net exports) depend on - Price level
13Movement along the AD curve A change in the price level of a nation’s output will lead to a movement along the AD curve and a change in the quantity of national output demanded.
14Three reasons for the inverse relationship between the average price level (PL) and real national output (rGDP)Wealth EffectInterest-Rate EffectExchange-Rate Effect
15The Price Level and Consumption: The Wealth Effect Higher price levels reduce the purchasing power or the real value of the household’s wealth and savings The public feels poorer with higher price levels so they demand a lower quantity of the nation’s output.
16The Wealth EffectLower price levels mean that your dollars become more valuable because you can buy more goods and services. Decrease in price levels makes consumers wealthier which encourages them to spend more.
17The Price Level and Investment: The Interest-Rate Effect Higher price levels will cause banks to raise the interest rates on loans.At high interest rates, the quantity demanded of products and capital for which households and firms must borrow decreases.
18The Interest-Rate Effect Lower price levels cause households to invest in interest-bearing savings accounts or bonds. Banks will use this extra cash-flow to lower interest rates for other borrowers.
19The Price Level and the Foreign Market: The Net-Export Effect Higher price levels cause goods and services produced in a given country to become less attractive to foreign consumers and imports to become more attractive to domestic consumers.
20The Net-Export EffectLower price levels in U.S. increase the amount of U.S. goods and services demanded from abroad and decreases the domestic demand for imports.
21Question of the Day 11.28/11.29When price levels in Japan decreaseJapan will sell more exports and purchase more imports.Japan will sell less exports and purchase more imports.Japan will sell less exports and purchase less imports.Japan will sell more exports and purchase less imports.
22Quick SummaryThree distinct but related reasons why a fall in CPI increases rGDP1. Consumers are wealthier which stimulates the demand for consumption goods2. Interest rates fall which stimulates the demand for investment goods.3. The exchange rate depreciates which stimulates the demand for net exports.These 3 are the reasons why the aggregate demand curve slopes downward, ceteris paribus.Assumes that the money supply is fixed.
23Shifts in the AD curveTo the right If C, I, G, or Net Exports increase To the left If C, I, G, or Net Exports decrease
24Shifts arising from consumption To the left – Americans become more preoccupied with saving rather than spending (AD decreases at every PL) Increasing taxes discourages spending (AD decreases at every PL) To the right – Stock market boom makes people wealthier and less concerned about saving (AD increases at every PL) Cutting taxes encourages spending (AD increases at every PL)
25Shifts Arising from Investment To the left – Firms are pessimistic about business conditions (AD will decrease at every PL) Repeal of an investment tax credit (AD will decrease at every PL) Decrease in money supply increases interest rate (AD will decrease at every PL) To the right – Computer company introduces the first touch screen and other companies want to catch up (AD will increase at every PL) Investment tax credit (AD will increase at every PL) Increase in money supply lowers interest rate (AD will increase at every PL)
26Shift arising from Government Purchases The most direct way that policy makers shift the AD curve is through government purchases. To the left – Congress decides to spend less on the military (AD will decrease at every level) State governments cut education spending (AD will decrease at every PL) To the right – Congress decides to purchase new weapons systems. (AD will increase at every PL) State governments build more highways (AD will increase at every PL)
27Shifts arising from Net Exports To the left – Europe experiences a recession (AD will decrease at every PL) Appreciation of U.S.D. (AD will decrease at every PL) To the right – Europe recovers from a recession (AD will increase at every PL) Depreciation of U.S.D. (AD will increase at every PL)
28Quick ReviewThe three facts about economic fluctuation The three reasons that the AD curve is downward sloping The reasons why the AD curve might shift to the left or to the right HW: Complete quick quiz on p. 733
29The Aggregate-Supply Curve Illustrates the total quantity of goods and services that firms produce and sell at any given price level.Unlike the AD curve (which is always downward sloping), the AS curve depends on the time period under examination
30Short-Run VS. Long-Run AD Short-run AD – upward sloping Long-run AD – vertical
31Long-run ASIn the long run, an economy’s production of goods and services (real GDP) depends on its supplies of land, labor, capital, and technology used to turn these factors of production into goods and services. PL does not affect these long-run determinants of real GDP. The resources, not price, determine the total quantity of goods and services supplied.
32****Curve is vertical at natural rate of output***** LONG-RUN ASBased on classical macroeconomic theory that real variables (real GDP) do not depend on nominal variables (level of prices)This works out over a period of years.****Curve is vertical at natural rate ofoutput*****
33WHY LONG-RUN AS MIGHT SHIFT Natural rate of output because it shows when