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Matter And Measurement Chapter 1 Introduction: Matter and Measurement John D. Bookstaver St. Charles Community College St. Peters, MO  2006, Prentice.

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Presentation on theme: "Matter And Measurement Chapter 1 Introduction: Matter and Measurement John D. Bookstaver St. Charles Community College St. Peters, MO  2006, Prentice."— Presentation transcript:

1 Matter And Measurement Chapter 1 Introduction: Matter and Measurement John D. Bookstaver St. Charles Community College St. Peters, MO  2006, Prentice Hall Chemistry, The Central Science, 10th edition Theodore L. Brown; H. Eugene LeMay, Jr.; and Bruce E. Bursten

2 Matter And Measurement Matter: Anything that has mass and takes up space.

3 Matter And Measurement Properties and Changes of Matter

4 Matter And Measurement Properties of Matter Physical Properties: □Can be observed without changing a substance into another substance. Boiling point, density, mass, volume, etc. Chemical Properties: □Can only be observed when a substance is changed into another substance. Flammability, corrosiveness, reactivity with acid, etc.

5 Matter And Measurement Properties of Matter Intensive Properties: □Independent of the amount of the substance that is present. Density, boiling point, color, etc. Extensive Properties: □Dependent upon the amount of the substance present. Mass, volume, energy, etc.

6 Matter And Measurement Changes of Matter Physical Changes: □Changes in matter that do not change the composition of a substance. Changes of state, temperature, volume, etc. Chemical Changes: □Changes that result in new substances. Combustion, oxidation, decomposition, etc.

7 Matter And Measurement Chemical Reactions In the course of a chemical reaction, the reacting substances are converted to new substances.

8 Matter And Measurement Units of Measurement

9 Matter And Measurement SI Units There are two types of units: –fundamental (or base) units; –derived units. There are 7 base units in the SI system.

10 Matter And Measurement SI Units Système International d’Unités Uses a different base unit for each quantity

11 Matter And Measurement Metric System Prefixes convert the base units into units that are appropriate for the item being measured.

12 Matter And Measurement Volume The units for volume are given by (units of length) 3. –SI unit for volume is 1 m 3. We usually use 1 mL = 1 cm 3. Other volume units: –1 L = 1 dm 3 = 1000 cm 3 = 1000 mL.

13 Matter And Measurement Uncertainty in Measurements Different measuring devices have different uses and different degrees of accuracy.

14 Matter And Measurement Density: Physical property of a substance d=d= mVmV

15 Matter And Measurement Do now: A graduated cylinder is filled with 15.0 mL of water. An object with a mass of g causes the total volume to increase to 23.4 mL. What is the density of the sample?

16 Matter And Measurement Vocabulary review Mass : amount of matter in an object. It is measured with a balance. Unit in the SI system: grams g Weight: a measure of the pull that the gravity exerts over an object. If we stay in the same planet (same gravity) is used like the mass.

17 Matter And Measurement Volume The space that an object occupies. Unit of volume in SI Liter = L

18 Matter And Measurement What is density? Density is a comparison of how much matter there is in a certain amount of space. IT IS AN INTENSIVE PHYSICAL PROPERTY. It is used to identify a substance.

19 Matter And Measurement DENSITY OF WATER 1g/ml That means that a gram of water has a volume of 1 milliliter or 1 cubic centimeter.

20 Matter And Measurement Which one is more dense? Now which one is more dense?

21 Matter And Measurement What is density? Density = mass volume or mass ÷ volume. Units for density: g. cm 3 Why are these the units for density? ALWAYS REMEMBER UNITS!

22 Matter And Measurement Let’s try a density problem together Find the density of a yellow rock has a mass of 8 g and a volume of 4 cm 3. Use your table S to determine what element it could be!

23 Matter And Measurement IMMISCIBLE LIQUIDS If you pour together liquids that don’t mix and have different densities, they will form liquid layers. Liquids that don’t mix are said to be IMMISCIBLE The liquid with the highest density will be on the bottom. The liquid with the lowest density will be on the top.

24 Matter And Measurement Liquid Layers. Which layer has the highest density? Which layer has the lowest density? Imagine that the liquids have the following densities: –10g/cm 3.3g/cm 3. –6g/cm 3.5g/cm 3. Which number would go with which layer? Is any of the liquids water?

25 Matter And Measurement To measure the volume of an object If is a regular object measure the dimensions needed and use the formula cube= LxWxH Cylinder =  h r 2 For an irregular object use the water displacement method.

26 Matter And Measurement Liquid Layers – Try with your neighbor Which liquid has the highest density? Which liquid has the lowest density? Which liquid has the middle density?

27 Matter And Measurement Liquid Layers – Try on your own! Imagine that the liquids on the right have the following densities: –15g/cm 3 10g/cm 3 –3g/cm 3 9g/cm 3 –7g/cm 3 12g/cm 3 Match the colors to the correct densities. 3g/cm 3 7g/cm 3 9g/cm 3 10g/cm 3 12g/cm 3 15g/c m 3

28 Matter And Measurement Review What is the formula for density? What happens if you pour together liquids that have different densities? Will the liquid on the top have the highest or lowest density? Will the liquid on the bottom have the highest or lowest density?

29 Matter And Measurement Density worksheet answers 1=1 2=2 3=2 D of Na g/mL 4=4 D of Mg g/cm3 5=2 6 20g/24.4L = 0.82 g/L

30 Matter And Measurement HOMOGENEOUS : SAME PROPERTIES THROUGHOUT THE SAMPLE HETEROGENEOUS : DIFFERENT PROPERTIES IN DIFFERENT PARTS OF THE SAMPLE

31 Matter And Measurement PURE SUBSTANCES have a constant composition ELEMENTS – Made up of same kind of atoms. Could not be decomposed. COMPOUNDS – Made up of different kind of atoms CHEMICALLY COMBINED. Can be decomposed. Recognizable by formulas!

32 Matter And Measurement Mixtures and Compounds

33 Matter And Measurement Compounds Compounds can be broken down into more elemental particles.

34 Matter And Measurement Matter Atoms are the building blocks of matter.

35 Matter And Measurement Matter Atoms are the building blocks of matter. Each element is made of the same kind of atom.

36 Matter And Measurement Matter Atoms are the building blocks of matter. Each element is made of the same kind of atom. A compound is made of two or more different kinds of elements.

37 Matter And Measurement SEPTEMBER 21 ELEMENT, COMPOUNDS AND MIXTURES REVIEW FOR TEST PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL CHANGES DENSITY

38 Matter And Measurement MIXTURES Combination of two or more pure substances. Can be separated by physical means. They do not have a fixed composition. Can be homogeneous or heterogeneous. SOLUTIONS ARE HOMOGENEOUS MIXTURES.

39 Matter And Measurement AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS The solution is prepared using water as the solvent (aq) means DISSOLVED IN WATER!!! Na Cl (s) is a compound Na Cl (aq) is a mixture!!!!

40 Matter And Measurement Pure Substances and Mixtures

41 Matter And Measurement Pure Substances and Mixtures If matter is not uniform throughout, then it is a heterogeneous mixture. If matter is uniform throughout, it is homogeneous. If homogeneous matter can be separated by physical means, then the matter is a mixture. If homogeneous matter cannot be separated by physical means, then the matter is a pure substance. If a pure substance can be decomposed into something else, then the substance is a compound.

42 Matter And Measurement Elements If a pure substance cannot be decomposed into something else, then the substance is an element. There are 114 elements known. Each element is given a unique chemical symbol (one or two letters). Elements are building blocks of matter. The earth’s crust consists of 5 main elements. (O, Si, Al, Fe, Ca) The human body consists mostly of 3 main elements. (O, C, H)

43 Matter And Measurement Elements

44 Matter And Measurement Metals, Nonmetals, and Metalloids

45 Matter And Measurement Symbols First letter of element in CAPITAL letter Second or third letter in lower case. Some elements have symbols different from the english name SODIUM Na POTASSIUM K CUPPER Cu LEAD Pb

46 Matter And Measurement IRON Fe MERCURY Hg GOLD Au SILVER Ag TIN Sn

47 Matter And Measurement Symbols from Latin Names ElementSymbolLatin name CopperCucuprum GoldAuaurum LeadPbplumbum MercuryHghydrargyrum PotassiumKkalium SilverAgargentum SodiumNanatrium TinSnstannum

48 Matter And Measurement DIATOMIC ELEMENTS H 2 O 2 F 2 Br 2 I 2 N 2 Cl 2

49 Matter And Measurement

50 Matter And Measurement Classification of Matter

51 Matter And Measurement Classification of Matter

52 Matter And Measurement Classification of Matter

53 Matter And Measurement Classification of Matter

54 Matter And Measurement Classification of Matter

55 Matter And Measurement Classification of Matter

56 Matter And Measurement Classification of Matter

57 Matter And Measurement Classification of Matter

58 Matter And Measurement Classification of Matter

59 Matter And Measurement Classification of Matter

60 Matter And Measurement MC ANSWERS 1. A 2. A 3. A 4. D 5. A 6. B 7. C 8. D 9. D

61 Matter And Measurement Chemical Reactions

62 Matter And Measurement Electrolysis of Water

63 Matter And Measurement Separation of Mixtures

64 Matter And Measurement Distillation: Separates homogeneous mixture on the basis of differences in boiling point.

65 Matter And Measurement Distillation

66 Matter And Measurement Filtration: Separates solid substances from liquids and solutions.

67 Matter And Measurement Chromatography: Separates substances on the basis of differences in solubility in a solvent.

68 Matter And Measurement Uncertainty in Measurement

69 Matter And Measurement Significant Figures The term significant figures refers to digits that were measured. When rounding calculated numbers, we pay attention to significant figures so we do not overstate the accuracy of our answers.

70 Matter And Measurement Uncertainty in Measurement All scientific measures are subject to error. These errors are reflected in the number of figures reported for the measurement. Precision and Accuracy Measurements that are close to the “correct” value are accurate. Measurements that are close to each other are precise.

71 Matter And Measurement ACCURACY DEALS WITH THE EXACTESNESS OF THE MEASUREMENT, HOW CLOSE IT IS TO THE, TRUE, ACCEPTED OR STANDARD VALUE PRECISSION DEALS WITH REPRODUCIBILITY OF A MEASUREMENT. IF SEVERAL MEASUREMENTS GIVE A SIMILAR RESULT IT IS SAID THAT THE MEASUREMENT IS PRECISE

72 Matter And Measurement Accuracy versus Precision Accuracy refers to the proximity of a measurement to the true value of a quantity. Precision refers to the proximity of several measurements to each other.

73 Matter And Measurement October 5 UNCERTAINTY IN MEASUREMENT SIGNIFICANT FIGURES – Rules and examples DO NOW Calculate the density of an object that has a mass of 10.0 g and a volume of 3.0 mL.

74 Matter And Measurement Measuring Volume by water displacement

75 Matter And Measurement Significant Figures The number of digits reported in a measurement reflect the accuracy of the measurement and the precision of the measuring device. All the figures known with certainty plus one extra figure (estimated digit) are called significant figures.

76 Matter And Measurement Sig fig in calculations In any calculation, the results are reported to the fewest significant figures (for multiplication and division) or fewest decimal places (addition and subtraction).

77 Matter And Measurement Significant Figures 1.All nonzero digits are significant. 2.Zeroes between two significant figures are themselves significant. 3.Zeroes at the beginning of a number are never significant. 4.Zeroes at the end of a number are significant if a decimal point is written in the number or if they are to the right of a decimal point.

78 Matter And Measurement has 2 sf 400. Has 3 sf has 5 sf

79 Matter And Measurement EXAMPLE FOR ADDITION Copy and perform the following operation indicating the right number of sig fig

80 Matter And Measurement MULTIPLICATION AND DIVISION 5 x 100 = x 745 = 3469/ 5799=

81 Matter And Measurement Examples: How many significant figures are in each of the following? m kg s people 5.230,050 cm A

82 Matter And Measurement Tell the number of significant digits in each of the following measurements cm __________ g __________ m __________ °C __________ mm __________ cm 3 __________ g __________ mm __________ kg __________ × sec __________ × m __________ g __________

83 Matter And Measurement Tell the number of significant digits in each of the following measurements cm __________ g __________ m __________ °C __________ mm __________ cm 3 __________ g __________ mm __________ kg __________ × sec __________ × m __________ g __________

84 Matter And Measurement How do scientist express the accuracy of a measurement? DO NOW : Observe the two instruments in my desk to measure volume, determine which would determine the volume of an Al cylinder with greater accuracy and explain in your notebook why.

85 Matter And Measurement Percent Error To determine the accuracy of a measurement. It tells us how far our measured stands from an accepted or known value. % error = I measured value – accepted value I X 100 ___________________________________________ accepted value

86 Matter And Measurement Example Calculate the percent error of the measurement for a student that determined that the density for Al is 2.5 g/mL. Hint use table T to determine the accepted value!

87 Matter And Measurement 1) cm cm cm ____________________ 2) g g g ____________________ 3) 80.4 cm cm ____________________ 4) 106.5mL mL ____________________ 5) 48.2 cm × 1.6 cm × 2.12 cm ____________________ 6) 8.3 m × 4.0 m × m

88 Matter And Measurement 7) cm3 ÷ cm ____________________ 8) 4.93 mm2 ÷ mm ____________________ 9) 0 57 mL x 760 mm/740 mm x 273K/250 K 10) 5 13 g x amu/ a m u

89 Matter And Measurement Answers cm g cm 4.76 mL cm m cm mm

90 Matter And Measurement MULTIPLE CHOICE

91 Matter And Measurement 1. According to an accepted chemistry reference. the heat of vaporization of water is 540. calories per gram. A student determined in the laboratory that the heat of vaporization of water was 620. calories per gram. The student's results had a percent error of (1) 12.9, (2) 80.0, (3) 14.8, (4) Which measurement contains a total of three significant figures? (1) 0.01 g (2) g (3) g (4) g

92 Matter And Measurement 3. In an experiment the gram atomic mass of magnesium was determined to be Compared to the accepted value 24.3, the percent error for this determination was (1) , (2) 24.7, (3) 1.65, (4) A student determined the melting point of a substance to be 55.2°C. If the accepted value is 50. 1°C the percent error in her determination is (1) 5.10, (2) 10.2, (3) 9.24, (4) Using the rules for significant figures, the sum of gram and gram should be expressed as (1) gram, (2) 0.03 gram, (3) gram, (4) gram

93 Matter And Measurement 6. Which milligram quantity contains a total of four significant figures? (1) mg (2) 3100 mg (2) 3010 mg (4) mg

94 Matter And Measurement Scientific Notation Numbers written in scientific notation include a numeral with one digit before the decimal point, multiplied by some power of ten (6.022 x ) In scientific notation, all digits are significant. You should be able to convert from non-scientific notation to scientific and vice-versa.

95 Matter And Measurement Temperature Definition Instrument Scales

96 Matter And Measurement TEMPERATURE Is associated with heat but it is NOT HEAT. IT IS NOT A FORM OF ENERGY!!!! ( Heat is) Review: What is KINETIC ENERGY?

97 Matter And Measurement KINETIC ENERGY (KE) Is associated with movement. If an object is moving fast has high KE If an object is moving slowly it has low KE

98 Matter And Measurement Temperature In scientific measurements, the Celsius and Kelvin scales are most often used. The Celsius scale is based on the properties of water. □0  C is the freezing point of water. □100  C is the boiling point of water.

99 Matter And Measurement Temperature: A measure of the average kinetic energy of the particles in a sample. If an object is at HIGH temperature its particles are moving FAST At LOW temperature particles move SLOWLY

100 Matter And Measurement Instrument to measure temperature THERMOMETER

101 Matter And Measurement FIXED POINTS OF A THERMOMETER BOILING POINT OF WATER FREEZING POINT OF WATER

102 Matter And Measurement Temperature The Kelvin is the SI unit of temperature. It is based on the properties of gases. There are no negative Kelvin temperatures. K =  C

103 Matter And Measurement Temperature The Fahrenheit scale is not used in scientific measurements.  F = 9/5(  C) + 32  C = 5/9(  F − 32)

104 Matter And Measurement Examples: 1.What is 35ºC in Kelvin? In ºF? 2.What is 183 K in ºC? In ºF?


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