Presentation on theme: "Passenger Education Past and Present Professor Helen Muir and Lauren Thomas Fourth Triennial International Fire and Cabin Safety Research Conference Lisbon,"— Presentation transcript:
Passenger Education Past and Present Professor Helen Muir and Lauren Thomas Fourth Triennial International Fire and Cabin Safety Research Conference Lisbon, Portugal November 2004
Passenger Education Accidents Fire Fatalities Impact Fatalities
Fire Scenario Rapid Evacuation –90 Second Evacuation Demonstration –Cabin Configuration –Cabin Crew Performance –Passenger Education
90 Second Evacuation Demonstration All passengers through half exits Realistic as possible Representative sample of public Darkness Baggage in aisles
NTSB Investigation of 21 Accidents (1962 – 1984) Passenger risk reduced: 1.Paid attention to safety briefings 2.Read safety card 3.Better motivated and prepared
Reasons for Disregarding Safety Information NTSB data from accidents 1983 – 2000 Survival rate 95.7% Passenger beliefs lower
Research Johnson 1976 –Attenders –Non Attenders Information consistent with expectations and events (brace, brace)
Research Muir and Fennel 1992 –Frequent fliers –Non-frequent fliers Cabin crew tasks: –Passenger safety –Assisting in emergency –Information on safety procedures –Service role less important Passenger beliefs influence behaviour in an emergency
Research NTSB (2000) 46 evacuations 1.Watched briefing? 54% No – seen before 15% No – common knowledge 2.Effectiveness of briefing? Over 50% - information not specific to their evacuation - needed more information on exit routes, use of slides and how to get off wing. 3.Read Safety Card? 68% No (89% said read on previous flights) 44% not read card or listened to briefing - If read card, found useful – location of exits and slides, use of slides and location of emergency lighting.
Safety Card Studies Caird et al (1997) 113 participants comprehension of 36 pictograms, from 9 safety cards. Responses : correct, partially correct or incorrect Only 16 pictograms comprehension over 50%. Jentsch (1996) 150 participants English, French and German. Understanding of black and white pictograms -General interpretations -Not specific details of information. Johnson (1976) Phrases on safety cards: -“Jump – don’t sit” 73.5% correct -“Jump” 67.8% -No information 59.9% Sitting takes 1/3 second longer
Cobbett et al (2001) 4 types of briefing on Type III exit operation Groups of 3 1.Standard briefing and safety card 2.Plus minimum Type III briefing 3.Plus when and how to operate exit (orally) 4.Plus when and how to operate exit (written) Results -3 and 4 reacted more quickly to call to evacuate -4 made exit operational more quickly -1 were more likely to leave exit in cabin.
Video Briefings: Consistency More information Realistic demonstrations Variety of languages Novelty Rapidly changing images
New Technology Individually controlled displays Computer literate passengers Interactive Briefings for different scenarios Passengers select language Learning game on aircraft safety Non computer literate have traditional briefing video Future technology
Conclusions Passenger knowledge makes a difference Challenge to ensure all passenger groups obtain required information –persuade passengers of need –Keep attention –Language appropriate for context –Specific information –Specific instructions –Pictograms comprehensible –Clear detailed information improves performance –Length of briefing –Specific focused briefings