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HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON P SYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE 1 Chapter 2 PSYCHOLOGICAL METHODS Section 1: Conducting ResearchConducting Research Section.

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Presentation on theme: "HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON P SYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE 1 Chapter 2 PSYCHOLOGICAL METHODS Section 1: Conducting ResearchConducting Research Section."— Presentation transcript:

1 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON P SYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE 1 Chapter 2 PSYCHOLOGICAL METHODS Section 1: Conducting ResearchConducting Research Section 2: Surveys, Samples, and PopulationsSurveys, Samples, and Populations Section 3: Methods of ObservationMethods of Observation Section 4: The Experimental MethodThe Experimental Method Section 5: Ethical IssuesEthical Issues

2 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON P SYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE 2 Chapter 2 Question: What steps do scientists follow in conducting scientific research? STEPS IN SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH Form a question (posing a question based on experience, psychological theory or common knowledge) Form a hypothesis (making an educated guess) Test the hypothesis (examining the evidence through any of a variety of means) Section 1: Conducting Research

3 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON P SYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE 3 Chapter 2 Question: What steps do scientists follow in conducting scientific research? Analyze Results (looking for patterns or relationships in the evidence) Draw a conclusion (determining whether the findings support the hypothesis and adjusting it if they do not) Section 1: Conducting Research STEPS IN SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH (continued)

4 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON P SYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE 4 Chapter 2 Question: Why are proper sampling techniques important? IMPORTANCE OF PROPER SAMPLING TECHNIQUES Samples must be selected scientifically to ensure that the samples accurately represent the populations they are supposed to represent Section 2: Surveys, Samples, and Populations

5 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON P SYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE Surveys survey – people are asked to respond to a series of questions about a particular subject two methods: 1) fill out questionnaire or 2) interview Not always accurate. Why? 5 Chapter 2

6 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON P SYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE Population & Samples Target Population – whole group you want to study or describe Sample – only part of a target population Select a sample – as similar to target as possible random – chance from target E.g. selecting every 10 th person from the phone book stratified- subgroups are represented proportionally in comparison to the population E.g. 2.5% of British are of Indian origin, so 2.5% of your sample should be of Indian origin… and so on 6 Chapter 2

7 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON P SYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE Volunteer Bias A predisposition to a certain point of view People who volunteer to participate in studies often have a different outlook from people who do not and can skew the results More willing to disclose personal info. More spare time 7 Chapter 2

8 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON P SYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE 8 Chapter 2 Question: What are the various methods of observation, and how is correlation used in analyzing results? METHODS OF OBSERVATION Testing Method – several types of tests measure various elements of human behavior such as abilities, interests, and personality It is convenient but doesn’t always provide a complete representation of a person’s true abilities or personality. Section 3: Methods of Observation

9 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON P SYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE 9 Chapter 2 Longitudinal Method – a group of participants are observed at intervals over an extended period of time – same people/person The pitfall of this method is that it is time consuming, expensive, risky because participants may not stay available Section 3: Methods of Observation METHODS OF OBSERVATION (continued)

10 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON P SYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE Cross-Sectional Method – researchers compare the differences and similarities among people in different age groups at a given time This is a less expensive/time consuming way to study questions that may be studied longitudinally, however, it is less reliable than longitudinal studies. 10 Chapter 2

11 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON P SYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE METHODS OF OBSERVATION (continued)  Case-study Method – researchers conduct in- depth investigations of individuals or small groups, providing insight interview others who know them observe or speak with person find out about their backgrounds PITFALLS – memory lapses, lie to impress, try to fulfill researchers expectations 11 Chapter 2

12 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON P SYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE 12 Chapter 2 Naturalistic-Observation Method – researchers observe the behavior of people or animals in their natural habitats – psychologists don’t interfere with the organisms they are observing **Jane Goodall** She is responsible for findings in the science of Evolutionary Psychology PITFALLS – people may become angry/defensive if they feel they are being watched Section 3: Methods of Observation

13 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON P SYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE METHODS OF OBSERVATION (continued) Laboratory-Observation Method – participants are observed in a laboratory setting, enabling researchers to precisely control certain aspects of the study. PITFALLS – can’t duplicate real life situations 13 Chapter 2

14 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON P SYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE 14 Chapter 2 CORRELATION Correlation measures how closely one thing is related to another (not cause & effect) positive – between IQ and grades / both sets of data are increasing or decreasing / as IQ increases, grades increase OR as IQ decreases, grades decrease negative – as one set of data decreases, the other increases - between number of hours practicing tennis & dbl faults, as hours of practice increases, the number of dbl faults decrease no correlation – after plotting there is relationship Section 3: Methods of Observation Analyzing Observations

15 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON P SYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE 15 Chapter 2 Question: What are the purposes and elements of experiments? PURPOSES AND ELEMENTS OF EXPERIMENTS Researchers conduct experiments to learn about cause and effect. Elements of experiments include independent and dependent variables, experimental and control groups, and the placebo effect. Section 4: The Experimental Method

16 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON P SYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE QUESTION: Suppose the hypothesis is that warm temperatures cause aggression in humans A variable is a factor that can change or vary An independent variable is the factor that researchers can manipulate So what in this “question” is the variable? 16 Chapter 2

17 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON P SYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE The dependent variable is a factor that is dependent on something; what is measured. So what is the dependent variable? 17 Chapter 2

18 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON P SYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE Controlled experiments – use both control & experimental groups The experimental group are the participants in the experiment that receive the treatment What is the treatment? The control group are the participants that do NOT receive any treatment. Who is included in that group? 18 Chapter 2

19 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON P SYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE Steps experimenters take to avoid bias. Placebos – administering placebos to a group within the study to eliminate the results being caused by an unknown factor Single Blind Study – helps to eliminate expectation that the treatment will work Double Blind Study – helps to keep those who are recording results from being influenced or biased 19 Chapter 2

20 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON P SYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE 20 Chapter 2 Question: How are ethical issues involved in psychological research? ETHICAL ISSUES AND RESEARCH Protect study participants from harm Maintain the scientific integrity of the study Promote the dignity of the individual Foster human welfare Confidentiality Informed Consent Section 5: Ethical Issues

21 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON P SYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE 21 Chapter 2 Question: How are research questions formed? Sources for Research Questions Daily Experience Psychological Theory Folklore and Common Knowledge


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