2 MATTER Anything that has mass and occupies space Weight Mass Measure of earth’s gravityMassMeasure of the quantity of matterLaw of conservation of matterMatter cannot be created or destroyedStates of matterSolidLiquidGas
3 PROPERTIES OF MATTERTHE PROPERTIES OF MATTER CANNOT BE BROKEN DOWN WITHOUT A CHEMICAL CHANGEPHYSICAL PROPERTIESSuch properties are color, density, boiling point , melting point, and hardnessPHYSICAL CHANGE- Properties never changeLiquid turning into a gasCHEMICAL PROPERTIESThe way a substance reacts with another substance2Na(s) + Cl2(g) 2NaCl(s)CHEMICAL CHANGE-Properties are altered
4 SUBSTANCES PURE SUBSTANCE - Properties the same ELEMENT - cannot be broken down by a chemical change. Silver, gold or aluminumCOMPOUND - two or more elements that have been chemically bonded together. This can be broken down chemically into the elements. Sugar, baking soda, etc.
5 MIXTURES MIXTURE - Each substance retains their properties HOMOGENEOUS - all particles are in the same phase, a uniformed mixture. Salt water or airHETEROGENEOUS - all particles are not in the same phase, not uniformly mixed. Sand or woodMIXTURES CAN BE SEPARATED BY PHYSICAL MEANSFiltration, chromatography, or distillation (depends on volatility)
6 SOLUTIONS Solutions are usually homogenous liquids You can have solutions that are a mixture of gas and liquid. Also you can have gas solutions like air.
7 ATOMS AND MOLECULES MOLECULES Smallest particle in a compound Diatomic molecule has two same atoms (know these), Hydrogen gas(H2), Nitrogen gas(N2), Oxygen gas(O2), Fluorine gas(F2), Chlorine gas(Cl2), Bromine liquid(Br2), Iodine solid(I2)Polyatomic molecules have more than two elements in itATOMSSmallest particle in a elementAll elements are single atoms Carbon (C), Aluminum (Al), except for the diatomic molecules
8 SI UNITS Length is measured in METERS m Mass is measured in KILOGRAMS kgTime is measured in SECONDS sTemperature is measured in KELVIN KAmount of substance ismeasured in MOLES mol
9 CONVERSIONS THINGS TO REMEMBER In the metric system, the smaller prefix unit will always have a larger number than the prefix unit it is equal to.1000 m = 1km (overhead)METER IS A SMALLER PREFIX UNITKelvin is absolute zero or oC. You can not have a temperature lower than this so KELVIN CAN NEVER BE A NEGATIVE NUMBERoC = KK = oC
10 ROUNDING NUMBERS OFFIn a series of calculations carry all digits unit the final solution, THEN ROUNDIf a digit needs to be roundedIf it is less than 5, the preceding digit remains the sameIf the digits are equals or is greater than 5, the preceding digit is increased by one.
11 UNCERTAINTIES IN MULTIPLICATION, DIVISION, ADDITION, AND SUBTRACTION Multiplication and divisionSignificant figures are the same as the least precise (number with the smallest number of significant figures) measurementsAddition and subtractionThe answer will have the same number of digits beyond the decimal point as the integer (that was added or subtracted) with the least accurate number (last significant number is in the highest place holder)
12 SCIENTIFIC NOTATION All chemistry uses scientific notation Uses the base 101000 = 10 x 10x 10 =1030.001=1/1000=1/10 x 1/10 x 1/10=10-3
13 PERCENTAGES Calculating percentages Percent =number of specific items x 100Total items in the group
14 DENSITYDensityMeasure of the mass of a substance that occupies one unit of volumeDensity = mass = gram = gVolume Centimeters cubed cm3