Presentation on theme: "IB Psychology Research Mr. Hoffman. To be able to get new findings. To be able to critically analyze existing findings and find their flaws. Psychologists."— Presentation transcript:
IB Psychology Research Mr. Hoffman
To be able to get new findings. To be able to critically analyze existing findings and find their flaws. Psychologists cannot rely on feelings, intuitions or common sense to answer questions about people or their behavior.
Psychology tries to help us understand ourselves and, if possible, predict and control our behavior. To achieve this understanding psychologists often have no other choice but to investigate human subjects for valid results to be obtained. How far should psychologists be allowed to go in pursuing their knowledge ? Do the ends in psychological research justify the means?
Ethical constraints are a serious but necessary limitation to the advancement of Psychology as a science. Methodological ethical issues: DECEPTION: Participants should never be deliberately misled without extremely strong scientific or medical justification. (BPS Ethical Principles, 1993). A cost-benefit analysis of the gain vs. the discomfort of the participant must be considered. CONSENT: Obtain the participants informed consent – all aspects of the research that might affect their willingness to give consent should be revealed.
DEBRIEFING: Clarifying the research results afterwards and discussing or rectifying any consequences of the study to ensure that they leave the study in as similar a state as possible to when they entered. Especially important if deception has been employed. WITHDRAWAL FROM THE INVESTIGATION: Any participants right to withdraw from testing whenever they wish. CONFIDENTIALITY: Under the Data Protection Act (1984) participants and the data they provide should be kept anonymous unless they have given their full consent to make their data public.
RESEARCHER CONDUCTING THE RESEARCH: Necessary skills and experience of researcher to work with the particular species they wish to study in order to acquire their personal licenses. Ethical: If the research is doomed unethical for human testing, but is important enough to be justified for animal testing. (i.e. interbreeding, deprivation, brain surgery, drug testing). Evolutionary: Some claim that it is valid because humans have evolved from other animals and so the difference between them is only quantitative. Convenience: Animals are good subjects – they dont try to understand the purpose of the experiment! REASONS FOR CONDUCTING ANIMAL REASERCH IN PSYCHOLOGY:
Measurement is the determination of the size or magnitude of something. Measurement is not limited to physical quantities, but can extend to quantifying almost anything imaginable. Examples of measurement range from degrees of uncertainty to consumer confidence to the rate of increase in the fall in the price of a good or service. It is important to know, however, that different kinds of quantity should be measured with different levels of measurement.
Statistics applies mathematical techniques to quantify what it researches… BUT It is MUCH more important to UNDERSTAND… The CIRCUMSTANCES that are being investigated. The CIRCUMSTANCES that are being investigated. The implied variables The implied variables Why we are researching this problem Why we are researching this problem And QUESTION the data and statistical results. And QUESTION the data and statistical results.
Statistics Science that collects, describes, and interprets data. Statistical Methods 1. Define Situation 2. Collect Data 3. Summarize with precision 4. Obtain and communicate significant conclusions. Statistical Uses Gives knowledge to those that dont have it Means to collect and represent large quantities of information Means by which to decide in the face of uncertainty Statistics is more than mere numbers… It is the DATA What you do with the data What you learn from the data And the resulting CONCLUSIONS
Chair and tables stuck to the floor in restaurants Renting cheap cars and the expense of renting a bigger one. Who was interviewed? How many were interviewed? Explain the meaning of Thin seats in planes: 99%? Why are the percentages so elevated? Note: more than one answer was permitted Source: Survey applied to 10,000 clients of King-Size Co.
The collection, or universe, of persons, objects or events whose properties will be analyzed. A sub-group of the population. Persons, objects selected by the researcher. Characteristic of interest of each individual element of the population or sample.
Collected data for the variable of each of the elements pertaining the sample. Planned activity whose results produce a group of data. Numerical value which summarizes all the data of a complete population. Numerical value which summarizes all the data in the sample.
COLLECTING DATA One of the major obstacles is obtaining data. Data doesnt just occur… it is necessary to COLLECT it! And… it is important to obtain good data because our inferences will be made through them. One of the major obstacles is obtaining data. Data doesnt just occur… it is necessary to COLLECT it! And… it is important to obtain good data because our inferences will be made through them. The compilation of data for statistical analysis is a complicated process which includes the following steps: 1.Defining the objectives of the investigation or experiment. 2.Defining the variable and the population of interest. 3.Defining the diagrams to collect and measure the data 4.Determining the ideal techniques for the analysis of data.
Numerical. In quantitative research your aim is to determine the relationship between one thing (an independent variable) and another (a dependent or outcome variable) in a population. Classifies or describes an element of a population. All quantitative data is based upon qualitative judgments; And all qualitative data con be described and manipulated numerically.
Quantitative vs. Qualitative Studies Qualitative methods and data Quantitative methods and data RichINFORMATIONNarrow SubjectiveINTERPRETATION Objective Realistic, naturalisticSETTINGArtificial HighREALISMLow Loosely or not-structuredDESIGNHighly structured LowRELIABILITYHigh HighREFLEXIVITYLow/non-existent
Identify if the following expressions are examples of QUALITATIVE or QUANTITATIVE data: The resistance of tear (break) of a rope. The color of the hair of children in an audition for the musical show Annie. The number of stop signs in populations with less than 500 inhabitants. If a pipe is or not defective. The number of questions answered correctly in a standardized test. The necessary time to answer the phone in an office.
Most of your family ate together yesterday No 20% Yes 80% How important is it for you to have dinner with your family? Some 22% Very 74% Not much 4% Less than ½ hr. 20% When your family eats together, how long does dinner last? ½ hr. 48% 45 min. 21% 1 hr. 8% More than 1hr 2% Dont know 1% In the last 7 days, how many times did most of your family eat together? 7 days 46% 0 7% 6 8% 5 13% 4 8% 3 8% 2 7% 1 3% Which are the 4 variables? What type of variable is each one? Results from a survey from the NY Times/CBS News (Jan. 6, 1991) Joan Bossert Democrat and Chronicle
A USA Snapshot from USA Today Newspaper (1st Nov. 1994) described the highest sources of stress when starting a business. The executive directors of 500 private companies which had the highest growth according to Inc. Magazine, gave the following results: 50% business finances 23% need for success 10% temporary engagements 9% personal relationships 8% other Can this data be classified as qualitative or quantitative? Why?
VARIABLES A variable is any object, quality or event that changes or varies in some way (i.e. aggression, intelligence, time, height, amount of alcohol, driving ability, attraction, etc.) INDEPENDENT VARIABLE CONDITION A CONDITION B INFLUENCES DEPENDENT VARIABLE CONTROLS Height – varies as you grow older… varies between individuals. Time – time taken to respond, to solve puzzles. The political party you vote for. Extroversion Anxiety All this can vary: within yourself from one time to another Between different individuals in society
PLAN FOR ANSWERING RESEARCH QUESTION DESIGN HOW shall we test our hypothesis or answer our research question? VARIABLES SAMPLES ANALYSIS WHAT shall we study? (what characteristics under what conditions?) WHOM shall we study? WHAT sort of evidence will we get, in what form?
Statistics require an analysis of two variables. Are these variables related to one another? In what way are they related? Is there a correlation between them? The relationships are NOT of cause and effect… They are MATHEMATICAL relationships that help predict one variable on the basis of the knowledge we have of the other.
Write your own definition of: a)Intelligence b)Anxiety c)Superstition Define a/an: a)Intelligent person b)Anxious person c)Superstitious person
define We must be able to define precisely what we want to study. Skinner would say anxiety is only OBSERVABLE: lip-biting, increased heart rate, adrenalin secretion… and NO MORE! Others would say there IS MORE. A persons attitude. It is like the physicist who as never seen an atom, but believes it exists… thus in psychology, we never see anxiety, but know it exists- HYPOTHETICAL CONSTRUCT. Factors that exist and thus explain observable phenomena. Anxiety is then, a reference to an inner state that has its effects on human behavior.
Heat causes people to be aggressive? Hmmmmmm! EASY THINKER CRITICAL THINKER Hot countryWars, fighting aggression Hmm! How many wars in cold countries? How many cold contries compared with hot countries overall? How many hot countries were underdeveloped by colonialism? What sorts of aggression are shown in wars? What other forms of aggression are there? Yes! It makes absolute sense to me. Pretty obvious in fact. heat
Many of the things psychologists investigate are abstract concepts (aggression, intelligence, etc.) Through Operationalisation we make the variables physically measurable or testable (punches or puzzles solved). Discuss in pairs: How can you measure or assess: Identity Attention Reinforcement Egocentric Attitude Neurotic Instinct Conformity Unconscious Conscience Examples: Stress: occupations that have a higher percentage of sickness, heart attacks etc. Memory: participants keep diary of forgetful incidents. Language development: length of childs utterances, size of vocabulary, etc.
Does it measure what it is intended to measure? Did manipulation of the IV really affect the DV? Does it produce the same results in the same circumstances? FOR A TEST OR A STUDY TO BE VALID IT MUST CONSISTENTLY (REALIBLY) DO WHAT IT SAYS TO DO (VALIDITY). Ex. New strip thermometer. Does it really measure temperature? Or humidity? (Valid?) Does is always produce the same results? (Reliable)
Exercise: My friend says My cat hates Beethoven. Every time I put on a symphony she rushes out of the house. Would you say this measure of the cats attitude to Beethoven was reliable, valid, both or neither?
OBERVATION What goes on in researcher's head… Theories about how the world operates Are we measuring what we intend to measure? Are our observations influenced by the circumstances in which they are made? THEORY REAL WORLD in which we translate our ideas. Our programs, treatments, measures and observations. We are always floating between these two realms – what we think of the world and what goes on in it. CAUSE CONSTRUCT EFFECT CONSTRUCT Cause-effect relationship operationalize PROGRAM: What you do OBSERVATIONS: What you see Program-outcome relationship We must first isolate the cause and effect! Ex. Put yellow tomatoes in a box with a banana that has brown spots. Does that make the tomatoes ripen faster? How would you know?
The process of selecting subjects to study from the target population. Samples should be representative of the population, since the results will be generalized. Samples should be of sufficient size to represent the variety of individuals in the target population. REPRESENTATIVE SAMPLING TARGET POPULATION SAMPLE Suppose a friend from India comes to stay with you… as soon as he arrives he turns on the TV and there is a horribly aggressive show. You quickly try to explain that this is not the classical show in Mexico. Your friend has taken an unrepresentative sample… his view of the reality in Mexico will be distorted!
Exercise: A sampling frame is limited by the method used to contact people. If a researcher wants to sample attitudes from all inhabitants of a town, which of the following methods would produce bias and why? a)Using the telephone directory b)Selecting from all houses c)Using the electoral roll d)Questioning people on the street Electoral roll provide us with the widest, unbiased section of the population, though it doesnt include prisoners, homeless, new residents, etc. We should deliberately get members of all cultural groups, men, women, old and young, etc. Phone directory has inbuilt bias because it eliminates non-phone users or ex-directory users. House-selection eliminates those in residential institutions. Street will not contain people at work, hospitals, etc.
Everyone in the population has a equal chance of being selected – it is considered to be the best because it is more likely to contain all of the characteristics of the population. Weakness: The larger the population the more difficult to sample randomly. Very rarely used. Very difficult to have a true random sample. Strength: Best chance of unbiased representative sample of target population
When we know the characteristics of the population, we can chose a representative sample. The sub-sections (strata) of the population we identify as relevant will vary according to the research we are conducting. Strength: A deliberate effort is made to identify the characteristics of a sample for it to be representative of the target population Weakness: Time consuming.
Individuals who have consciously or unconsciously determined their own involvement in a study. Volunteers or participations by chance. Strength: Relatively convenient and, if volunteering is consented, ethical. Weakness: Often unrepresentative – biased on part of subject. i.e. students standing on ladder observing how many people actually walked under it
Selecting those subjects that are around and available at the time. Strength: Quick, convenient and often the most economical method – thus the most common. Weakness: Gives very unrepresentative samples and is often biased on part of the researcher who may choose helpful subjects.
If you want to explain to a 12 year old kid the difference between POPULATION and SAMPLE… a)What information must the kid include in his answer? b)How would you explain to the kid why a sample must be taken instead of interviewing every element of the population?
The article Want a Job in Food published by the magazine Parade (Nov. 13, 1994), mentioned a study done by the University of California which implied 2000 young men. The study found that of a total of 2000 young men that did not assist university, and worked at restaurants (mainly as cashiers in fast food restaurants), one of every two reached a higher level of manual work, and one of every four reached a managing position before 4 years of work. a)Which is the population? b)Which is the sample?
BIASES IN SAMPLING The problem is not always a small sample… but it is easier to have bias in small samples. -In general, the larger the sample, the less bias will occur. Small samples may lead us to conclude that there is no real difference between groups or conditions. BUT… large samples are harder to CONTROL – we might not notice that the problem is in our measuring system or manipulation of conditions because we are not controlling the variables. Large samples are costly and time consuming.
Investigating people is not the same as investigating material. Demand Characteristics: Martin Orne (1962) found that people who believed they were taking part in an experiment do so in a spirit of cooperation, and want to be helpful to the experimenter. As a result, they are overly co- operative, so there is lack of ecological validity. Demand characteristics and researcher bias (or researcher expectancy) raise the issue of validity of the information collected. Not taking into account how human beings are active agents, rather than just passive experimental material.
In the 1970s Pepsi, concerned about Coca- Colas 3-1 lead in the sales in the Dallas area of the US, published a promotion supposedly showing that more than half the Coke drinkers tested preferred Pepsis flavor when the two colas were serverd in anonymous cups. Coke was served in a glass marked Q while Pepsi was served in a glass marked M.
A year later, the coke lead was down to 2-1. Coca-Cola fought back by running its own consumer-preference test – not of the colas… but of the letters used to mark the cups. They showed that people apparently like the letter M better than they do Q. ¿What did Coca-Cola actually do to check out its claim?
A scientific method! They put Coke in both the M and the Q glasses. Results showed that most people preferred the Coke in the M glass!! Confounding variables are those that can lead us to: Wrongly identify the causal component of our independent variable. Assume the intended independent variables has an effect when it doesnt. Assume an effect doesnt occur when it does.
Hans could count Hans could do simple addition and substraction Hans could read german and answer simple questions Hans could give a date and tell time All this by tapping his forefoot or pointing his nose at an option Hundreds of people came to see Hans and newspapers carried accounts of his performances. In 1904 a comission was established to discover – scientifically – the basis for Hans abilities… It turned out Hans could NOT perform well if the questioner did not know the answers also, or if he was not looking at the questionare.
Condition ACondition B Using the same subjects in each condition of an experiment. Condition A Condition B Using the different subjects in each condition of an experiment. Using different but similar subjects in each condition of an experiment. Condition ACondition B
STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES OF EXPERIMENTAL DESIGNS Design Advantages Disadvantages Remedy Repeated Measures Participant variables eliminated More economical Need fewer participant May not be able to conduct second condition Loss of participants between conditions In second conditions participants may guess aim. Counterbalance conditions Leave long time gap between conditions Deceive participants as to aim Independent Samples Participants cant guess aim Can use exactly same stimulus lists No need to wait for participants to forget first condition Participant variables not controlled Less economical Lack of homogeneity Random allocation of participants Ensure equal numbers in each group Matched Pairs No order effects Participant variables partly controlled No wait for participants to forget Can use same stimulus lists Some participant variables present Hard to find perfect matches and time consuming Loss of one member causes problems Cant generalize to other categories of people Randomly allocate pairs to conditions
An experiment involves the manipulation of the independent variable to see what effect it has on the dependent variable, while attempting to control the influence of extraneous variables. A little boy once said to another Frogs have their ears in their legs, you know. I can prove it! Rubbish! said the other. How can you possibly prove that? The first boy (nasty brat!) proceeded to chop off a frogs legs and started to shout at the frog JUMP! Go on JUMP!... See, he cant hear me! Problems? 1) Ethical! 2) The boy confounded the independent variable (ears) with a variable essential for demonstration of the dependent variable (legs) and has NO control condition to convince us that hearing frogs can understand English and will obey commands.
The researcher deliberately manipulates the independent variable while maintaining strict control over extraneous variables. Strengths: The most scientific method. Clear cause and effect. Increases control and objectivity. Greater ability to replicate. Weaknesses: Total control is not possible. Artificial conditions – lack of ecological validity Results biased by sampling May raise ethical problems 1.LABORATORY The participant comes to the premises of the psychologist in a controlled environment.
Weaknesses: More bias due to difficulty in controlling all aspects. Difficult to replicate Difficult to record data Ethical problems of deception, invasion of privacy, etc. Strengths: Greater ecological validity Less bias from sampling (not in lab and unaware of being tested) 2. FIELD The researcher deliberately manipulates de independent variables, but does so in the subjects own natural environment. In 1968 researchers Darley & Latane conducted an experiment in which a student pretended to have a seizure and the experimenters recorded how often others stopped to help. When only one bystander was watching the scene, the student was helped 85% of the time. However, if there were five bystanders, the student was only helped 31% of the time. Does this make sense? Shouldn't having more people present increase the chances that someone will get help? Amazingly, this is not the case. If no one else is acting, it is hard to go against the crowd. People may feel that they are risking embarrassment. (What if I'm wrong and they don't need help?) They may think there is someone else in the group who is more qualified to help. They may think that the situation does not call for help since no one else is doing anything
Weaknesses: Hard to infer cause-effect due to little control. Impossible to replicate Bias if subjects are aware Ethical problems of consent, deception, invasion of privacy, etc. Strengths: Great ecological validity Very little bias from sampling. 3. QUASI- Experiment Also called natural The independent variable is changed by natural occurrence, the researcher just records the effects on the dependent variable.
1. OBSERVATION Involve the precise measurement of naturally occurring behavior in an objective way. a) NATURALISTIC Recording of spontaneously occurring behavior in the subjects own natural environment. This is observation without intervention. STRENGHTS High ecological validity Generates ideas for experimental study. Sometimes the only ethical way to do it WEAKNESSES Cannot infer cause-effect Lack of control – makes replication difficult Ethical problems – invasion of privacy
1. OBSERVATION Involve the precise measurement of naturally occurring behavior in an objective way. b) CONTROLLED / Structured Controlled observation involves the recording of spontaneously occurring behavior, but under conditions contrived by the researcher (i.e. in the laboratory) STRENGHTS More control over environment … more accurate observations. Easier replications Avoids ethical problem of consent – unless purpose and observer is hidden. WEAKNESSES Participant reactivity may distort data if subject is aware of being observed. Lower ecological validity Cause and effect cannot be inferred.
1. OBSERVATION Involve the precise measurement of naturally occurring behavior in an objective way. c) PARTICIPANT Participant observations involve the researcher becoming involved in the everyday life of the subjects, either with or without their knowledge. STRENGHTS Very high ecological validity Extremely detailed and in depth knowledge available, not gained from any other method. WEAKNESSES Difficult to record data promptly and objectively Impossible to replicate exactly Participant's behavior may influence subjects. Ethical problems of deception. Cause and effect cannot be inferred. i.e. Rosenthal (1973) and pseudo-patients in mental hospital. Took hospitals 7 to 52 days to release them, and still said their schizophrenia was in remission
2. QUESTIONING Techniques for gathering self-report data, which can be employed in varying detail from the superficial survey of many people to the in-depth assessment of individuals. TECHNIQUES Interviews Involving direct verbal questioning of the subject by the researcher. Structured Interviews Contain fixed predetermined questions and ways of replying. Semi- structured Interviews Contain guidelines for questions to be asked, but phrasing and timing are left up to the interviewer and answers may be open-ended. Clinical Interview Semi-structured guidelines but further questioning to elaborate upon answers Unstructured Interview May contain a topic area for discussion but no fixed questions or ways of answering. Questionnaries Written methods of gaining data not necessarily in the presence of a researcher. Opinion surveys.Psychological tests.
3. CASE STUDY Case study: an ideographic method involving the in-depth and detailed study of an individual or particular group. Often applied to unusual of valuable examples of behavior which may provide important insights into psychological function or refutation of psychological theory. … AND CORRELATION Correlation: The increase in the value of one variable indicates a change in the value of the other?
Analyzing and presenting Data In your psychology exam you got a 78. Of course, you want to know how your grade compares to those of the rest of the class…. So… you ask the teacher: a)What was the average grade of the group? Min. 68 Aver Max. Your grade b) How close was my grade from the highest of the class? The grades ranged from 42 to 87. c) How were the grades distributed? Half the class got something between 65 and 75 So your grade was not so bad!!!
The arithmetic mean is what is commonly called the average. The mean is the sum of all the scores divided by the number of scores The median is the midpoint of a distribution: the same number of scores are above the median as below it. The mode is the most frequently occurring value. Calculated by taking the difference between the maximum and minimum values in the data set. 2 – 4 – 6 – 6 – 8 – = / 6 = – 5 – 7 – 8 – 3 – 4 – 5 – 8 – 5 – 1 – 5 – 9 – Min – 9 Max – 105 Range= Min – 1 Max – 35 Range=34
Shows the amount of data that belongs to each category proportional to a circle. Shows the amount of data that belongs to each category in rectangular areas of proportional size. Shows the distribution of frequencies in a quantitative variable. The scale identifies the frequencies of the diverse scales. Associates each value of a variable with its frequency. Displays data or info. that changes over time.
A questionnaire to learn about the anxiety of work with a computer was applied to 200 students in a class which uses computers. One of the questions was I like computers. The answers for this question in particular were: Answer Number Totally in agreement50 In agreement75 Slightly in agreement25 Slightly in disagreement15 In disagreement15 Totally in disagreement20 Compare both graphs and explain which one is more informative… WHY?
Notice! In Psychology we do NOT prove theories true, but SUPPORT them with evidence!