2Models Ravenstein’s Laws Of Migration Newton’s Gravity Model Zelinsky’s Model Of Mobility TransitionClark’s Model Of Migration DecisionLee’s Intervening Obstacles ModelStouffer’s Law Of Intervening Opportunities
3Activity6 theories of migration are going to be discussed... Copy the following table and enter the Strengths and Weaknesses for each theory throughout the discussion of each:
4Theories Of Migration Ravenstein Newton Zelinsky Clark Lee Stouffer A D
5Ravenstein’s Laws Of Migration Every migration flow generates a return or countermigration.The majority of migrants move a short distance.Migrants who move longer distances tend to choose big-city destinationsUrban residents are often less migratory than inhabitants of rural areas.Families are less likely to make international moves than young adults.Other Influences Include:Migration stage by stageMigration and TechnologyEconomic condition
6RavensteinMost migrants travel short distances and their numbers decrease as distance increases
7Newton"Any two bodies attract one another with a force that is proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them.“When used geographically, the words 'bodies' and 'masses' are replaced by 'locations' and 'importance' respectively, where importance can be measured in terms of population numbers, gross domestic product, or another appropriate variables.The gravity model of migration is therefore based upon the idea that as the importance of one or both of the location increases, there will also be an increase in movement between them. The farther apart the two locations are, however, the movement between them will be less.
8ZelinskyStage 1 of the DTM: Pre industrialized economiesEconomies that have not yet developed are made up of rural countries and subsistence farmers. There will only be Rural – Urban migration between the settlements, if at all, as there are few urban areas.Industrializing countriesAs countries start to industrialize (UK in the 18th & 19th century) there is increased migration from the countryside to the cities where there were better wages and an increase in the standards of living.Stage 4 of the DTM: Post industrial economiesAdvanced countries that rely on tertiary industry more than secondary industry show an increase in Urban – Rural migration. Technological and transport movement improvements mean that people do not have to live close to where they work. Inter-urbanization occurs as people move to the suburbs
9Internal Vs External Forces + Stress ClarkInternal Vs External Forces + Stress
10Lee Push Pull Job opportunities Better living conditions Not enough jobsFew opportunitiesPrimitive conditionsDesertificationFamine or droughtPolitical fear or persecutionPoor medical careLoss of wealthNatural disastersDeath threatsLack of political or religious freedomPollutionPoor housingLandlord/tenant issuesBullyingDiscriminationPoor chances of marryingJob opportunitiesBetter living conditionsPolitical and/or religious freedomEnjoymentEducationBetter medical careAttractive climatesSecurityFamily linksIndustryBetter chances of marrying
12Is It This Simple Though? Lee’s Theory of MigrationThe decision of groups or households to move is an important factorMigration is not just ‘outside forces and pull/push factors but a deep conscious decision that individuals make
13Intervening Obstacles Lee pointed out that the migration process is selective because differentials such as age, gender, and social class affect how persons respond to push-pull factorsThese conditions also shape their ability to overcome intervening obstacles.Furthermore, personal factors such as a person's education, knowledge of a potential receiver population, family ties, and the like can facilitate or retard migration
16StoufferThe number of persons going a given distance is directly proportional to the number of opportunities at that distance and inversely proportional to the number of intervening opportunities.“Stouffer theorises that the amount of migration over a given distance is directly proportional to the number of opportunities at the place of destination, and inversely proportional to the number of opportunities between the place of departure and the place of destination.These intervening opportunities may persuade a migrant to settle in a place in the route rather than proceeding to the originally planned destination. Stouffer argued that the volume of migration had less to do with distance and population totals than with the opportunities in each location
17Using The Models Of Migration W/S... See if you can add any more Advantages/ Disadvantages of each theory.Which theory would you choose to best represent you if you were in a decision to migrate (give reasons).Which theory do you feel has most problems (why)?