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Helena Pachón CIAT Nutritionist AgroSalud Project Coordinator Improved Agriculture-Nutrition Linkages through Production and Promotion of Nutrient-dense.

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Presentation on theme: "Helena Pachón CIAT Nutritionist AgroSalud Project Coordinator Improved Agriculture-Nutrition Linkages through Production and Promotion of Nutrient-dense."— Presentation transcript:

1 Helena Pachón CIAT Nutritionist AgroSalud Project Coordinator Improved Agriculture-Nutrition Linkages through Production and Promotion of Nutrient-dense Foods Food Security and Nutrition Network Spring Technical Meeting 9 May 2011 Baltimore, USA

2 Outline  Biofortification overview  Experiences in LAC Photo: Neil Palmer

3 What is Biofortification? Biofortification is the development of nutrient-dense staple crops using the best conventional breeding practices and modern biotechnology, without sacrificing agronomic performance and important consumer-preferred traits Modified from Nestel et al., 2006 clayuca.org Iron, zinc, calcium, pro- vitamin A carotenoids, folate, amino acids, prebiotics, etc.

4 Conventional Plant Breeding to Develop Biofortified Crops Drought-tolerant Bean High-iron Bean X Drought-tolerant, high-iron beans

5 Progressive increments of iron in beans Breeding cycles Iron (ppm) Developing Biofortified Crops Takes Years Courtesy: Steve Beebe, CIAT

6 Nutrient Concentration in Staple Crops can be Increased through Plant Breeding Courtesy: César Martínez, CIAT Percent N4851 Mean3.92 Std Deviation Normal Percent N1819 Mean Fe (mg/kg) Normal Percent N4667 Mean3.20 Std Deviation 1.26 Normal 2007 Fedearroz 50 IR - 64 Baseline

7 Agronomic Traits in Staple Crops can be Improved through Plant Breeding Yield of tryptophan- and lysine- biofortified maize (QPM) Mostly higher yields for QPM (yellow bar) compared with conventional maize (red bar) Courtesy: Hugo Córdova and CIMMYT colleagues Yields for White QPM Hybrids Evaluated in 62 Localities in Latin America, Asia and Africa,

8 Will Farmers Adopt Biofortified Crops?  49% and 15% of the areas in LAC and Africa, respectively, where beans are grown have CIAT varieties (Johnson et al., 2003)  36% of LAC areas where maize is grown have CIMMYT germplasm (Morris & López, 2000)  71% of the rice area planted in Asia has IRRI rice (Hossain et al., 2003) Photo: Marlene Rosero Historically, farmers have adopted agronomically improved crops

9 Biofortification is a Food-based Approach (http://faostat.fao.org/site/368/DesktopDefault.aspx?PageID=368#ancor) Six crops account for 57% of energy and 49% of protein “consumed” by populations living in least developed countries (FAO food balance sheets)

10 How Biofortified Crops Improve Food and Nutrition Security Compared with conventional (non-biofortified crops), biofortified crops have Increase foods available in homes  Better agronomic characteristics Greater: yields, resistance to pests, tolerance to stresses Improve food security

11 How Biofortified Crops Improve Food and Nutrition Security Compared with conventional (non-biofortified crops), biofortified crops have Increase foods available in homes  Better agronomic characteristics Greater: yields, resistance to pests, tolerance to stresses  Higher nutritional concentration More: iron, zinc, beta- carotene and/or tryptophan and lysine Increase the intake of these nutrients Improve nutrition security Improve food security

12 Biofortification Supported by Leading Economists (www.copenhagenconsensus.com) For the most important challenges facing the world, what are the most promising solutions?

13 Biofortification is Complementary to Other Interventions Improve Food and Nutrition Security Fortified Foods Dietary Diversity Supplementation Improved Crop Productivity Crop Biofortification Nutrition Education

14 #9 Brazil India Biofortification Program Who Promotes Biofortification?

15 Iron-biofortified rice (Haas et al., 2005) Increased by 20% storage iron in non-anemic women of reproductive age (Philippines) β-carotene-biofortified sweet potato (Low et al., 2007; van Jaarsveld et al., 2005) Reduced by 37% pre-schoolers with vitamin A deficiency (Mozambique) and improved by 10% storage vitamin A in school-age children (South Africa) Lysine- and tryptophan-biofortified maize (QPM) (Gunaratna et al., 2010) Improved children’s growth by 9-12% (8 studies in Latin America and Africa) Zinc-biofortified wheat (Rosado et al., 2009) Improved zinc absorption by 33% in women of reproductive age (Mexico) Demonstrated Impact of Biofortified Crops Photo: Luis Carlos Torres

16 Summary: Biofortified Crops  Improved agronomic characteristics  Higher nutrient concentration  Improve nutritional status  A food-based strategy  Complements other interventions

17 Outline  Biofortification overview  Experiences in LAC Photo: Neil Palmer

18 The Nutritional Need in LAC  52 M undernourished (FAO)  In some areas, anemia, stunting, & vitamin A deficiency constitute severe public health problems (WHO, MACRO)  Lost school days, poor growth and development, and poor productivity  Regional economic cost is ~US$21 billion annually (CIAT) Photo: Neil Palmer

19 s potato (Images: beans rice + Iron Anemia Biofortified Crops to Address Nutrition Problems in LAC

20 s potato (Images: beans maizerice + Zinc + Amino acids Zinc Stunting Biofortified Crops to Address Nutrition Problems in LAC

21 s potato (Images: cassava maize + Pro-Vit A + Pro-Vit A Vitamin A Deficiency Biofortified Crops to Address Nutrition Problems in LAC

22 Released 42 Cultivars, 10 in the Pipeline Courtesy: Róger Urbina Country Crop RiceS potatoBeansMaize Bolivia 2009 (2) 2011 (1) (1)2008 (1) Brazil2011 (1)2009 (1)2008 (2)- Colombia2011 (1) (2) Costa Rica (1)- Cuba 2009 (1) 2010 (1) 2009 (1) - El Salvador (1)2008 (3) Guatemala (1)2009 (1) Haiti-2009 (2)-2008 (1) Honduras (1) 2008 (1) 2010 (2) Mexico (2) 2009 (2) Nicaragua2011 (1) (2) Panama2010 (4) (2) 2009 (2) Peru-2010 (2)-- Dominican Republic2011 (1)2009 (2)-- Total

23 Seed Produced (2010) CountryCultivarAmount (kg) BoliviaRice228,000 BoliviaMaize200 CubaRice10,680 CubaBeans1,702 El SalvadorMaize431,920 GuatemalaBeans909 HaitiMaize6,935 PanamaRice7,071 PeruMaize1,000

24 Take-Home Message Through AgroSalud, 42 nutritionally-improved crops were bred and released in 13 countries Photos: Neil Palmer Seed is available for your projects and programs in LAC

25 Video

26 ¡Gracias! ¡Buen provecho! Helena Pachón CIAT Colombia (Tel) The New Agriculturalist: ag.info/picture/feature.php?a=1582 ag.info/picture/feature.php?a=1582 Feeding Ambitions: FBqobpM FBqobpM


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