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VERRES VLTA Emergency Requirement Research Evaluation Study Cabin Crews Behaviour during experimental evacuations in the VERRES project The Fourth Triennial.

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Presentation on theme: "VERRES VLTA Emergency Requirement Research Evaluation Study Cabin Crews Behaviour during experimental evacuations in the VERRES project The Fourth Triennial."— Presentation transcript:

1 VERRES VLTA Emergency Requirement Research Evaluation Study Cabin Crews Behaviour during experimental evacuations in the VERRES project The Fourth Triennial International Aircraft Fire and Cabin Safety Research Conference Lisbon Conference Centre Portugal November 2004

2 The Fourth Triennial International Aircraft Fire and Cabin Safety Research Conference Lisbon Conference Centre Portugal November 2004 VERRES Context

3 The Fourth Triennial International Aircraft Fire and Cabin Safety Research Conference Lisbon Conference Centre Portugal November 2004 VERRES project WP1: Configurational aspects for VLTA WP2: Investigating the requirements of a methodology utilising analysis and partial testing WP3: Aspects of occupants safety for VLTA concepts WP4: Synthesis WP5: Dissemination

4 The Fourth Triennial International Aircraft Fire and Cabin Safety Research Conference Lisbon Conference Centre Portugal November 2004 Experimental conditions Trials during 2 days 4 sessions each day Volunteers acting as pseudo-passengers Professional Cabin Crews (Virgin Atlantic) Various scenarios according to exit availability Scenarios with and without additional Cabin Crews at Stairs (1 at Top and 1 at Bottom) Double deck mock-up

5 The Fourth Triennial International Aircraft Fire and Cabin Safety Research Conference Lisbon Conference Centre Portugal November 2004 Experimental scenarios « Free Choice » (without Stair Crew): – UR1 open – LL2 and LR2 open Going Up with and without Stair Crew: – UL1 and UR1 open – LL2 and LR2 closed Going down with and without Stair Crew: – Upper exits closed – LL2 and LR2 open

6 The Fourth Triennial International Aircraft Fire and Cabin Safety Research Conference Lisbon Conference Centre Portugal November 2004 Our approach description Human behaviour oriented CCs work centred as the evacuation manager. Thus, we are looking for : − Objectives of actions − Decision making process − Situation awareness − Communication strategies As a consequence, professional operators (CCs) are an essential aspect of our research approach. Use of a theoretical frame for data analysis

7 The Fourth Triennial International Aircraft Fire and Cabin Safety Research Conference Lisbon Conference Centre Portugal November 2004 Data collection Cabin Crews Interviews data (the basis of our approach) Video data has been used to review questionable facts (identified during the trials themselves by researchers) Passengers data (questionnaires) could help to confirm the interpretations

8 The Fourth Triennial International Aircraft Fire and Cabin Safety Research Conference Lisbon Conference Centre Portugal November 2004 « The control of the situation » a cognitive model Built by French Psychologist Researchers (Amalberti & Al and 2000) Used in several fields for pedagogical purpose or HMI designing working basis: French army, Airlines, Aircraft manufacturer, EDF, FRAMATOME (AREVA), and Air Traffic Management. Based on − The statement that our main objective when dealing with a dynamic situation is to keep the control of the situation − The statement that the management of our limited mental resources is a primary condition to reach this objective.

9 The Fourth Triennial International Aircraft Fire and Cabin Safety Research Conference Lisbon Conference Centre Portugal November 2004 Control of the situation Controlled area Margins Out of control Resources invested in action management Resources Invested in the comprehension of the situation (SA) Signal of a risk to loose the control of the situation (trigger event) : non anticipated flow variation Passengers use the stairs on their own Jammed exit Nobody at the exit

10 The Fourth Triennial International Aircraft Fire and Cabin Safety Research Conference Lisbon Conference Centre Portugal November 2004 Example of questionable events of the trials The spontaneous use of the stairs by passengers before the 10 seconds delay announcing the exit availability The development of crowding point at bottom of stairs The intervention of the CC or SC in the management of the stairs encouraging passengers to use the stairs Decision making concerning passengers orientation People bumping, running around, jumping above seats Staircase almost empty during few seconds  Development and analysis of 5 cases studies

11 The Fourth Triennial International Aircraft Fire and Cabin Safety Research Conference Lisbon Conference Centre Portugal November 2004 Case Studies Appraisal With SC Few passengers went down by their own to try to evacuate faster No passengers went up by their own to try to evacuate faster. SCs had to shout and push passengers to manage the upstream flow. Bottom SC was a very useful help for lower deck CCs, facilitating the flow management. SC allows CCs to save resources by giving them information on staircase passenger flow and other doors status.

12 The Fourth Triennial International Aircraft Fire and Cabin Safety Research Conference Lisbon Conference Centre Portugal November 2004 Case Studies Appraisal Without SC Few passengers went down trying to evacuate faster. Without SC, the UL1 CC felt the need to have the SC position for a while, in order to enrich his situation awareness and make the right decision. SC would have allowed CCs to better manage their mental resources by giving then information. Then mental resources could be more invested in the management of action.

13 The Fourth Triennial International Aircraft Fire and Cabin Safety Research Conference Lisbon Conference Centre Portugal November 2004 General Conclusion (1/2) In order to control the flow, knowing the state of the stairs was necessary in the 5 cases According to the CCs, as the doors and the aisles, stairs is strategic point to reach their objective Moving to the stairs, managing the stairs flow, knowing the stairs status are necessary to keep the control of the situation

14 The Fourth Triennial International Aircraft Fire and Cabin Safety Research Conference Lisbon Conference Centre Portugal November 2004 General Conclusion (2/2) The use of a cognitive model in the analysis of cases highlighted the fact that CCs behaviour is logical and efficient, even when procedures are violated Procedures and communication means should allow the CCs to know what is happening elsewhere in the a/c, and notably in the stairs

15 The Fourth Triennial International Aircraft Fire and Cabin Safety Research Conference Lisbon Conference Centre Portugal November 2004 Cranfield University Cabin Mock-up Return Lower deck Upper deck LL1LL2LL3 LR1LR2LR3 UL1 UR1 Bottom SC

16 The Fourth Triennial International Aircraft Fire and Cabin Safety Research Conference Lisbon Conference Centre Portugal November 2004 Mental resources Expression used to speak about the perception and information processing potential usable at the same time by our brain (short term memory capacity, attention capacity, mental representation capacity). The mental resource limitation is a major constrains when using our knowledge (we are not able to carry out consciously two different complex tasks at the same time). Mental resources have to be managed (distributed and saved). Return


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