Presentation on theme: "Before and After: How the Title IX Movement Changed the World for Women."— Presentation transcript:
Before and After: How the Title IX Movement Changed the World for Women
Contents Section I: What was it like before? How were women stereotyped? What opportunities were available to women? What was the medical stance on womens participation in sports? Section II: Who proposed Title IX? Who? What? When? And Why? Section III: How was it viewed? Who was for and against it? What was the societal view of the movement? Section IV: What did it change? Were there new opportunities? Was it quickly and widely accepted? How has it evolved to todays standards?
What was it like before? How were women stereotyped? What opportunities were available to women? What was the medical stance on womens participation in sports?
Section IA: How were women stereotyped? Definition: Stereotype – n. a hackneyed expression, custom, or mode of thought; a mental printing plate (Websters New International Dictionary) Discussion Topic: Can you think of some stereotypes women may have received in the 1800s?
Section IA: How were women stereotyped? The Weaker Sex Physically, Mentally (?!), and Emotionally Were to remain passive, moral, and pure The Expected Role of a Woman Cook, clean, have and raise children Subservient to her husband Maintain a beautiful and delicate body Perpetually Ladylike A woman engaging in masculine activities was socially unacceptable Any woman doing so could expect to have her gender identity, sexual orientation, values and social roles questioned Discussion Topic: Are these stereotypes still in effect today?
Section IB: What opportunities were available to women? First sports termed acceptable for women: Horseback riding HOWEVER, still encouraged to: Wear feminine clothing Ride side-saddle Never go faster than a trot Sounds fun, right? Croquet Elaborate croquet dresses encouraged Strenuous enough so as not to injure them
Section IB: What opportunities were available to women? Archery Tennis Popularity BOOM Women participated at Tennis Clubs Required to wear corsets, petticoats, and long skirts COMFORTABLE! … not. All aside, sweating was UNACCEPTABLE, so many games were altered just for women. For example...
Section IB: What opportunities were available to women? Basketball Court was divided into three equal sections Players were not allowed to leave their section NO STEALING THE BALL NO HOLDING THE BALL FOR LONGER THAN 3 SECONDS 3 DRIBBLE LIMIT One point per basket FUN FACT! First womens basketball game results: Standford University beats UC of Berkeley... 2-1 WOW.
Section IC: What was the medical stance on womens participation in sports? Why were men and women alike concerned with making sports woman-friendly?
Section IC: What was the medical stance on womens participation in sports? Leading Medical Experts claimed: Vigorous exercise is dangerous to women Women are too weak Too much exercise can cause infertility Sports are too hard on a womans nerves Sports make women more MASCULINE GASP! They broaden the shoulders, deepen the chest, narrow the hips, and develop the muscles of the arms, back and legs (Dr. Dudley A. Sargent, 1912) Heaven forbid we develop MUSCLES!! Women should not participate during the first three days of their period... It is too dangerous!
Section IC: What was the medical stance on womens participation in sports? Although some physicians acknowledged the benefits of increased physical activity, they agreed that the negatives outweighed the positives. (LAME.) Discussion Topic: How do you think these doctors explained how sports hurt women but helped men?
How did Title IX come about? Who? What? When? Why?
WHO? Principal author: Patsy T. Mink House Representative for the state of Hawaii First Asian American and woman of color elected to Congress Also later became the first Asian American to seek the Democratic Presidential nomination (1972) The Title IX Act was renamed for her in 2002 Introduced to Congress by: Congressman Tower (for himself, Bartlett, Hruska, and Laxalt)
WHAT? What exactly did the Title IX Act do? No person shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, be treated differently from another person, or otherwise be discriminated against in any interscholastic, intercollegiate, club, or intramural athletics – Opening Statement Segment
WHAT? (Very) Basic Outline: Schools must offer the sport for both sexes If teams for both sexes are not provided, the excluded sex must be allowed to try out for the team offered Selection must be based on skill, not gender! HOWEVER, if it is a contact sport, teams for both sexes MUST be offered Wrestling, boxing, rugby, ice hockey, football*, basketball, etc. *Mixed gender teams are allowed, but are VERY rare
WHAT? Outline Continued... Equal Opportunity for both sexes: Selection and levels of competition accommodate each sex accordingly Equipment and facilities Fair game and practice scheduling Travel and stipend allowances Coaching and academic tutors Medical and training services Athlete housing and dining (collegiate) Publicity Adjustment Period ASAP but no later than one year from passing date
WHEN? QUESTION: What should be every female athletes favorite day? JUNE 23, 1972 (OF COURSE!) THE DAY TITLE IX WAS PASSED! Title IX is the second most influential piece of legislation on the lives of women! (Right behind womens suffrage) Athletic equality and fairness was achieved