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Thomas Jefferson Well over 6 feet tall Not a good public speaker.

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1 Thomas Jefferson Well over 6 feet tall Not a good public speaker.
One of the greatest writers among U.S. Presidents A renaissance man Incredibly well-read in science and philosophy Continental Congress; Assemblyman; Gov. of Virginia.; Author of Dec. of Independence; Min. to France; Sec. of State; Vice Pres. Win Election of 1800 with help off Alexander Hamilton

2 Jefferson & National Gov’t
Views on government strict constructionism major functions He oppose the Alien & Sedition Acts Army & Navy Public spending federal debt Excise tax on whiskey rest of Hamilton’s program? simplicity as President Pageant 13e Thomas Jefferson by Rembrandt Peale, 1805 Collection of The New-York Historical Society

3 Jefferson Takes Over “We are all Republicans, we are all Federalists”
Jefferson looks to reduce and simplify the role of federal government Size of army reduced, naval expansion halted internal taxes eliminated influence of the Bank of the US reduced Federalists losing power Only control Judicial branch As expansion continues, most moving west are lower class and support Jefferson & Democratic-Republicans

4 Marbury v. Madison, 1803 Marbury was one of the Midnight Judges, but never received his official papers He & 3 others request their appointments from Sec. of State James Madison Madison doesn‘t have them & refuses to give new ones (Jefferson had thrown them away)

5 Marbury & the others sue Madison, taking him to Supreme Court
While court agreed w/ Marbury, they refuse to rule Can’t take cases directly to Supreme Court; must appeal through lower courts Judiciary Act of 1789 overturned Establishes JUDICIAL REVIEW; shows legitimacy of Supreme Court

6 Louisiana Purchase Napoleon Bonaparte & France gained control of Louisiana Territory from Spain (Pinckney’s Treaty now in question) US afraid they wouldn’t be able to use New Orleans Jefferson sends Robert Livingston & James Monroe to Paris to negotiate purchase of New Orleans from French Napoleon offers all of Louisiana Territory -Spain posed no real threat, but with the French owning the Louisianna territory with Napolean (military genius), Jefferson knew that he would have to fight France for it and America wasn’t strong and didn’t have the money to wage war. Cheaper just to buy the land from France. Agreed to this because he could pocket the money for his schemes at home. -828,000 square miles at about 3 cents an acre. -Jefferson feared that a strong French presence in the midcontinent would force the united states into an alliance with Britain. -

7 Louisiana Purchase Jefferson unsure if purchase is constitutional, but he’s more afraid of having the strong French nearby US buys N.O. & Louisiana Territory for $15 million Lewis & Clark are sent to explore the new land (1804) They look for natural resources, a path to Pacific, the friendliness of Indians, etc Journey took nearly 2 ½ years; they open path for western settlement

8 America: Pathways to the Present

9 America: Pathways to the Present


11 Lewis and Clark 1804-1806 Purposes: Explore new territory
Claim to Oregon political & trade relations with Indians

12 Hamilton-Burr Duel Alexander Hamilton & Aaron Burr were political opponents and didn‘t like each other Burr challenged Hamilton to a duel after being “dishonored” by Hamilton The two dueled in July, 1804 Hamilton shot into the air Burr shot Hamilton in the ribs, mortally wounding him Hamilton died the next morning

13 Burr was charged with murder, but was never put to trial
Burr finished his tenure as Vice President, leaving in the spring of 1805 Burr later tried to annex Mexico; eventually charged with treason

14 Jefferson’s 2nd Term Jefferson was very popular after his 1st term
British & French fight again in 1806 British were blocking French ports; also taking sailors (impressment) America was neutral & trading w/ both sides Americans angry at British b/c of impressment

15 Jefferson’s 2nd Term Chesapeake incident
British shot USS Chesapeake and boarded it 3 killed, 18 wounded, 4 sailors impressed by the British US immediately passed Embargo Act of 1807 US would not trade w/ British; hoped to hurt British economy Act backfires; actually hurt US economy Act is repealed in 1809

16 War Hawks James Madison wins election of 1808
As he takes office, a group of young congressmen from the South become aggressive They want to get rid of Indians in current territories & also wanted more land (Canada) These congressmen were known as the War Hawks; led by Henry Clay and John C. Calhoun

17 War Hawks Problems w/ Indians in the Indiana territory
Indian named Tecumseh raises army to fight Americans US wins at Battle of Tippecanoe (discover Indians were getting weapons from British in Canada) War Hawks use this to push for war against British US declares war, beginning the War of 1812

18 War of 1812 - Causes War of 1812 (1812-1815) “War Hawks”
Henry Clay (Whig -KY Lexington) John Calhoun (Whig - SC) Reasons US declared war 1) Impressment of sailors 2) Conflicts with Indians 3) Desire for expansion “Mr. Madison’s War” Henry Clay

19 War of 1812 British aren’t very interested in first years of the war (too busy w/ Napoleon in Europe) US wins minor victories in ; tried an invasion of Canada, with little success Most battles were on or along Great Lakes

20 War of 1812 British turn attention to US in 1814, invading Northeast & burning down Washington DC British then travel to Baltimore, but are stopped there (Star Spangled Banner) Andrew Jackson sent to protect N. Orleans; wins greatest victory of the war in Jan (Battle of N.O.) British and Americans negotiated peace, signing Treaty of Ghent on Dec. 24, 1814

21 The burning of the Capitol
Description: The burning of the Capitol. Mural by Allyn Cox.


23 After Effects of the War
Treaty of Ghent only ended war; US got nothing else Hartford Convention Many in New England were upset with War of 1812 Representatives from the New England states met from Dec Jan. 1815 Secession was discussed, but only amendments to the Constitution were suggested 1st time secession is discussed

24 ERA OF GOOD FEELINGS Nationalism & Sectionalism after the War of 1812

25 Nationalism v. Sectionalism
Dominant theme for this time period is Nationalism v. Sectionalism Nationalism: pride, love, loyalty for your nation Sectionalism: pride, love, loyalty for your region (also a desire to increase power for your area)

26 North: Industrial center (1st factories come to North)
good ports, river system, immigrant labor compete w/ British in textiles (Factory System) South: Farming center Main crop switches from Tobacco to cotton (Eli Whitney’s cotton gin) South becomes dependent on slave labor (Plantation System) West: expansion & development Potential for settlement, money, etc. Constant conflict w/ Indians (usually forced to move)

27 After Effects of the War of 1812
US has a strong sense of Nationalism Last thing people remember from war is Battle of New Orleans US had built stronger factories/industry since we didn't’t trade with Britain during the war Federalist Party loses all power after Hartford Convention

28 James Monroe wins election of 1816 easily, runs unopposed in 1820
Known as the Era of Good Feelings British begin dumping low cost goods into American market – threaten to put US factories out of business Henry Clay responds with idea to protect US economy, known as American System

29 1820 Presidential Election

30 American System 3 Parts Protective Tariff
Tariff of 1816 taxes British imports; causes people to buy more US goods instead of British goods (20-25% tax) British then start taxing US goods (hurts South - cotton) National Bank 2nd Bank of the US created; 20 year charter Meant to provide easy and abundant credit to stimulate businesses

31 Internal Improvements
Roads, railroads, & canals, built using funds from tariff (ex - Erie Canal) Would connect markets of North, West, South, and East Purpose is to make ALL of America stronger SECTIONAL IMPLICATIONS? WEST  got roads, canals, and federal aid EAST  protective tariffs (w/ support from the West) SOUTH  ??

32 Internal Affairs/Improvements
American settlers poured westward from the coastal states into the Midwest, Southwest, and Texas, seeking economic opportunity in the form of land to own and farm.

33 Internal Affairs/Improvements
The Whig Party came to power in the United States in , was for most of its history concerned with promoting internal improvements, such as roads, canals(Erie canal), railroads, deepening of rivers, etc. This was of interest to many Westerners in this period, isolated as they were and in need of markets. Abraham Lincoln was a Whig for most of this period . Slavery will divide the party

34 Comp Goal 2.06 Erie Canal Hudson River

35 Erie Canal


37 Internal Affairs/Improvements
The American inventor and manufacturer John Deere was one of the first to design agricultural tools and machines to meet the specific needs of Midwestern farmers.

38 American Arts Begin James Fennimore Cooper is an example of the fine writers of this time period. He is best remember for the book The Last of the Mohicans

39 American Arts Begin Washington Irving, ( ) American author, short story writer, essayist, poet, travel book writer, biographer, and columnist, best known for the short stories "The Legend of Sleepy Hollow" and "Rip Van Winkle".

40 American Arts Begin Edgar Allen Poe ( ), American poet, a master of the horror tale, credited with practically inventing the detective story

41 American Arts Begin A Novelist and short story writer, a central figure in the American Renaissance, Nathaniel Hawthorne's best-known works include “The Scarlet Letter”

42 American Arts Begin In 1831 Alexis de Tocqueville, a young French aristocrat and ambitious civil servant, made a nine-month journey throughout America. The result was Democracy in America, a monumental study of the life and institutions of the evolving nation. Tocqueville looked to the flourishing democratic system in America as a possible model for post-revolutionary France, believing that the egalitarian ideals it enshrined reflected the spirit of the age and even divine will. His insightful work has become one of the most influential political texts ever written on America and an indispensable authority on democracy

43 American Arts Begin The Hudson River School of Artists ( ) was a group of painters, led by Thomas Cole, who painted awesomely Romantic images of America's wilderness, in the Hudson River Valley and also in the newly opened West

44 Hudson River School

45 Growing Sectionalism As the United States expanded westward, the conflict over slavery grew more bitter and threatened to tear the country apart. The Northern states developed an industrial economy based on manufacturing. They favored high protective tariffs to protect Northern manufacturers from foreign competition.

46 Growing Sectionalism • The southern states developed an agricultural economy consisting of a slavery-based system of plantations in the lowlands along the Atlantic and in the Deep South, and small subsistence farmers in the foothills and valleys of the Appalachian Mountains. The South strongly opposed high tariffs, which made the price of imported manufactured goods much more expensive.

47 Growing Sectionalism Southerners argued that individual states could nullify laws passed by the Congress. They also began to insist that states had entered the Union freely and could leave (“secede”) freely if they chose. John C. Calhoun of South Carolina was a spokesman for state rights. He claimed states had two rights Nullification and Secession. He does this in an anonymously publish work called The South Carolina Exposition and Protest.

48 Challenges to Nationalism
Missouri Compromise Issue of slavery becomes heated again Missouri wants to enter US as a slave state in 1819 Law prevented slavery north of the Ohio River (Missouri was to the west – didn’t apply) Missouri is admitted as a slave state in 1820; Maine is created as a free state to balance power The 36°30’ line is created in rest of Louisiana Territory to limit future slavery South gets short end of the deal – more potential for free states to the north (contributes to Sectionalism)


50 Panic of 1819 2nd Bank of the US created to provide credit, stimulate businesses Over speculation had occurred in frontier lands When economy struggles, the Bank of the US is forced to foreclose on many mortgages on farms This causes tensions between western commoner’s and the “elite” businessmen/bankers of the North and East

51 Monroe Doctrine US worried about European influence in Western Hemisphere US issues doctrine in 1823 warning Europe to stay out (no more colonization) Doctrine is largely unenforceable until 1890s, but US feels like a growing world power

The Monroe Doctrine (1823) The US to declare the Americas off-limits to Europe. A continuation of the neutrality and isolationist policies established by Washington. US will protect the Americas---new countries which formed in Central and South America No European Colonization in the Americas US will recognize existing European Colonies US will not meddle in European affairs Pojer Monroe Doctrine

53 Major Court Cases – Marshall Court
Marbury v. Madison, 1803 – establishes Judicial Review Fletcher v. Peck, 1810 – Declared sanctity of contracts; SC can overturn state laws that run contrary to federal laws McCulloch v. Maryland, 1819 – Challenges validity of the Bank of US; court rules it is constitutional Dartmouth v. Woodward, 1819 – Reaffirms sanctity of contracts; protected private charters from state legislators Gibbons v. Ogden, 1824 – Congress given right to regulate interstate commerce (no state monopolies) Worcester v. Georgia, 1832 – courts rule in favor of Cherokee Indians; Jackson ignores ruling

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