3Why study research in Psychology? Psychologists cannot rely on “feelings”, “intuitions” or “common sense” to answer questions about people or their behavior.To be able to get new findings.To be able to critically analyze existing findings and find their flaws.
4Do the ends in psychological research justify the means? EthicsPsychology tries to help us understand ourselves and, if possible, predict and control our behavior.To achieve this understanding psychologists often have no other choice but to investigate human subjects for valid results to be obtained.How far should psychologists be allowed to go in pursuing their knowledge?Do the ends in psychological research justify the means?
5Methodological ethical issues: Ethical constraints are a serious but necessary limitation to the advancement of Psychology as a science.Methodological ethical issues:CONSENT: Obtain the participant’s informed consent – all aspects of the research that might affect their willingness to give consent should be revealed.DECEPTION: “Participants should never be deliberately misled without extremely strong scientific or medical justification.” (BPS Ethical Principles, 1993). A cost-benefit analysis of the gain vs. the discomfort of the participant must be considered.
6DEBRIEFING: Clarifying the research results afterwards and discussing or rectifying any consequences of the study to ensure that they leave the study in as similar a state as possible to when they entered. Especially important if deception has been employed.WITHDRAWAL FROM THE INVESTIGATION: Any participant’s right to withdraw from testing whenever they wish.CONFIDENTIALITY: Under the Data Protection Act (1984) participants and the data they provide should be kept anonymous unless they have given their full consent to make their data public.
7RESEARCHER CONDUCTING THE RESEARCH: Necessary skills and experience of researcher to work with the particular species they wish to study in order to acquire their personal licenses.Ethical: If the research is doomed unethical for human testing, but is important enough to be justified for animal testing. (i.e. interbreeding, deprivation, brain surgery, drug testing).Evolutionary: Some claim that it is valid because humans have evolved from other animals and so the difference between them is only quantitative.Convenience: Animals are “good subjects” – they don’t try to understand the purpose of the experiment!REASONS FOR CONDUCTING ANIMAL REASERCH IN PSYCHOLOGY:
9What is measurement?Measurement is the determination of the size or magnitude of something.Measurement is not limited to physical quantities, but can extend to quantifying almost anything imaginable.Examples of measurement range from degrees of uncertainty to consumer confidence to the rate of increase in the fall in the price of a good or service.It is important to know, however, that different kinds of quantity should be measured with different levels of measurement.
11BUT It is MUCH more important to UNDERSTAND… Statistics applies mathematical techniques to quantify what it researches…BUT It is MUCH more important to UNDERSTAND…The CIRCUMSTANCES that are being investigated.The implied variablesWhy we are researching this problemAnd QUESTION the data and statistical results.
12Statistics Statistics is more than mere numbers… It is the DATA Science that collects, describes, and interprets data.Statistical MethodsStatistical UsesStatistics1. Define SituationGives knowledge to those that don’t have it2. Collect DataStatistics is more than mere numbers…It is the DATAWhat you do with the dataWhat you learn from the dataAnd the resulting CONCLUSIONS3. Summarize with precisionMeans to collect and represent large quantities of information4. Obtain and communicate significant conclusions.Means by which to decide in the face of uncertainty
13How many were interviewed? Note: more than one answer was permittedSource: Survey applied to 10,000 clients of King-Size Co.Chair and tables stuck to the floor in restaurantsRenting cheap cars and the expense of renting a bigger one.Who was interviewed?How many were interviewed?Explain the meaning of “Thin seats in planes: 99%?Why are the percentages so elevated?
14Basic Terms Population Sample Variable The collection, or universe, of persons, objects or events whose properties will be analyzed.PopulationA sub-group of the population. Persons, objects selected by the researcher.SampleCharacteristic of interest of each individual element of the population or sample.Variable
15Data Experiment Parameter Statistics Collected data for the variable of each of the elements pertaining the sample.DataPlanned activity whose results produce a group of data.ExperimentNumerical value which summarizes all the data of a complete population.ParameterNumerical value which summarizes all the data in the sample.Statistics
16COLLECTING DATA One of the major obstacles is obtaining data. Data doesn’t just occur… it is necessary to COLLECT it!And… it is important to obtain good data because our inferences will be made through them.The compilation of data for statistical analysis is a complicated process which includes the following steps:Defining the objectives of the investigation or experiment.Defining the variable and the population of interest.Defining the diagrams to collect and measure the dataDetermining the ideal techniques for the analysis of data.
17Types of Variables Quantitative Qualitative All quantitative data is based upon qualitative judgments;And all qualitative data con be described and manipulated numerically.Numerical . In quantitative research your aim is to determine the relationship between one thing (an independent variable) and another (a dependent or outcome variable) in a population.QualitativeClassifies or describes an element of a population.
18Qualitative methods and data Quantitative methods and data Quantitative vs. Qualitative StudiesQualitative methods and dataQuantitative methods and dataRich INFORMATION NarrowSubjective INTERPRETATION ObjectiveRealistic, naturalistic SETTING ArtificialLoosely or not-structured DESIGN Highly structuredHigh REALISM LowLow RELIABILITY HighHigh REFLEXIVITY Low/non-existent
19Identify if the following expressions are examples of QUALITATIVE or QUANTITATIVE data:The resistance of tear (break) of a rope.The number of stop signs in populations with less than 500 inhabitants.The color of the hair of children in an audition for the musical show Annie.If a pipe is or not defective.The number of questions answered correctly in a standardized test.The necessary time to answer the phone in an office.
20Which are the 4 variables? What type of variable is each one? Most of your family ate together yesterdayNo20%How important is it for you to have dinner with your family?Not much 4%Yes80%13%7%27%38%Some22%Don’t know1%More than1hr2%4 8%7 days46%513%Very74%68%Less than ½ hr.20%1 hr.8%In the last 7 days, how many times did most of your family eat together?45 min.21%½ hr.48%When your family eats together, how long does dinner last?Results from a survey from the NY Times/CBS News (Jan. 6, 1991)Joan Bossert Democrat and ChronicleWhich are the 4 variables?What type of variable is each one?
21Can this data be classified as qualitative or quantitative? A USA Snapshot from USA Today Newspaper (1st Nov. 1994) described the highest sources of stress when starting a business. The executive directors of 500 private companies which had the highest growth according to Inc. Magazine, gave the following results:50% business finances23% need for success10% temporary engagements9% personal relationships8% otherCan this data be classified as qualitative or quantitative?Why?
22What do Psychologists investigate? VARIABLESA variable is any object, quality or event that changes or varies in some way (i.e. aggression, intelligence, time, height, amount of alcohol, driving ability, attraction, etc.)INDEPENDENTVARIABLECONDITION ACONDITION BINFLUENCESDEPENDENTCONTROLSHeight – varies as you grow older… varies between individuals.Time – time taken to respond, to solve puzzles.The political party you vote for.ExtroversionAnxietyAll this can vary:within yourself from one time to anotherBetween different individuals in society
23Characteristics of psychological investigation? VARIABLESWHAT shall we study? (what characteristics under what conditions?)PLAN FOR ANSWERINGRESEARCH QUESTIONWHOM shall we study?SAMPLESDESIGNHOW shall we test our hypothesis or answer our research question?WHAT sort of evidence will we get, in what form?ANALYSIS
24Statistics require an analysis of two variables. Are these variables related to one another?In what way are they related?Is there a correlation between them?The relationships are NOT of cause and effect…They are MATHEMATICAL relationships that help predict one variable on the basis of the knowledge we have of the other.
25Difficult? Better? Write your own definition of: Intelligence Anxiety SuperstitionDifficult?Define a/an:Intelligent personAnxious personSuperstitious personBetter?
26We must be able to define precisely what we want to study. Skinner would say anxiety is only OBSERVABLE: lip-biting, increased heart rate, adrenalin secretion… and NO MORE!Others would say there IS MORE. A person’s attitude. It is like the physicist who as never seen an atom, but believes it exists… thus in psychology, we never see anxiety, but know it exists- HYPOTHETICAL CONSTRUCT.Factors that exist and thus explain observable phenomena.Anxiety is then, a reference to an inner state that has its effects on human behavior.
27Heat causes people to be aggressive? Hmmmmmm!heatHot countryWars, fightingaggressionCRITICAL THINKERYes! It makes absolute sense to me.Pretty obvious in fact.EASY THINKERHmm! How many wars in cold countries?How many cold contries compared with hot countries overall?How many hot countries were underdeveloped by colonialism?What sorts of aggression are shown in wars?What other forms of aggression are there?
28Operationalisation Discuss in pairs: How can you measure or assess: Many of the things psychologists investigate are abstract concepts(aggression, intelligence, etc.)Through Operationalisation we make the variables physically measurable or testable (punches or puzzles solved).Discuss in pairs:How can you measure or assess:Identity Attention Reinforcement Egocentric AttitudeNeurotic Instinct Conformity Unconscious ConscienceExamples:Stress: occupations that have a higher percentage of sickness, heart attacks etc.Memory: participants keep diary of forgetful incidents.Language development: length of child’s utterances, size of vocabulary, etc.
29Reliability and Validity of Studies Does it produce the same results in the same circumstances?Ex. New strip thermometer.Does it really measure temperature? Or humidity? (Valid?)Does is always produce the same results? (Reliable)Validity:Does it measure what it is intended to measure?Did manipulation of the IV really affect the DV?FOR A TEST OR A STUDY TO BE VALID IT MUST CONSISTENTLY (REALIBLY) DO WHAT IT SAYS TO DO (VALIDITY).
30Exercise:My friend says “My cat hates Beethoven. Every time I put on a symphony she rushes out of the house”. Would you say this measure of the cat’s attitude to Beethoven was reliable, valid, both or neither?
31Theories about how the world operates Are we measuring what we intend to measure?Are our observations influenced by the circumstances in which they are made?What goes on in researcher's head…Theories about how the world operatesTHEORYWHAT YOU THINKCause-effect relationshipCAUSECONSTRUCTEFFECTCONSTRUCTWe are always floating between these two realms – what we think of the world and what goes on in it.operationalizeoperationalizeREAL WORLD in which we translate our ideas.Program-outcome relationshipPROGRAM:What you doOBSERVATIONS:What you seeOur programs, treatments, measures and observations.WHAT YOU TESTOBERVATIONWe must first isolate the cause and effect!Ex. Put yellow tomatoes in a box with a banana that has brown spots Does that make the tomatoes ripen faster? How would you know?Remember to eliminatealternative explanations!That's why we need a control group!
32Issues to take into account when evaluating a research methodology The process of selecting subjects to study from thetarget population.Samples should be representative of the population, since the results will be generalized.Samples should be of sufficient size to represent the variety of individuals in the target population.Suppose a friend from India comes to stay with you… as soon as he arrives he turns on the TV and there is a horribly aggressive show. You quickly try to explain that this is not the classical show in Mexico.Your friend has taken an unrepresentative sample… his view of the reality in Mexico will be distorted!SamplingSAMPLETARGET POPULATIONREPRESENTATIVESAMPLING
33Using the telephone directory Selecting from all houses Exercise:A sampling frame is limited by the method used to contact people. If a researcher wants to sample attitudes from all inhabitants of a town, which of the following methods would produce bias and why?Using the telephone directorySelecting from all housesUsing the electoral rollQuestioning people on the streetPhone directory has inbuilt bias because it eliminates non-phone users or ex-directory users.House-selection eliminates those in residential institutions.Street will not contain people at work, hospitals, etc.Electoral roll provide us with the widest, unbiased section of the population, though it doesn’t include prisoners, homeless, new residents, etc.We should deliberately get members of all cultural groups, men, women, old and young, etc.
34Very difficult to have a true random sample. Types of SamplingRandomEveryone in the population has a equal chance of being selected – it is considered to be the best because it is more likely to contain all of the characteristics of the population.Weakness: The larger the population the more difficult to sample randomly.Very rarely used.Very difficult to have a true random sample.Strength: Best chance of unbiased representative sample of target population
35Weakness: Time consuming. Types of SamplingStratifiedWhen we know the characteristics of the population, we can chose a representative sample. The sub-sections (strata) of the population we identify as relevant will vary according to the research we are conducting.Strength: A deliberate effort is made to identify the characteristics of a sample for it to be representative of the target populationWeakness: Time consuming.
36Weakness: Often unrepresentative – biased on part of subject. Types of SamplingSelf-selectingStrength: Relatively convenient and, if volunteering is consented, ethical.Weakness: Often unrepresentative – biased on part of subject.Individuals who have consciously or unconsciously determined their own involvement in a study. Volunteers or participations by chance.i.e. students standing on ladder observing how many people actually walked under it
37Selecting those subjects that are around and available at the time. Types of SamplingOpportunitySelecting those subjects that are around and available at the time.Strength: Quick, convenient and often the most economical method – thus the most common.Weakness: Gives very unrepresentative samples and is often biased on part of the researcher who may choose “helpful” subjects.
38If you want to explain to a 12 year old kid the difference between POPULATION and SAMPLE… What information must the kid include in his answer?How would you explain to the kid why a sample must be taken instead of interviewing every element of the population?
39Which is the population? Which is the sample? The article “Want a Job in Food” published by the magazine Parade (Nov. 13, 1994), mentioned a study done by the University of California which implied 2000 young men. The study found that of a total of 2000 young men that did not assist university, and worked at restaurants (mainly as cashiers in fast food restaurants), one of every two reached a higher level of manual work, and one of every four reached a managing position before 4 years of work.Which is the population?Which is the sample?
40BIASES IN SAMPLINGThe problem is not always a small sample… but it is easier to have bias in small samples.In general, the larger the sample, the less bias will occur.Small samples may lead us to conclude that there is no real difference between groups or conditions.BUT… large samples are harder to CONTROL – we might not notice that the problem is in our measuring system or manipulation of conditions because we are not controlling the variables.Large samples are costly and time consuming.
41Demand Characteristics and Researcher Bias Not taking into account how human beings are active agents, rather than just passive experimental material.Investigating people is not the same as investigating material.Demand characteristics and researcher bias (or researcher expectancy) raise the issue of validity of the information collected.Demand Characteristics: Martin Orne (1962) found that people who believed they were taking part in an experiment do so in a spirit of cooperation, and want to be helpful to the experimenter. As a result, they are overly co-operative, so there is lack of ecological validity.
42In the 1970’s Pepsi, concerned about Coca-Cola’s 3-1 lead in the sales in the Dallas area of the US, published a promotion supposedly showing that more than half the Coke drinkers tested preferred Pepsi’s flavor when the two colas were serverd in anonymous cups. Coke was served in a glass marked ‘Q’ while Pepsi was served in a glass marked ‘M’.MQ
43¿What did Coca-Cola actually do to check out its claim? A year later, the coke lead was down to 2-1. Coca-Cola fought back by running its own consumer-preference test – not of the colas… but of the letters used to mark the cups. They showed that people apparently like the letter ‘M’ better than they do ‘Q’.¿What did Coca-Cola actually do to check out its claim?MQ
44Are there confounting variables that are affecting your results??? A scientific method!They put Coke in both the ‘M’ and the ‘Q’ glasses.Results showed that most people preferred the Coke in the ‘M’ glass!!Are there confounting variablesthat are affectingyour results???Confounding variables are those that can lead us to:Wrongly identify the causal component of our independent variable.Assume the intended independent variables has an effect when it doesn’t.Assume an effect doesn’t occur when it does.MQ
45was said by his owner, a German mathematics Another example...Hans could countHans was a horse thatwas said by his owner, a German mathematicsteacher, to have amazing talents.Hundreds of people came to see Hans and newspapers carried accounts of his performances.Hans could give a date and tell timeIn 1904 a comission was established to discover – scientifically – the basis for Han’s abilities…Hans could do simple addition and substractionAll this by tapping his forefoot or pointing his nose at an optionHans could read german and answer simple questionsIt turned out Hans could NOT perform well if the questioner did not know the answers also, or if he was not looking at the questionare.
46How do Psychologists use their subjects in experiments? Experimental DesignHow do Psychologists use their subjects in experiments?Repeated MeasuresIndependent MeasuresCondition ACondition BCondition AUsing the same subjects in each condition of an experiment.Condition BUsing the different subjects in each condition of an experiment.Matched PairsUsing different but similar subjects in each condition of an experiment.Condition ACondition B
47Design Advantages Disadvantages Remedy STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES OF EXPERIMENTAL DESIGNSDesign Advantages Disadvantages RemedyRepeatedMeasuresParticipant variables eliminatedMore economicalNeed fewer participantMay not be able to conduct second conditionLoss of participants between conditionsIn second conditions participants may guess aim.Counterbalance conditionsLeave long time gap between conditionsDeceive participants as to aimIndependent SamplesParticipants can’t guess aimCan use exactly same stimulus listsNo need to wait for participants to “forget” first conditionParticipant variables not controlledLess economicalLack of homogeneityRandom allocation of participantsEnsure equal numbers in each groupMatchedPairsNo order effectsParticipant variables partly controlledNo wait for participants to forgetCan use same stimulus listsSome participant variables presentHard to find perfect matches and time consumingLoss of one member causes problemsCan’t generalize to other categories of peopleRandomly allocate pairs to conditions
48Experimental MethodsAn experiment involves the manipulation of the independent variable to see what effect it has on the dependent variable, while attempting to control the influence of extraneous variables.A little boy once said to another “Frogs have their ears in their legs, you know. I can prove it!”“Rubbish! said the other. “How can you possibly prove that?”The first boy (nasty brat!) proceeded to chop off a frog’s legs and started to shout at the frog “JUMP!” Go on JUMP!... See, he can’t hear me!”Problems?1) Ethical!2) The boy confounded the independent variable (ears)with a variable essential for demonstration of thedependent variable (legs) and has NO controlcondition to convince us that hearing frogs can understandEnglish and will obey commands.
49LABORATORYThe participant comes to the premises of the psychologist in a controlled environment.The researcher deliberately manipulates the independent variable while maintaining strict control over extraneous variables.Strengths:The most scientific method.Clear cause and effect.Increases control and objectivity.Greater ability to replicate.Weaknesses:Total control is not possible.Artificial conditions – lack of ecological validityResults biased by samplingMay raise ethical problems
50In 1968 researchers Darley & Latane conducted an experiment in which a student pretended to have a seizure and the experimenters recorded how often others stopped to help.When only one bystander was watching the scene, the student was helped 85% of the time.However, if there were five bystanders, the student was only helped 31% of the time.Does this make sense? Shouldn't having more people present increase the chances that someone will get help? Amazingly, this is not the case.If no one else is acting, it is hard to go against the crowd. People may feel that they are risking embarrassment. (What if I'm wrong and they don't need help?) They may think there is someone else in the group who is more qualified to help.They may think that the situation does not call for help since no one else is doing anything2. FIELDThe researcher deliberately manipulates de independent variables, but does so in the subject’s own natural environment.Strengths:Greater ecological validityLess bias from sampling (not in lab and unaware of being tested)Weaknesses:More bias due to difficulty in controlling all aspects.Difficult to replicateDifficult to record dataEthical problems of deception, invasion of privacy, etc.
513. QUASI- ExperimentAlso called naturalThe independent variable is changed by natural occurrence, the researcher just records the effects on the dependent variable.Strengths:Great ecological validityVery little bias from sampling.Weaknesses:Hard to infer cause-effect due to little control.Impossible to replicateBias if subjects are awareEthical problems of consent, deception, invasion of privacy, etc.
52NON-experimental Methods 1. OBSERVATIONInvolve the precise measurement of naturally occurring behavior in an objective way.a) NATURALISTICRecording of spontaneously occurring behavior in the subject’s own natural environment. This is observation without intervention.STRENGHTSHigh ecological validityGenerates ideas for experimental study.Sometimes the only ethical way to do itWEAKNESSESCannot infer cause-effectLack of control – makes replication difficultEthical problems – invasion of privacy
53NON-experimental Methods 1. OBSERVATIONInvolve the precise measurement of naturally occurring behavior in an objective way.b) CONTROLLED / StructuredControlled observation involves the recording of spontaneously occurring behavior, but under conditions contrived by the researcher (i.e. in the laboratory)STRENGHTSMore control over environment … more accurate observations.Easier replicationsAvoids ethical problem of consent – unless purpose and observer is hidden.WEAKNESSESParticipant reactivity may distort data if subject is aware of being observed.Lower ecological validityCause and effect cannot be inferred.
54NON-experimental Methods 1. OBSERVATIONInvolve the precise measurement of naturally occurring behavior in an objective way.c) PARTICIPANTParticipant observations involve the researcher becoming involved in the everyday life of the subjects, either with or without their knowledge.STRENGHTSVery high ecological validityExtremely detailed and in depth knowledge available, not gained from any other method.WEAKNESSESDifficult to record data promptly and objectivelyImpossible to replicate exactlyParticipant's behavior may influence subjects.Ethical problems of deception.Cause and effect cannot be inferred.i.e. Rosenthal (1973) and pseudo-patients in mental hospital.Took hospitals 7 to 52 days to release them, and still said their schizophrenia was “in remission”
55NON-experimental Methods 2. QUESTIONINGTechniques for gathering self-report data, which can be employed in varying detail from the superficial survey of many people to the in-depth assessment of individuals.TECHNIQUESInterviewsInvolving direct verbal questioning of the subject by the researcher.Structured InterviewsContain fixed predetermined questions and ways of replying.Semi- structured InterviewsContain guidelines for questions to be asked, but phrasing and timing are left up to the interviewer and answers may be open-ended.Clinical InterviewSemi-structured guidelines but further questioning to elaborate upon answersUnstructured InterviewMay contain a topic area for discussion but no fixed questions or ways of answering.QuestionnariesWritten methods of gaining data not necessarily in the presence of a researcher.Opinion surveys.Psychological tests.
56NON-experimental Methods 3. CASE STUDYCase study: an ideographic method involving the in-depth and detailed study of an individual or particular group. Often applied to unusual of valuable examples of behavior which may provide important insights into psychological function or refutation of psychological theory.… AND CORRELATIONCorrelation: The increase in the value of one variable indicates a change in the value of the other?
57Analyzing and presenting Data In your psychology exam you got a 78.Of course, you want to know how your grade compares to those of the rest of the class….So… you ask the teacher:What was the average grade of the group? 68b) How close was my grade from the highest of the class?The grades ranged from 42 to 87.c) How were the grades distributed?Half the class got something between 65 and 75Your gradeSo your grade was not so bad!!!42Min.68Aver.7887Max.
58The arithmetic mean is what is commonly called the average. Simple Descriptive StatisticsMeasures of central tendency2 – 4 – 6 – 6 – 8 – 14= 4040 / 6 = 6.66MeanThe arithmetic mean is what is commonly called the average.The mean is the sum of all the scores divided by the number of scoresMedianThe median is the midpoint of a distribution: the same number of scores are above the median as below it.2 – 5 – 7 – 8 – 3 – 4 – 5 – 8 – 5 – 1 – 5 – 9 – 6 - 5ModeThe mode is the most frequently occurring value.Min – 1Max – 35Range=34Measures of dispersionMin – 9Max – 105Range=96Calculated by taking the difference between the maximum and minimum values in the data set.Range
59Graphic Techniques Histogram Bar chart Line Graph Pie Chart Shows the amount of data that belongs to each category in rectangular areas of proportional size.Bar chartShows the distribution of frequencies in a quantitative variable. The scale identifies the frequencies of the diverse scales.Shows the amount of data that belongs to each category proportional to a circle.Line GraphPie ChartDisplays data or info. that changes over time.Associates each value of a variable with its frequency.Frequency polygon
60Compare both graphs and explain which one is more informative… WHY? A questionnaire to learn about the anxiety of work with a computer was applied to 200 students in a class which uses computers. One of the questions was “I like computers”. The answers for this question in particular were:Answer NumberTotally in agreement 50In agreement 75Slightly in agreement 25Slightly in disagreement 15In disagreement 15Totally in disagreement 20Compare both graphs and explain which one is more informative… WHY?
61In Psychology we do NOT prove theories true, Notice!In Psychology we do NOT provetheories true,but SUPPORT them with evidence!