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Chapter 1 Matter and Measurement

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1 Chapter 1 Matter and Measurement

2 1.1 – The Study of Chemistry
Chemistry = Study of matter and the changes it undergoes Matter = Anything that has mass and occupies space Property = A characteristic that allows recognition and distinguishing Atoms = Building blocks of matter

3 1.1 – The Study of Chemistry
-Properties of matter relate to both the composition and structure of atoms. Molecules = Combination of atoms.

4 1.2 – Classification of Matter
States of Matter = s, l, g -Gas = Vapor. Indefinite volume and shape. Easily compressible. Particles have rotation, vibrational and translational motion. -Liquid = Definite volume. Indefinite shape. Particles have rotational and vibrational motion. -Solid = Definite volume and shape. Particles have rotational motion.

5 1.2 – Classification of Matter
Pure Substance = Matter that has distinct properties that does not vary from sample to sample. Element = Cannot be broken down (w/out losing it) - 83 naturally occurring -Made of only one kind of atom

6 1.2 – Classification of Matter
Compound = Composed of atoms of 2 or more elements. Contain two or more kinds of atoms. -Can be broken down chemically, but loses its properties Law of Constant Composition / Definite Proportions = A pure compound is always composed of the same elements in the same proportions

7 1.2 – Classification of Matter
Mixture = Combination of two or more substances -Each keeps its own properties -Can be separated by physical means Solution = A homogeneous mixture Review: Homogeneous Mixture = Composition is the same throughout Heterogeneous Mixture = Composition is NOT uniform

8 Classification of Matter

9 1.3 – Properties of Matter Physical Property = A property that can be observed without changing identity of a substance -Ex – Dimensions, mass, temperature, bp, mp Chemical Property = A property that can only be measured by carrying out a chemical change -Ex – Flammability, corrosiveness

10 Intensive Property = Independent of amount of matter
Intensive Property = Independent of amount of matter. -Ex – density (m/v), temperature, bp, mp, color Extensive Property = Dependent on amount of matter -Ex – mass, volume

11 1.3 – Properties of Matter Physical Change / Change of State = A change that does not alter identity. Changes physical appearance but not composition Chemical Change / Chemical Reaction – Substance is transformed into a chemically different substance

12 1.3 – Properties of Matter Separation of Mixtures (Possible methods for separation) Filtration – Separates heterogeneous mixtures Distillation – Separates homogeneous mixtures with components of different boiling points Chromatography – Works for homogeneous mixtures with different solubilities. Typically used on separating colored components.

13 1.3 – Properties of Matter Filtration Distillation Chromatography

14 1.4 - Measurement SI = International System of Units (revised metric system)

15 1.4 - Measurement Prefixes of the SI:

16 1.4 - Measurement SI Units:

17 1.4 - Measurement Mass = Measure of quantity of matter – -Independent of gravity Weight = Force of gravity on an object

18 1.4 - Measurement Temperature -Celsius is the everyday scale in most countries -Kelvin – Based on Absolute Zero = OK K = C F = 9/5C + 32 AND C = 5/9(F-32)

19 1.4 - Measurement Derived Units: Volume – m3 1 mL = 1 cm3 Density = mass / volume = g/m3

20 1.5 – Uncertainty in Measurement Accuracy vs. Precision
Precision = How close values are to eachother Accuracy = How close to the true value

21 1.5 – Uncertainty in Measurement Significant Figures
Sig Figs (Sig Digs) = The meaningful digits in a measurement or calculation Rules: All nonzero digits are significant. Zeroes between two significant figures are themselves significant. Zeroes at the beginning of a number are never significant. Zeroes at the end of a number are significant if a decimal point is written in the number.

22 1.5 – Uncertainty in Measurement Sig Figs in Calculations
For addition and subtraction – Answer must have the same number of DECIMAL PLACES as the measurement with the fewest decimal places. For multiplication and division – Answer must have the same number of SIG FIGS as the measurement with the fewest sig figs -AP Exam gives you +/- 1 sig fig before a deduction occurs

23 1.6 - Factor Label Method / Dimensional Analysis
Multiplying by a conversion factor in order to solve a problem. Be sure to keep track of units and cancel as needed.

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