2Ground State Electron Configurations Review from Section #2:According to the quantum mechanical model of the atom…Principle Energy Level (n)Energy SublevelOrbitalss, p, d, f, …2 e-s per orbital
3Ground State Electron Configurations The arrangement of e-s in an atom is called the atom’s electron configuration.The ground state is the “normal” electron configuration of the atom…but why?The atom wants to be in a state that is as low in energy as possible.I guess that means that atom’s are lazy???Atoms are the most stable when they are in their lowest energy state.
4Ground State Electron Configurations The Aufbau PrincipleAufbau (in German) = “building up” or “constructionThe aufbau principle states that each e occupies the lowest energy orbital available.
5Ground State Electron Configurations The Aufbau Principle – Statements:All orbitals within a specific sublevel are equal in energy.The energy sublevels contained within a single principle energy level have different energies.Sublevels in order of increasing energy: s, p, d, fFor related sublevels, the one with the higher principle quantum # is higher in energy.
6Ground State Electron Configurations The Aufbau Principle – Statements:All orbitals within a specific sublevel are equal in energy.Example: All 2p orbitals are equal in energyThe energy sublevels contained within a single principle energy level have different energies.For n=2, the p sublevel is higher in energy than the s sublevelSublevels in order of increasing energy: s, p, d, fFor related sublevels, the one with the higher principle quantum # is higher in energy.The 3p sublevel is higher in energy than the 2p sublevel
7Ground State Electron Configurations The Pauli Exclusion Principle:Electrons have a property known as spin…an electron can have an up spin or a down spin.The Pauli exclusion principle states that only 2 e-s can occupy an orbital at one time and that the e-s must have opposite spin to share the same orbital!
8Ground State Electron Configurations Hund’s Rule:Hund’s “Hungry” RuleWithin an energy sublevel, each orbital must receive one electron before any orbital receives a 2nd electron.Yum, Yum!!!
9Orbital DiagramsThere are two major ways to represent an atom’s electron configuration: orbital diagrams and electron configuration notation.In the orbital diagram method, an empty box represents an orbital.
13Electron Configuration Notation The electron configuration method uses the principle energy levels and the sublevel names in writing the notation. The number of electrons in each sublevel is indicated with a superscript above the sublevel symbol.Orbital Diagrams e- configuration notationorbitals sublevels
14Electron Configuration Notation How can you decide on the order to fill all of the orbitals? The diagram below can help you! (Hint: Follow the arrows)
26Valence ElectronsThe chemistry of elements only depends on the e-s in the outermost principle energy level.This level or “shell” of e-s are known as valence electrons.Using the shorthand e- configuration notation, it is incredibly easy to identify the valence electrons for an atom.
29Valence ElectronsFirst, let’s get some more practice writing out electron configurations…write out the following elements using both the long and shorthand method:Copper – CuPromethium – PuUranium – U
30Valence ElectronsAn atom can have anywhere between 1 and 8 valence e-s.Why? Only the outermost s and p orbitals matter when counting valence electrons!!!How many valence electrons are in the following atoms, according to their electron configurations?FrBrSb
31Electron Dot Structures As stated earlier, valence e-s are involved in the formation of chemical bonds. Therefore, it is useful to have a visual, shorthand way of representing the valence e-s.An electron-dot structure is made up of the element’s chemical symbol surrounded by dots that represent the valence electrons.See page 140 for lots of examples!!!
32Electron Dot Structures Rule: You must give each side of the chemical symbol one electron before any side gets two.Electron Dot Structure Examples:Carbon Arsenic IodineKrypton