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The Embryology of Chiropractic: From Magnetic Healing to Palmers Third Theory Joseph C. Keating, Jr., Ph.D. (Deceased) Past Member, Board of Directors.

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Presentation on theme: "The Embryology of Chiropractic: From Magnetic Healing to Palmers Third Theory Joseph C. Keating, Jr., Ph.D. (Deceased) Past Member, Board of Directors."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Embryology of Chiropractic: From Magnetic Healing to Palmers Third Theory Joseph C. Keating, Jr., Ph.D. (Deceased) Past Member, Board of Directors National Institute of Chiropractic Research Past President and Member, Board of Directors Association for the History of Chiropractic Patrick Montgomery, D.C., F.A.S.A. Member, Board of Directors Association for the History of Chiropractic Associate Professor Logan College of Chiropractic

2 The authors are solely responsible for the content of this presentation

3 Health care in the 19th Century was primitive. Treatment was often more harmful than the disease itself. A visit to the physician was often a last resort.

4 A famous quote from Benjamin Rush, M.D.: The Constitution of this Republic should make specific provision for medical freedom as well as for religious freedom. To restrict the practice of the art of healing to one class of physicians and deny to others equal privileges constitutes the Bastille of our science. All such laws are un-American and despotic. They are vestiges of monarchy and have no place in a republic.

5 Samuel Hahnemann, M.D. ( ) introduced homeopathy and the law of similars (similia similibus curantur) in Germany. His ideas offered a gentle alternative to heroic medical practice and became popular in America in the early 19th century

6 Homeopathic Medicine The principle of homeopathy, the law of similars may be stated as like cures like (similia similibus curantur) The principle of homeopathy, the law of similars may be stated as like cures like (similia similibus curantur) Dr. Hahnemanns theory and practice involved administering infinitesimal doses of substances that produced symptoms like those of the patients disease Dr. Hahnemanns theory and practice involved administering infinitesimal doses of substances that produced symptoms like those of the patients disease

7 Homeopathic Medicine A few homeopathic remedies were adopted by allopathic physicians (e.g., nitroglycerine for angina) A few homeopathic remedies were adopted by allopathic physicians (e.g., nitroglycerine for angina) 19th century American homeopaths were usually better educated than allopaths (the homeopaths took their training in European universities) 19th century American homeopaths were usually better educated than allopaths (the homeopaths took their training in European universities) The American Medical Association (AMA) branded homeopathy as quackery in the 1850s The American Medical Association (AMA) branded homeopathy as quackery in the 1850s Homeopaths invented the term allopathy Homeopaths invented the term allopathy

8 Patients also welcomed the animal magnetism of Dr. Mesmer. Mesmers 1776 dissertation at the University of Vienna was entitled The influence of the planets upon the human body by means of a magnetic fluid. He developed thriving magnetic practices in several European cities. Franz Anton Mesmer, M.D., Patients also welcomed the animal magnetism of Dr. Mesmer. Mesmers 1776 dissertation at the University of Vienna was entitled The influence of the planets upon the human body by means of a magnetic fluid. He developed thriving magnetic practices in several European cities.

9 Magnetic Healing (Animal Magnetism) Mesmers theories were refuted by a French scientific commission, which included Benjamin Franklin of Philadelphia - a noted physicist of that era Mesmers theories were refuted by a French scientific commission, which included Benjamin Franklin of Philadelphia - a noted physicist of that era Mesmerism was introduced to North America by itinerant lecturer Charles Poyen of France in the 1830s Mesmerism was introduced to North America by itinerant lecturer Charles Poyen of France in the 1830s

10 Magnetic Healing (Animal Magnetism) Magnetic practitioners were briefly licensed in a few American states Magnetic practitioners were briefly licensed in a few American states Both Andrew T. Still, founder of osteopathy, and D.D. Palmer, founder of chiropractic, practiced magnetic healing Both Andrew T. Still, founder of osteopathy, and D.D. Palmer, founder of chiropractic, practiced magnetic healing

11 Dr. D.D. Palmer, Magnetic Healer 1887

12 The Palmer School and 40-room in-patient infirmary were located on the fourth floor of the Ryan Block Building at Davenport in 1900

13 Dr. Palmer, Magnetic D.D. first practiced magnetic in Burlington, Iowa in 1885 or 1886, but soon relocated to the Putnam Building in the Ryan Block (2nd and Brady Streets) of Davenport, Iowa D.D. first practiced magnetic in Burlington, Iowa in 1885 or 1886, but soon relocated to the Putnam Building in the Ryan Block (2nd and Brady Streets) of Davenport, Iowa He may have been self-taught in magnetic, but he acknowledged studying a variety of alternative healing methods (including osteopathy and Christian Science) He may have been self-taught in magnetic, but he acknowledged studying a variety of alternative healing methods (including osteopathy and Christian Science) He sought a scientific explanation for the cures he believed he achieved with magnetic He sought a scientific explanation for the cures he believed he achieved with magnetic

14 Dr. D.D. Palmer used his sensitive fingers to locate inflammations, which he cooled off by pouring his personal excess vital magnetic force into them. It was a precursor to the specificity of chiropractic diagnosis and treatment (adjusting)

15 During his years of magnetic practice, Palmer developed his technique of tracing nerves to and from their presumed spinal origins and dysfunctional end-organs. Nerve tracing became one of D.D.s two principal chiropractic assessment methods

16 D.D.s waiting room, early 1890s

17 Earliest events in chiropractic history September 18, 1895: D.D. Palmer adjusts Harvey Lillard September 18, 1895: D.D. Palmer adjusts Harvey Lillard April 1896: D.D. Palmer coins the term chiropractic, meaning done-by-hand April 1896: D.D. Palmer coins the term chiropractic, meaning done-by-hand July 1896: D.D. incorporates the Palmer School of Magnetic Cure (PSMC) July 1896: D.D. incorporates the Palmer School of Magnetic Cure (PSMC) January 1897: D.D. Palmer offers to teach chiropractic; tuition is $500 for the three-month course at the PSMC January 1897: D.D. Palmer offers to teach chiropractic; tuition is $500 for the three-month course at the PSMC

18 How do Magnetic and Chiropractic treatments differ? If a journal heats we pour on water to cool it; in the human machine we pour on magnetism to relieve inflammation. With the chiropractic treatment we adjust the journal and box so that they will not heat; in the human machine we adjust each part to its proper place so that all works in harmony without friction (emphasis added). How do Magnetic and Chiropractic treatments differ? If a journal heats we pour on water to cool it; in the human machine we pour on magnetism to relieve inflammation. With the chiropractic treatment we adjust the journal and box so that they will not heat; in the human machine we adjust each part to its proper place so that all works in harmony without friction (emphasis added).

19 Dr. D.D. Palmers Three Theories of Chiropractic D.D. Palmers concept of his three theories of chiropractic were all about… D.D. Palmers concept of his three theories of chiropractic were all about… Inflammation! Inflammation!

20 Characteristics of D.D. Palmers Several Theories of Chiropractic - Part 1 Concept therapeusis?YesNoNo method of treatment? manipu- lation adjustmentadjustment Innate?absentnerves;IntelligenceIntelligence circulatory obstruction? YesNoNo

21 Characteristics of D.D. Palmers Several Theories of Chiropractic - Part 2 Concept machine metaphor? YesYesNo nerve pinching? YesYesNo foraminal occlusion? ?YesNo

22 Characteristics of D.D. Palmers Several Theories of Chiropractic - Part 3 Concept nerve vibration? ??Yes religious plank? absentabsentoptional?obligatory? tone?(vital)AbsentYes

23 D.D.s Three Theories are the basis of all present chiropractic techniques. 1 st Theory: Manipulate anything that is out of place, including all joints, organs, etc. 1 st Theory: Manipulate anything that is out of place, including all joints, organs, etc. 2 nd Theory: Adjust the spine only by hand only where the nerves are pinched, for the elimination of nerve interference. 2 nd Theory: Adjust the spine only by hand only where the nerves are pinched, for the elimination of nerve interference. 3 rd Theory: Adjust where nerves are encroached upon to elimination of nerve interference. 3 rd Theory: Adjust where nerves are encroached upon to elimination of nerve interference.

24 Chiropractic Techniques According to the American Chiropractic Associations website, there are 15 most commonly used techniques. According to the American Chiropractic Associations website, there are 15 most commonly used techniques. They are: They are:

25 Chiropractic Techniques 1. Diversified 1. Diversified 2. Extremity manipulation/adjusting 2. Extremity manipulation/adjusting 3. Activator Methods 3. Activator Methods 4. Gonstead 4. Gonstead 5. Cox Flexion/Distraction 5. Cox Flexion/Distraction 6. Thompson 6. Thompson 7. Sacro Occipital Technique (SOT) 7. Sacro Occipital Technique (SOT) 8. Applied Kinesiology 8. Applied Kinesiology 9. NIMMO/Receptor Tonus 9. NIMMO/Receptor Tonus 10. Cranial 10. Cranial 11. Manipulative/Adjustive instruments 11. Manipulative/Adjustive instruments 12. Palmer Upper Cervical (HIO) 12. Palmer Upper Cervical (HIO) 13. Logan Basic 13. Logan Basic 14. Meric 14. Meric 15. Pierce-Stillwagon 15. Pierce-Stillwagon These are listed in descending order

26 Chiropractic Techniques All chiropractic colleges teach diversified. All chiropractic colleges teach diversified. There are 6 major types of diversified technique. There are 6 major types of diversified technique. Several of the other top 15 techniques are taught at chiro colleges as core techniques. Several of the other top 15 techniques are taught at chiro colleges as core techniques. Several of the other top 15 are taught as electives. Several of the other top 15 are taught as electives. Logan College boasts the most electives at 14. Logan College boasts the most electives at 14.


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