Presentation on theme: "Chapter 2 PSYCHOLOGICAL METHODS"— Presentation transcript:
1 Chapter 2 PSYCHOLOGICAL METHODS HOLT Psychology4/6/2017Chapter 2 PSYCHOLOGICAL METHODSSection 1: Conducting ResearchSection 2: Surveys, Samples, and PopulationsSection 3: Methods of ObservationSection 4: The Experimental MethodSection 5: Ethical IssuesChapter 2
2 STEPS IN SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH Chapter 2Section 1: Conducting ResearchQuestion: What steps do scientists follow in conducting scientific research?STEPS IN SCIENTIFIC RESEARCHForm a question (posing a question based on experience, psychological theory or common knowledge)Form a hypothesis (making an educated guess)Test the hypothesis (examining the evidence through any of a variety of means)
3 STEPS IN SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH (continued) Chapter 2Section 1: Conducting ResearchQuestion: What steps do scientists follow in conducting scientific research?STEPS IN SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH (continued)Analyze Results (looking for patterns or relationships in the evidence)Draw a conclusion (determining whether the findings support the hypothesis and adjusting it if they do not)
4 Question: Why are proper sampling techniques important? Chapter 2Section 2: Surveys, Samples, and PopulationsQuestion: Why are proper sampling techniques important?IMPORTANCE OF PROPER SAMPLING TECHNIQUESSamples must be selected scientifically to ensure that the samples accurately represent the populations they are supposed to represent
5 Not always accurate. Why? Chapter 2Surveyssurvey – people are asked to respond to a series of questions about a particular subjecttwo methods:1) fill out questionnaire or 2) interviewNot always accurate. Why?
6 Target Population – whole group you want to study or describe Chapter 2Population & SamplesTarget Population – whole group you want to study or describeSample – only part of a target populationSelect a sample – as similar to target as possiblerandom – chance from targetE.g. selecting every 10th person from the phone bookstratified- subgroups are represented proportionally in comparison to the populationE.g. 2.5% of British are of Indian origin, so 2.5% of your sample should be of Indian origin… and so on
7 A predisposition to a certain point of view Chapter 2Volunteer BiasA predisposition to a certain point of viewPeople who volunteer to participate in studies often have a different outlook from people who do not and can skew the resultsMore willing to disclose personal info.More spare time
8 METHODS OF OBSERVATION Chapter 2Section 3: Methods of ObservationQuestion: What are the various methods of observation, and how is correlation used in analyzing results?METHODS OF OBSERVATIONTesting Method – several types of tests measure various elements of human behavior such as abilities, interests, and personalityIt is convenient but doesn’t always provide a complete representation of a person’s true abilities or personality.
9 METHODS OF OBSERVATION (continued) Chapter 2Section 3: Methods of ObservationMETHODS OF OBSERVATION (continued)Longitudinal Method – a group of participants are observed at intervals over an extended period of time – same people/personThe pitfall of this method is that it is time consuming, expensive, risky because participants may not stay available
10 Chapter 2Cross-Sectional Method – researchers compare the differences and similarities among people in different age groups at a given timeThis is a less expensive/time consuming way to study questions that may be studied longitudinally, however, it is less reliable than longitudinal studies.
11 METHODS OF OBSERVATION (continued) Chapter 2METHODS OF OBSERVATION (continued)Case-study Method – researchers conduct in-depth investigations of individuals or small groups, providing insightinterview others who know themobserve or speak with personfind out about their backgroundsPITFALLS – memory lapses, lie to impress, try to fulfill researchers expectations
12 Chapter 2Section 3: Methods of ObservationNaturalistic-Observation Method – researchers observe the behavior of people or animals in their natural habitats– psychologists don’t interfere with the organisms they are observing **Jane Goodall**She is responsible for findings in the science of Evolutionary PsychologyPITFALLS – people may become angry/defensive if they feel they are being watched
13 METHODS OF OBSERVATION (continued) Chapter 2METHODS OF OBSERVATION (continued)Laboratory-Observation Method – participants are observed in a laboratory setting, enabling researchers to precisely control certain aspects of the study.PITFALLS – can’t duplicate real life situations
14 Analyzing Observations Chapter 2Section 3: Methods of ObservationAnalyzing ObservationsCORRELATIONCorrelation measures how closely one thing is related to another (not cause & effect)positive – between IQ and grades / both sets of data are increasing or decreasing / as IQ increases, grades increase OR as IQ decreases, grades decreasenegative – as one set of data decreases, the other increases - between number of hours practicing tennis & dbl faults, as hours of practice increases, the number of dbl faults decreaseno correlation – after plotting there is relationship
15 Question: What are the purposes and elements of experiments? Chapter 2Section 4: The Experimental MethodQuestion: What are the purposes and elements of experiments?PURPOSES AND ELEMENTS OF EXPERIMENTSResearchers conduct experiments to learn about cause and effect.Elements of experiments include independent and dependent variables, experimental and control groups, and the placebo effect.
16 Chapter 2QUESTION: Suppose the hypothesis is that warm temperatures cause aggression in humansA variable is a factor that can change or vary An independent variable is the factor that researchers can manipulate So what in this “question” is the variable?
17 Chapter 2The dependent variable is a factor that is dependent on something; what is measured. So what is the dependent variable?
18 Controlled experiments – use both control & experimental groups Chapter 2Controlled experiments – use both control & experimental groupsThe experimental group are the participants in the experiment that receive the treatment What is the treatment? The control group are the participants that do NOT receive any treatment. Who is included in that group?
19 Steps experimenters take to avoid bias. Chapter 2Steps experimenters take to avoid bias.Placebos – administering placebos to a group within the study to eliminate the results being caused by an unknown factorSingle Blind Study – helps to eliminate expectation that the treatment will workDouble Blind Study – helps to keep those who are recording results from being influenced or biased
20 Question: How are ethical issues involved in psychological research? Chapter 2Section 5: Ethical IssuesQuestion: How are ethical issues involved in psychological research?ETHICAL ISSUES AND RESEARCHProtect study participants from harmMaintain the scientific integrity of the studyPromote the dignity of the individualFoster human welfareConfidentialityInformed Consent
21 Question: How are research questions formed? Chapter 2Question: How are research questions formed?Sources for Research QuestionsDaily ExperiencePsychological TheoryFolklore and Common Knowledge