Presentation on theme: "Thomas Jefferson Well over 6 feet tall Not a good public speaker."— Presentation transcript:
1Thomas Jefferson Well over 6 feet tall Not a good public speaker. One of the greatest writers among U.S. PresidentsA renaissance manIncredibly well-read in science and philosophyContinental Congress;Assemblyman; Gov. of Virginia.;Author of Dec. of Independence;Min. to France;Sec. of State; Vice Pres.Win Election of 1800 with help off Alexander Hamilton
2Jefferson & National Gov’t Views on governmentstrict constructionismmajor functionsHe oppose the Alien & Sedition ActsArmy & NavyPublic spendingfederal debtExcise tax on whiskeyrest of Hamilton’s program?simplicity as PresidentPageant 13eThomas Jefferson by Rembrandt Peale, 1805Collection of The New-York Historical Society
3Jefferson Takes Over “We are all Republicans, we are all Federalists” Jefferson looks to reduce and simplify the role of federal governmentSize of army reduced, naval expansion haltedinternal taxes eliminatedinfluence of the Bank of the US reducedFederalists losing powerOnly control Judicial branchAs expansion continues, most moving west are lower class and support Jefferson & Democratic-Republicans
4Marbury v. Madison, 1803Marbury was one of the Midnight Judges, but never received his official papersHe & 3 others request their appointments from Sec. of State James MadisonMadison doesn‘t have them & refuses to give new ones (Jefferson had thrown them away)
5Marbury & the others sue Madison, taking him to Supreme Court While court agreed w/ Marbury, they refuse to ruleCan’t take cases directly to Supreme Court; must appeal through lower courtsJudiciary Act of 1789 overturnedEstablishes JUDICIAL REVIEW; shows legitimacy of Supreme Court
6Louisiana PurchaseNapoleon Bonaparte & France gained control of Louisiana Territory from Spain (Pinckney’s Treaty now in question)US afraid they wouldn’t be able to use New OrleansJefferson sends Robert Livingston & James Monroe to Paris to negotiate purchase of New Orleans from FrenchNapoleon offers all of Louisiana Territory-Spain posed no real threat, but with the French owning the Louisianna territory with Napolean (military genius), Jefferson knew that he would have to fight France for it and America wasn’t strong and didn’t have the money to wage war. Cheaper just to buy the land from France. Agreed to this because he could pocket the money for his schemes at home.-828,000 square miles at about 3 cents an acre.-Jefferson feared that a strong French presence in the midcontinent would force the united states into an alliance with Britain.-
7Louisiana PurchaseJefferson unsure if purchase is constitutional, but he’s more afraid of having the strong French nearbyUS buys N.O. & Louisiana Territory for $15 millionLewis & Clark are sent to explore the new land (1804)They look for natural resources, a path to Pacific, the friendliness of Indians, etcJourney took nearly 2 ½ years; they open path for western settlement
11Lewis and Clark 1804-1806 Purposes: Explore new territory Claim to Oregonpolitical & trade relations with Indians
12Hamilton-Burr DuelAlexander Hamilton & Aaron Burr were political opponents and didn‘t like each otherBurr challenged Hamilton to a duel after being “dishonored” by HamiltonThe two dueled in July, 1804Hamilton shot into the airBurr shot Hamilton in the ribs, mortally wounding himHamilton died the next morning
13Burr was charged with murder, but was never put to trial Burr finished his tenure as Vice President, leaving in the spring of 1805Burr later tried to annex Mexico; eventually charged with treason
14Jefferson’s 2nd Term Jefferson was very popular after his 1st term British & French fight again in 1806British were blocking French ports; also taking sailors (impressment)America was neutral & trading w/ both sidesAmericans angry at British b/c of impressment
15Jefferson’s 2nd Term Chesapeake incident British shot USS Chesapeake and boarded it3 killed, 18 wounded, 4 sailors impressed by the BritishUS immediately passed Embargo Act of 1807US would not trade w/ British; hoped to hurt British economyAct backfires; actually hurt US economyAct is repealed in 1809
16War Hawks James Madison wins election of 1808 As he takes office, a group of young congressmen from the South become aggressiveThey want to get rid of Indians in current territories & also wanted more land (Canada)These congressmen were known as the War Hawks; led by Henry Clay and John C. Calhoun
17War Hawks Problems w/ Indians in the Indiana territory Indian named Tecumseh raises army to fight AmericansUS wins at Battle of Tippecanoe (discover Indians were getting weapons from British in Canada)War Hawks use this to push for war against BritishUS declares war, beginning the War of 1812
18War of 1812 - Causes War of 1812 (1812-1815) “War Hawks” Henry Clay (Whig -KY Lexington)John Calhoun (Whig - SC)Reasons US declared war1) Impressment of sailors2) Conflicts with Indians3) Desire for expansion“Mr. Madison’s War”Henry Clay
19War of 1812British aren’t very interested in first years of the war (too busy w/ Napoleon in Europe)US wins minor victories in ; tried an invasion of Canada, with little successMost battles were on or along Great Lakes
20War of 1812British turn attention to US in 1814, invading Northeast & burning down Washington DCBritish then travel to Baltimore, but are stopped there (Star Spangled Banner)Andrew Jackson sent to protect N. Orleans; wins greatest victory of the war in Jan (Battle of N.O.)British and Americans negotiated peace, signing Treaty of Ghent on Dec. 24, 1814
21The burning of the Capitol Description: The burning of the Capitol. Mural by Allyn Cox.
23After Effects of the War Treaty of Ghent only ended war; US got nothing elseHartford ConventionMany in New England were upset with War of 1812Representatives from the New England states met from Dec Jan. 1815Secession was discussed, but only amendments to the Constitution were suggested1st time secession is discussed
24ERA OF GOOD FEELINGS Nationalism & Sectionalism after the War of 1812
25Nationalism v. Sectionalism Dominant theme for this time period is Nationalism v. SectionalismNationalism: pride, love, loyalty for your nationSectionalism: pride, love, loyalty for your region (also a desire to increase power for your area)
26North: Industrial center (1st factories come to North) good ports, river system, immigrant laborcompete w/ British in textiles (Factory System)South: Farming centerMain crop switches from Tobacco to cotton (Eli Whitney’s cotton gin)South becomes dependent on slave labor (Plantation System)West: expansion & developmentPotential for settlement, money, etc.Constant conflict w/ Indians (usually forced to move)
27After Effects of the War of 1812 US has a strong sense of NationalismLast thing people remember from war is Battle of New OrleansUS had built stronger factories/industry since we didn't’t trade with Britain during the warFederalist Party loses all power after Hartford Convention
28James Monroe wins election of 1816 easily, runs unopposed in 1820 Known as the Era of Good FeelingsBritish begin dumping low cost goods into American market – threaten to put US factories out of businessHenry Clay responds with idea to protect US economy, known as American System
30American System 3 Parts Protective Tariff Tariff of 1816 taxes British imports; causes people to buy more US goods instead of British goods (20-25% tax)British then start taxing US goods (hurts South - cotton)National Bank2nd Bank of the US created; 20 year charterMeant to provide easy and abundant credit to stimulate businesses
31Internal Improvements Roads, railroads, & canals, built using funds from tariff (ex - Erie Canal)Would connect markets of North, West, South, and EastPurpose is to make ALL of America strongerSECTIONAL IMPLICATIONS?WEST got roads, canals, and federal aidEAST protective tariffs (w/ support from the West)SOUTH ??
32Internal Affairs/Improvements American settlers poured westward from the coastal states into the Midwest, Southwest, and Texas, seeking economic opportunity in the form of land to own and farm.
33Internal Affairs/Improvements The Whig Party came to power in the United States in , was for most of its history concerned with promoting internal improvements, such as roads, canals(Erie canal), railroads, deepening of rivers, etc. This was of interest to many Westerners in this period, isolated as they were and in need of markets. Abraham Lincoln was a Whig for most of this period . Slavery will divide the party
37Internal Affairs/Improvements The American inventor and manufacturer John Deere was one of the first to design agricultural tools and machines to meet the specific needs of Midwestern farmers.
38American Arts BeginJames Fennimore Cooper is an example of the fine writers of this time period. He is best remember for the book The Last of the Mohicans
39American Arts BeginWashington Irving, ( ) American author, short story writer, essayist, poet, travel book writer, biographer, and columnist, best known for the short stories "The Legend of Sleepy Hollow" and "Rip Van Winkle".
40American Arts BeginEdgar Allen Poe ( ), American poet, a master of the horror tale, credited with practically inventing the detective story
41American Arts BeginA Novelist and short story writer, a central figure in the American Renaissance, Nathaniel Hawthorne's best-known works include “The Scarlet Letter”
42American Arts BeginIn 1831 Alexis de Tocqueville, a young French aristocrat and ambitious civil servant, made a nine-month journey throughout America. The result was Democracy in America, a monumental study of the life and institutions of the evolving nation. Tocqueville looked to the flourishing democratic system in America as a possible model for post-revolutionary France, believing that the egalitarian ideals it enshrined reflected the spirit of the age and even divine will. His insightful work has become one of the most influential political texts ever written on America and an indispensable authority on democracy
43American Arts BeginThe Hudson River School of Artists ( ) was a group of painters, led by Thomas Cole, who painted awesomely Romantic images of America's wilderness, in the Hudson River Valley and also in the newly opened West
45Growing SectionalismAs the United States expanded westward, the conflict over slavery grew more bitter and threatened to tear the country apart.The Northern states developed an industrial economy based on manufacturing. They favored high protective tariffs to protect Northern manufacturers from foreign competition.
46Growing Sectionalism• The southern states developed an agricultural economy consisting of a slavery-based system of plantations in the lowlands along the Atlantic and in the Deep South, and small subsistence farmers in the foothills and valleys of the Appalachian Mountains. The South strongly opposed high tariffs, which made the price of imported manufactured goods much more expensive.
47Growing SectionalismSoutherners argued that individual states could nullify laws passed by the Congress. They also began to insist that states had entered the Union freely and could leave (“secede”) freely if they chose. John C. Calhoun of South Carolina was a spokesman for state rights. He claimed states had two rights Nullification and Secession. He does this in an anonymously publish work called The South Carolina Exposition and Protest.
48Challenges to Nationalism Missouri CompromiseIssue of slavery becomes heated againMissouri wants to enter US as a slave state in 1819Law prevented slavery north of the Ohio River (Missouri was to the west – didn’t apply)Missouri is admitted as a slave state in 1820; Maine is created as a free state to balance powerThe 36°30’ line is created in rest of Louisiana Territory to limit future slaverySouth gets short end of the deal – more potential for free states to the north (contributes to Sectionalism)
50Panic of 18192nd Bank of the US created to provide credit, stimulate businessesOver speculation had occurred in frontier landsWhen economy struggles, the Bank of the US is forced to foreclose on many mortgages on farmsThis causes tensions between western commoner’s and the “elite” businessmen/bankers of the North and East
51Monroe DoctrineUS worried about European influence in Western HemisphereUS issues doctrine in 1823 warning Europe to stay out (no more colonization)Doctrine is largely unenforceable until 1890s, but US feels like a growing world power
52NATIONALISM IN FOREIGN AFFAIRS The Monroe Doctrine (1823)The US to declare the Americas off-limits to Europe.A continuation of the neutrality and isolationist policies established by Washington.US will protect the Americas---new countries which formed in Central and South AmericaNo European Colonization in the AmericasUS will recognize existing European ColoniesUS will not meddle in European affairsPojerMonroe Doctrine
53Major Court Cases – Marshall Court Marbury v. Madison, 1803 – establishes Judicial ReviewFletcher v. Peck, 1810 – Declared sanctity of contracts; SC can overturn state laws that run contrary to federal lawsMcCulloch v. Maryland, 1819 – Challenges validity of the Bank of US; court rules it is constitutionalDartmouth v. Woodward, 1819 – Reaffirms sanctity of contracts; protected private charters from state legislatorsGibbons v. Ogden, 1824 – Congress given right to regulate interstate commerce (no state monopolies)Worcester v. Georgia, 1832 – courts rule in favor of Cherokee Indians; Jackson ignores ruling