2 1.1 – The Study of Chemistry Chemistry = Study of matter and the changes it undergoes Matter = Anything that has mass and occupies space Property = A characteristic that allows recognition and distinguishing Atoms = Building blocks of matter
3 1.1 – The Study of Chemistry -Properties of matter relate to both the composition and structure of atoms. Molecules = Combination of atoms.
4 1.2 – Classification of Matter States of Matter = s, l, g -Gas = Vapor. Indefinite volume and shape. Easily compressible. Particles have rotation, vibrational and translational motion. -Liquid = Definite volume. Indefinite shape. Particles have rotational and vibrational motion. -Solid = Definite volume and shape. Particles have rotational motion.
5 1.2 – Classification of Matter Pure Substance = Matter that has distinct properties that does not vary from sample to sample. Element = Cannot be broken down (w/out losing it) - 83 naturally occurring -Made of only one kind of atom
6 1.2 – Classification of Matter Compound = Composed of atoms of 2 or more elements. Contain two or more kinds of atoms. -Can be broken down chemically, but loses its properties Law of Constant Composition / Definite Proportions = A pure compound is always composed of the same elements in the same proportions
7 1.2 – Classification of Matter Mixture = Combination of two or more substances-Each keeps its own properties-Can be separated by physical meansSolution = A homogeneous mixtureReview:Homogeneous Mixture = Composition is the same throughoutHeterogeneous Mixture = Composition is NOT uniform
9 1.3 – Properties of MatterPhysical Property = A property that can be observed without changing identity of a substance -Ex – Dimensions, mass, temperature, bp, mp Chemical Property = A property that can only be measured by carrying out a chemical change -Ex – Flammability, corrosiveness
10 Intensive Property = Independent of amount of matter Intensive Property = Independent of amount of matter. -Ex – density (m/v), temperature, bp, mp, color Extensive Property = Dependent on amount of matter -Ex – mass, volume
11 1.3 – Properties of MatterPhysical Change / Change of State = A change that does not alter identity. Changes physical appearance but not composition Chemical Change / Chemical Reaction – Substance is transformed into a chemically different substance
12 1.3 – Properties of MatterSeparation of Mixtures (Possible methods for separation)Filtration – Separates heterogeneous mixturesDistillation – Separates homogeneous mixtures with components of different boiling pointsChromatography – Works for homogeneous mixtures with different solubilities. Typically used on separating colored components.
13 1.3 – Properties of MatterFiltrationDistillationChromatography
14 1.4 - MeasurementSI = International System of Units (revised metric system)
17 1.4 - MeasurementMass = Measure of quantity of matter – -Independent of gravity Weight = Force of gravity on an object
18 1.4 - MeasurementTemperature -Celsius is the everyday scale in most countries -Kelvin – Based on Absolute Zero = OK K = C F = 9/5C + 32 AND C = 5/9(F-32)
19 1.4 - MeasurementDerived Units: Volume – m3 1 mL = 1 cm3 Density = mass / volume = g/m3
20 1.5 – Uncertainty in Measurement Accuracy vs. Precision Precision = How close values are to eachother Accuracy = How close to the true value
21 1.5 – Uncertainty in Measurement Significant Figures Sig Figs (Sig Digs) = The meaningful digits in a measurement or calculation Rules:All nonzero digits are significant.Zeroes between two significant figures are themselves significant.Zeroes at the beginning of a number are never significant.Zeroes at the end of a number are significant if a decimal point is written in the number.
22 1.5 – Uncertainty in Measurement Sig Figs in Calculations For addition and subtraction – Answer must have the same number of DECIMAL PLACES as the measurement with the fewest decimal places.For multiplication and division – Answer must have the same number of SIG FIGS as the measurement with the fewest sig figs-AP Exam gives you +/- 1 sig fig before a deduction occurs
23 1.6 - Factor Label Method / Dimensional Analysis Multiplying by a conversion factor in order to solve a problem. Be sure to keep track of units and cancel as needed.