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Mini-FRQ Enzymes are a huge part of digestion a) Describe structure and function of an enzyme b) How are enzymes tied to digestion?

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Presentation on theme: "Mini-FRQ Enzymes are a huge part of digestion a) Describe structure and function of an enzyme b) How are enzymes tied to digestion?"— Presentation transcript:

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2 Mini-FRQ Enzymes are a huge part of digestion a) Describe structure and function of an enzyme b) How are enzymes tied to digestion?

3 Why do we breathe oxygen?

4 gills alveoli elephant seals Gas Exchange Respiratory Systems

5  Need O 2 in ◦ for aerobic cellular respiration ◦ make ATP  Need CO 2 out ◦ waste product from Krebs cycle O2O2 food ATP CO 2

6  O 2 & CO 2 exchange between environment & cells ◦ need moist membrane ◦ need high surface area

7  Why high surface area? ◦ maximizing rate of gas exchange ◦ CO 2 & O 2 move across cell membrane by diffusion  rate of diffusion proportional to surface area  Why moist membranes? ◦ moisture maintains cell membrane structure ◦ gases diffuse only dissolved in water High surface area? High surface area! Where have we heard that before?

8 Aquatic organisms external systems with lots of surface area exposed to aquatic environment moist internal respiratory tissues with lots of surface area Terrestrial

9 Exchange tissue: spongy texture, honeycombed with moist epithelium Why is this exchange with the environment RISKY?

10  Larynx (upper part of respiratory tract)  Vocal cords (sound production)  Trachea (windpipe)  Bronchi (tube to lungs)  Bronchioles  Alveoli (air sacs)  Diaphragm (breathing muscle)

11  Gas exchange across thin epithelium of millions of alveoli ◦ total surface area in humans ~100 m 2

12  Breathing due to changing pressures in lungs ◦ air flows from higher pressure to lower pressure ◦ pulling air instead of pushing it

13 1) Share plan with tablemates to get A or B on all April quizzes 2) Change Sat, April 21 to Sat, April 14 th 3) Come up with a structure is ties to function example

14  Water carrying gas flows in one direction, blood flows in opposite direction just keep swimming…. Why does it work counter current? Adaptation!

15  Blood & water flow in opposite directions ◦ maintains diffusion gradient over whole length of gill capillary ◦ maximizing O 2 transfer from water to blood water blood front back blood 100 % 15% 5% 90% 70%40% 60%30% 100 % 5% 50% 70% 30% water counter- current concurrent

16  Advantages of terrestrial life ◦ air has many advantages over water  higher concentration of O 2  O 2 & CO 2 diffuse much faster through air  respiratory surfaces exposed to air do not have to be ventilated as thoroughly as gills  air is much lighter than water & therefore much easier to pump  expend less energy moving air in & out  Disadvantages ◦ keeping large respiratory surface moist causes high water loss  reduce water loss by keeping lungs internal Why don’t land animals use gills?

17  air tubes branching throughout body  gas exchanged by diffusion across moist cells lining terminal ends, not through open circulatory system Tracheae

18  Air enters nostrils ◦ filtered by hairs, warmed & humidified ◦ sampled for odors  Pharynx  glottis  larynx (vocal cords)  trachea (windpipe)  bronchi  bronchioles  air sacs (alveoli)  Epithelial lining covered by cilia & thin film of mucus ◦ mucus traps dust, pollen, particulates ◦ beating cilia move mucus upward to pharynx, where it is swallowed

19  Homeostasis ◦ keeping the internal environment of the body balanced ◦ need to balance O 2 in and CO 2 out ◦ need to balance energy (ATP) production  Exercise ◦ breathe faster  need more ATP  bring in more O 2 & remove more CO 2  Disease ◦ poor lung or heart function = breathe faster  need to work harder to bring in O 2 & remove CO 2 O2O2 ATP CO 2

20  Why use a carrier molecule? ◦ O 2 not soluble enough in H 2 O for animal needs  blood alone could not provide enough O 2 to animal cells  hemocyanin in insects = copper (bluish/greenish)  hemoglobin in vertebrates = iron (reddish)  Reversibly binds O 2 ◦ loading O 2 at lungs or gills & unloading at cells cooperativity heme group

21  Binding O 2 ◦ binding of O 2 to 1 st subunit causes shape change to other subunits  conformational change ◦ increasing attraction to O 2  Releasing O 2 ◦ when 1 st subunit releases O 2, causes shape change to other subunits  conformational change ◦ lowers attraction to O 2

22  Dissolved in blood plasma as bicarbonate ion Tissue cells Plasma CO 2 dissolves in plasma CO 2 combines with Hb CO 2 + H 2 OH 2 CO 3 H+ + HCO 3 – HCO 3 – H 2 CO 3 CO 2 Carbonic anhydrase Cl– carbonic acid CO 2 + H 2 O  H 2 CO 3 bicarbonate H 2 CO 3  H + + HCO 3 – carbonic anhydrase

23  Lower CO 2 pressure at lungs allows CO 2 to diffuse out of blood into lungs Plasma Lungs: Alveoli CO 2 dissolved in plasma HCO 3 – Cl – CO 2 H 2 CO 3 Hemoglobin + CO 2 CO 2 + H 2 O HCO 3 – + H +

24  Circulation and Gas Exchange

25  Animal cells exchange material across their cell membrane ◦ fuels for energy ◦ nutrients ◦ oxygen ◦ waste (urea, CO 2 )  If you are a 1-cell organism that’s easy! ◦ diffusion  If you are many-celled that’s harder

26  What needs to be transported ◦ nutrients & fuels  from digestive system ◦ respiratory gases  O 2 & CO 2 from & to gas exchange systems: lungs, gills ◦ intracellular waste  waste products from cells  water, salts, nitrogenous wastes (urea) ◦ protective agents  immune defenses  white blood cells & antibodies  blood clotting agents ◦ regulatory molecules  hormones

27  All animals have: ◦ circulatory fluid = “blood” ◦ tubes = blood vessels ◦ muscular pump = heart openclosed hemolymphblood

28  Taxonomy ◦ invertebrates  insects, arthropods, mollusks  Structure ◦ no separation between blood & interstitial fluid  hemolymph

29  Taxonomy ◦ invertebrates  earthworms, squid, octopuses ◦ vertebrates  Structure ◦ blood confined to vessels & separate from interstitial fluid  1 or more hearts  large vessels to smaller vessels  material diffuses between blood vessels & interstitial fluid closed system = higher pressures

30  Adaptations in closed system ◦ number of heart chambers differs 4 chamber heart is double pump = separates oxygen-rich & oxygen-poor blood; maintains high pressure What’s the adaptive value of a 4 chamber heart? 234 low pressure to body low O 2 to body high pressure & high O 2 to body

31  Fish: 2-chambered heart; single circuit of blood flow  Amphibians: 3-chambered heart; 2 circuits of blood flow- pulmocutaneous (lungs and skin); systemic (some mixing)  Mammals: 4-chambered heart; double circulation; complete separation between oxygen-rich and oxygen poor blood

32 convergent evolution  Selective forces ◦ increase body size  protection from predation  bigger body = bigger stomach for herbivores ◦ endothermy  can colonize more habitats ◦ flight  decrease predation & increase prey capture  Effect of higher metabolic rate ◦ greater need for energy, fuels, O 2, waste removal  endothermic animals need 10x energy  need to deliver 10x fuel & O 2 to cells

33  Chambered heart ◦ atrium = receive blood ◦ ventricle = pump blood out  Blood vessels ◦ arteries = carry blood away from heart  arterioles ◦ veins = return blood to heart  venules ◦ capillaries = thin wall, exchange / diffusion  capillary beds = networks of capillaries

34 Blood vessels arteries arterioles capillaries venules veins artery arteriolesvenules veins

35  Arteries ◦ thicker walls  provide strength for high pressure pumping of blood ◦ narrower diameter ◦ elasticity  elastic recoil helps maintain blood pressure even when heart relaxes

36  Veins ◦ thinner-walled ◦ wider diameter  blood travels back to heart at low velocity & pressure  lower pressure  distant from heart  blood must flow by skeletal muscle contractions when we move  squeeze blood through veins ◦ valves  in larger veins one-way valves allow blood to flow only toward heart Open valve Blood flows toward heart Closed valve

37  Capillaries ◦ very thin walls  lack 2 outer wall layers  only endothelium  enhances exchange across capillary ◦ diffusion  exchange between blood & cells

38  Blood flow in capillaries controlled by pre-capillary sphincters  supply varies as blood is needed  after a meal, blood supply to digestive tract increases  during strenuous exercise, blood is diverted from digestive tract to skeletal muscles ◦ capillaries in brain, heart, kidneys & liver usually filled to capacity sphincters opensphincters closed

39 Arteriole Blood flow Venule Lymphatic capillary Interstitial fluid Fluid & solutes flows out of capillaries to tissues due to blood pressure  “bulk flow” Interstitial fluid flows back into capillaries due to osmosis  plasma proteins  osmotic pressure in capillary BP > OPBP < OP 15% fluid returns via lymph 85% fluid returns to capillaries What about edema? Capillary

40  Plasma: liquid matrix of blood in which cells are suspended (90% water)  Erythrocytes (RBCs): transport O 2 via hemoglobin  Leukocytes (WBCs): defense and immunity  Platelets: clotting  Stem cells: pluripotent cells in the red marrow of bones  Blood clotting: fibrinogen (inactive)/ fibrin (active); hemophilia; thrombus (clot)

41  Parallel circulatory system ◦ transports white blood cells  defending against infection ◦ collects interstitial fluid & returns to blood  maintains volume & protein concentration of blood  drains into circulatory system near junction of vena cava & right atrium

42 Production & transport of WBCs Traps foreign invaders lymph node lymph vessels (intertwined amongst blood vessels)

43 Coronary arteries to neck & head & arms

44 What do blue vs. red areas represent? pulmonary systemic

45 bypass surgery

46  tm

47 AV SL AV  4 valves in the heart ◦ flaps of connective tissue ◦ prevent backflow  Atrioventricular (AV) valve ◦ between atrium & ventricle ◦ keeps blood from flowing back into atria when ventricles contract  “lub”  Semilunar valves ◦ between ventricle & arteries ◦ prevent backflow from arteries into ventricles while they are relaxing  “dub”

48 AV SL AV  Heart sounds ◦ closing of valves ◦ “Lub”  recoil of blood against closed AV valves ◦ “Dub”  recoil of blood against semilunar valves  Heart murmur ◦ defect in valves causes hissing sound when stream of blood squirts backward through valve

49 systolic ________ diastolic pump (peak pressure) _________________ fill (minimum pressure)  1 complete sequence of pumping ◦ heart contracts & pumps ◦ heart relaxes & chambers fill ◦ contraction phase  systole  ventricles pumps blood out ◦ relaxation phase  diastole  atria refill with blood 110 ____ 70

50  High Blood Pressure (hypertension) ◦ if top number ( systolic pumping) > 150 ◦ if bottom number ( diastolic filling) > 90

51  Cardiovascular disease (>50% of all deaths)  Heart attack- death of cardiac tissue due to coronary blockage  Stroke- death of nervous tissue in brain due to arterial blockage  Atherosclerosis: arterial plaques deposits  Arteriosclerosis: plaque hardening by calcium deposits  Hypertension: high blood pressure  Hypercholesterolemia: LDL, HDL

52  Demonstrate the path of an O2 molecule from the air to a knee cell as it travels through the respiration system and the circulatory system (travelling on a red blood cell). Make sure to include arteries, capillaries and/or veins.  Demonstrate the path of an CO2 molecule from a knee cell to the air as it travels through the respiration system and the circulatory system (travelling on a red blood cell). Make sure to include arteries, capillaries and/or veins.Demonstrations

53  All members verbally involved  8 or more different props  Creativity  Accurate description  Kinesthetic Scoring guide


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