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CELL RESPIRATION Chapter 9 CP Biology PAUL VI CATHOLIC HIGH SCHOOL.

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Presentation on theme: "CELL RESPIRATION Chapter 9 CP Biology PAUL VI CATHOLIC HIGH SCHOOL."— Presentation transcript:

1 CELL RESPIRATION Chapter 9 CP Biology PAUL VI CATHOLIC HIGH SCHOOL

2 CELL RESPIRATION Breathing and Respiration are not the same. Breathing allows the exchange of O 2 and CO 2 between an organism and its environment. In cellular respiration Mitochondria use O 2 and produces CO 2 as waste. CO 2 O2O2 O2O2 Bloodstream Muscle cells carrying out Cellular Respiration Breathing Glucose  O 2 CO 2  H 2 O  ATP Lungs

3 CELL RESPIRATION Photosynthesis and cellular respiration provide energy for life –Cellular respiration makes ATP and consumes O 2 during the oxidation of glucose to CO 2 and H 2 O –Photosynthesis uses solar energy to produce glucose and O 2 from CO 2 and H 2 O CO 2 H2OH2O Glucose O2O2 ATP ECOSYSTEM Sunlight energy Photosynthesis in chloroplasts Cellular respiration in mitochondria (for cellular work) Heat energy  

4 –Cellular respiration breaks down glucose molecules and banks their energy in ATP –-”Glucose” used in examples for convenience. Other organic molecules are also used as “food” –Glucose releases chemical bond energy, which the cell stores in the chemical bonds of ATP –Multi-step process not a single reaction C 6 H 12 O 6 CO 2 6H2OH2OATPs Glucose Oxygen gas Carbon dioxide 6 Water Energy O2O Figure 6.3

5 CELL RESPIRATION –Electrons lose potential energy during their transfer from organic compounds to oxygen –When glucose is converted to carbon dioxide it loses hydrogen atoms, which are added to oxygen, producing water C 6 H 12 O 6 6 O 2 6 CO 2 6 H 2 O Loss of hydrogen atoms (oxidation) Gain of hydrogen atoms (reduction) Energy (ATP)Glucose + ++

6 CELL RESPIRATION GLUCOSE CATABOLISM STAGE I: GLYCOLYSIS STAGE II: PYRUVATE OXIDATION STAGE III: KREBS CYCLE STAGE IV: ELECTRON TRANSPORT

7 CELL RESPIRATION Cellular Respiration Overview Video

8 Glycolysis harvests chemical energy by oxidizing glucose to pyruvate ATP is used to prime a glucose molecule Which is split into two molecules of pyruvate NAD  NADH HH Glucose 2 Pyruvate ATP 2 P 2 ADP Figure 6.7A

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10 A.GLYCOLYSIS : occurs in the cytoplasm of every living cell 1. Glucose Priming: changes glucose into a molecule that can be “cleaved”. Requires 2 molecules of ATP Phosphofructokinase: commits glucose to glycolysis

11 –In the first phase of glycolysis ATP is used to energize a glucose molecule, which is then split in two ATP Glucose PREPARATORY PHASE (energy investment) ADP Step Glucose-6-phosphate Fructose-6-phosphate P P Fructose-1,6-diphosphate ATP ADP P P Steps – A fuel molecule is energized, using ATP. Step A six-carbon intermediate splits into two three-carbon intermediates Figure 6.7C

12 CELL RESPIRATION 2. Splitting & Rearrangement: Six carbon compound splits to (2) 3 “C” compounds. Fructose 1,6, Diphosphate into (2) G3P ( Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate) “Substrate Level Phosphorylation” Making ATP (4 molecules/glucose)

13 In Glycolysis ATP is produced by substrate-level phosphorylation - a phosphate group is transferred from an organic molecule to ADP using an enzyme Enzyme Adenosine Organic molecule (substrate) ADP ATP P P P P P Figure 6.7B

14 Pyruvate ATP ADP ATP ADP P ATP ADP P 2-Phosphoglycerate P H2OH2O H2OH2O Phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) Steps – ATP and pyruvate are produced. P 3 -Phosphoglycerate P P Step A redox reaction generates NADH. P NADH P P P PP P +H  ENERGY PAYOFF PHASE Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (G3P) 1,3 -Diphosphoglycerate P NAD   –In the second phase of glycolysis ATP, NADH, and pyruvate are formed Figure 6.7C

15 CELL RESPIRATION 3. Oxidation: Removal of electrons (energy) & transfer to NAD + NADH 4. ATP Generation: 4 reactions that convert G3P to Pyruvate - Generates 2 ATP per Pyruvate

16 At the end of Stage 1 (Glycolysis) two molecules of pyruvate have been formed. Pyruvate moves from the cytoplasm into the mitochondria. NAD  NADH HH Glucose 2 Pyruvate ATP 2 P 2 ADP CELL RESPIRATION

17 Glycolysis Results in: Glucose 2 molecules Pyruvate Each pyruvate 2 ADP 2 ATP Each G3P 2 NAD + NADH

18 CELL RESPIRATION B. Oxidation of Pyruvate: Occurs in mitochondrion 1. Aerobic conditions Pyruvate OXIDIZED to Acetyl CoA 2. Anaerobic conditions result in FERMENTATION REACTIONS

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21 FERMENTATION REACTIONS: 1.Lactic Acid Fermentation: Pyruvate REDUCED to Lactate No CO 2 removal NADH NAD + 2. Alcohol Fermentation: Fungal (Yeast) Cells Pyruvate REDUCED to Alcohol CO 2 Removed; NADH NAD +

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24 C. KREBS CYCLE: 1. “Priming” Reactions Prepares molecule for energy extraction Acetyl CoA (2C) joins oxaloacetate (4C) to form Citrate (6C) Citrate isomerizes to Isocitrate Krebs Cycle/ Citric Acid Cycle Video

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26 C. KREBS CYCLE: 2. “Energy Extraction” Oxidation rxns disassemble the molecule Decarboxylation Reactions Reduction NAD +  NADH Reduction FAD +  FADH 2 Regeneration oxaloacetate

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28 D. ELECTRON TRANSPORT System of REDOX reactions Series of membrane electron carriers Ubiquinone (quinone molecule) Cytochromes (contain Fe ++ ) OXYGEN is final electron acceptor Water is final product (two H + ) attach to oxygen

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30 D. ELECTRON TRANSPORT: The movement of electrons down the concentration gradient to O 2 (the final acceptor) sends protons (H + ) to the intermembrane space ETC VideoVideo clip ETC VideoVideo clip Protons move thru ATP synthase making ATP from ADP (Oxidative Phosphorylation) Gradients (ATP Synthase) video

31 Most ATP production occurs by Oxidative Phosphorylation Most of the carrier molecules are included in the three main protein complexes Carriers bind and release electrons in redox reactions Intermembrane space Inner mitochondrial membrane Mitochondrial matrix Protein complex Electron flow Electron carrier NADH NAD + FADH 2 FAD H2OH2O ATP ADP ATP synthase H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+  P O2O2 Electron Transport Chain Chemiosmosis. OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION Figure 6.10

32 –Energy released redox reactions sed to pump H + into the space between the mitochondrial membranes –Resulting H+ gradient stores potential energy –In chemiosmosis, the H + diffuses back through the inner membrane through ATP synthase complexes Driving the synthesis of ATP Intermembrane space Inner mitochondrial membrane Mitochondrial matrix Protein complex Electron flow Electron carrier NADH NAD + FADH 2 FAD H2OH2O ATP ADP ATP synthase H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+  P O2O2 Electron Transport Chain Chemiosmosis. OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION Figure 6.10

33 CELL RESPIRATION ENERGY (ATP) YIELD per GLUCOSE Glycolysis: 2 ATP (substrate level phosphorylation) Ox. of Pyruvate: 2 NADH (3 ATP per) Krebs Cycle: 6 NADH (3 ATP per) 2 FADH 2 (1-2 ATP per) 2 ATP via GTP Electron Transport: 32 ATP (oxidative phosphorylation)

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35 Alternate Sources for Metabolism Glycolytic pathway thru ETS is “final common pathway” Other macromolecules can be utilized Lipids via β- oxidation Proteins via deamination (NH 3 ) Nucleic Acids via deamination

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37 Control of Glucose Catabolism Feedback inhibition Phosphofructokinase inhibited by: ATP levels Citrate levels Phosphofructokinase stimulated by ADP levels AMP levels

38 CELL RESPIRATION There is a mutualistic symbiotic relationship between the products of glycolysis and the reactants for photosynthesis. This is an interrelationship between the mitochondria and chloroplast.

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